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Sienrg W. Sage 


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Cornell University Library 
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3 1924 029 888 777 


Cornell University 

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Plate I 

Kipeles, Chief Medicine Man of the Nandi, surrounded hy his 
advisers (Henderson). 



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On my return to East Africa in January, 1905, 1 deter- 
mined to pursue my studies in the languages, folk-lore, 
and customs of those tribes inhabiting our Protectorate 
that form an offshoot of the Nilotic stock, and to write 
an account of the Nandi-Lumbwa group on somewhat 
similar lines to those followed in my book on the Masai. 1 

But little is known -of the Nandi and allied tribes, not- 
withstanding the fact that we have administered some of 
their territories for a decade or more, and the following 
books and papers are, so far as I am aware, all that have 
been published on the language and customs of these 

1. Notes on the Ethnology of tribes met toith during pro- 
gress of the Juba Expedition, by Lt.-Col. (now General Sir) 
J. R. L. Macdonald (Journal of the Anthropological Insti- 
tute for Great Britain and Ireland, 1899). 

2. Eastern Uganda, by C. W. Hobley (London, 1902). 

3. The Uganda Protectorate, by Sir H. H. Johnston, 
G.C.M.G., KGB. (London, 1902). 

4. Anthropological Studies in Kavirondo and Nandi, by 
G "W". Hobley (Journal of the Anthropological Institute for 
Great Britain and Ireland, 1903). 

5. The East Africa Protectorate, by Sir G Eliot, K.C.M.G., 
C.B. (London, 1905). 

I have consulted these works freely, and wherever my 
account differs from them it may be assumed that I have 
been unable to obtain confirmation of the earlier reports. 

My own account, which has been written during my 
leisure hours miles away from Nandi, is far from exhaus- 
tive, and an anthropologist will everywhere feel that the 
evidence obtained might well be supplemented by further 

1 The Masai, their Language and Folk-Lore (Oxford, 1 905). 
A 2 


inquiry. In fact, the result of my researches will in many 
instances be only sufficient to whet the appetite for more, 
and I hope that those living on the spot will endeavour to 
obtain further information on the various points raised. 
For example, there is without doubt more cattle magic 
in East Africa than meets the eye, and many customs, 
otherwise inexplicable, probably have or had some refer- 
ence to securing the welfare of, or to pleasing, the cattle. 

I had at first some difficulties to contend with. Nandi is 
situated some distance from Nairobi and Mombasa, and in 
1905 but few of these free savages cared about accepting 
employment with Europeans and leaving their own country. 
I succeeded, however, in obtaining the services of two small 
boys, named Oriare and Matang, the former of whom was 
a Masai -speaking Nandi and the latter a Swahili-speaking 
Kipsikis or Lumbwa. These two boys remained with me 
for some months and then returned to their homes, but not 
before I had mastered the intricacies of their language. 
From August to December, 1905, I was stationed in Mom- 
basa, and I was fortunate enough to find interned there 
a Nandi political prisoner, named Ar-ap-Sirtoi, who gladly 
relieved the monotony of his existence by spending a few 
hours with me two or three times a week talking to me of 
his country and describing the customs and folk-lore of his 
people. From him and later on from another political 
prisoner, named Ar-ap-Kuna, who was interned at Machakos, 
I obtained much useful information. After the close of 
the Nandi punitive expedition in April, 1906, I secured 
the services of a warrior named Ar-ap-Chepsiet, who had 
been wounded. This man remained with me till I left 
East Africa in April, 1908, and to him I am indebted to 
a very great extent for the account of the customs, &c, and 
for the vocabulary. 

I have twice travelled through Nandi, and I have also 
twice been to Lumbwa, but, except for a flying visit to 
Elgeyo in 1903, I have not seen the countries of any of the 
other allied tribes. I have, however, had opportunities of 
meeting and conversing with men from Elgeyo, Kamasia, 


Buret, and Sotik, as well as with Dorobo from Mau and 
Kikuyu. The language spoken by all of these people is, 
except for dialectic differences, identical with that of the 
Nandi, and the grammar and vocabulary of the Nandi will 
serve equally well for the other tribes, who, with the allied 
peoples on Mount Elgon, and the Dorobo in British and 
German East Africa, number at least a quarter of a million 
souls. The customs, religious ideas, and folk-lore of the allied 
tribes are also very similar to those of the Nandi. 

During my second trip to Nandi, made early this year, I 
had the advantage of meeting influential men and women 
of all the clans. I was thus in a position to check and 
amplify my notes, and it was then that I procured most of 
the proverbs and riddles — the latter from children who 
entered whole-heartedly into the fun. I was also able in 
February last to go through some of my notes with the chief 
medicine man of Lumbwa, Ar-ap-Koileke, who is probably 
better acquainted with the folk-lore of the Nandi and 
Lumbwa than any one living. I have myself witnessed the 
smiths, potters, and medicine men at work; I have been 
present at many of the dances ; I have personally inspected 
the huts, stock, plantations, traps, and honey-barrels, &c. ; and 
I have seen cattle slaughtered, game killed, food cooked and 
eaten, corn sown, houses erected, and boys and girls attired 
in their strange costumes both before and after the circum- 
cision ceremonies. 

My thanks are due to the Director of the British Museum 
for the photographs of the implements and ornaments, &c, 
and to the following gentlemen for permission to reproduce 
their photographs : Captain E. Meinertzhagen, Mr. C. "W. 
Hobley, C.M.G-., Dr. F. L. Henderson, Captain H. A. "Wilson, 
Captain H. C. Hart, Mr. E. J. Stordy, Captain C. V. Cham- 
pion de Crespigny, Mr. H. Eayne, and Mr. Gr. E. Powter. To 
Mr. E. Battiscombe I am indebted for the identification of 
the trees given in Appendix I, to Mr. E. L. Waring for the 
excellent map, to Dr. A. D. Milne for the sketch of the 
Nandi hut and the description of the operation given on 
p. 55, and to Mr. "W. J. Monson for the free translation of the 


prayer given on p. 42. I desire to express my gratitude to 
those Provincial and District Commissioners (notably 
Messrs. C. S. Hemsted, J. B. Ainsworth, and H. B. Partington) 
who have assisted me in my work, and to Sir C. Eliot and 
Mr. E. E. Marett for perusing the proofs and offering 
suggestions. To Sir C. Eliot I am also deeply grateful for the 
valuable introduction he has so kindly written. I should 
further like to acknowledge the help I derived from Pro- 
fessor J. Gr. Frazer's Questions on the Customs, Beliefs, and 
Languages of Savages (Cambridge, 1907), a copy of which 
I have now sent to all the stations in the East Africa 
Protectorate for the use of officials. 

The Nandi themselves since the punitive expedition of 
1905-6 have settled down quietly, and give promise to 
become a law-abiding tribe. The land included in their 
native reserve is some of the best in the Protectorate, and 
early this year I passed through miles of country made 
ready for the sowing operations which had just commenced. 
The suspicious attitude shown by the Nandi towards the 
Administration and their fear and dislike of the white man 
have now quite disappeared, and it only rests with those 
officials who, by sympathetic treatment, have so successfully 
won their affections to develop the best qualities of these 
people and make them useful members of the community. 


October, 1908. 





History j 

Divisions of the Nandi Country and People .... 4 

F I Sacred Animals 6 

Social Divisions ..... 11 

Mode of Subsistence .13 

Wearing Apparel, "Weapons, &c 27 

Industries .......... 35 

t- Religious Beliefs 40 

Government ..... .... 48 

i; t Circumcision Festivals 52 

Marriage 60 

Birth 64 

i-_Jllness and Death ......... 69 

Inheritance .......... 72 

llPunishment for Crime .73 

Miscellaneous Customs ........ 77 

Relationship 92 

Divisions of Time ......... 94 

p.Myths 97 


The Hare and the Elephant 

The Hare who acted as Nurse 

The Hare and the Old Woman . 

The Hyena's Prophecy .... 

The Origin of the Leopard and Hyena 

The Hyenas and their Medicine Man . 

The Tapkos Bird and the Child . 

How the Masai were first repulsed by the Nandi 

The Warriors and the Devil 

The Demon who ate people, and the Child . 

How the Dorobo discovered Poison 




The Philosophy of the Dorobo 108 

The Sayings of Animals and Birds . . . . .109 
The Story of the Creation . . . . . . .111 

The Story of the Dogs 114 

The Story of the Cattle 116 

The Story of the Eleusine Grain 120 

The New Moon 122 

The Nandi House that Jack Built or The Old Woman and her 

Pig 123 

Nandi Pbovebbs 124 

Nandi Enigmas 133 


Alphabet and Pronunciation 152 

Changes of Letters . . . . . . . . .153 

The Accent 156 

Gender and Number ........ 158 

The Article 160 

Cases 164 

Substantives 166 

Adjectives 180 

Numerals 183 

Pronouns .......... 184 

Personal 184 

Possessive 184 

Demonstrative 186 

Eeflexive 187 

Relative 187 

Indefinite .......... 188 

Interrogative 188 

Verbs 189 

Simple Verbs 193 

Derivative Verbs : Verbs denoting motion towards the 

speaker 208 

Verbs denoting motion from the speaker .... 209 

The Dative form . . . . . . , .211 

The Applied form 213 



The Reflexive form . 
The Reciprocal form 
Intransitive Verbs . 
Causative Verbs 
Neuter or Quasi-passive 
Neuter Verbs . 
Irregular Verbs . 
Auxiliary Verbs 
Conjunctions . 
Prepositions . 
Interjections . 


English-Nandi Vocabulary 
Appendix I : List of Nandi Trees, Grasses, &c. 
Appendix II : The Meanings of the Clan Names 









Kipeles, Chief Medicine Man of the Nandi, surrounded by his 

advisers (Plate I) . . . . . . Frontispiece 

Nandi Hills, looking over the Nyando Valley (Plate II) . 

To face Introduction 

Nandi elders (Plate III) To face p. 1 

(a) Nandi warriors in battle array. (6) The peace conference, 
December 14, 1905, with the Nandi escarpment in the 
background (Plate IV) ..... To face p. 4 

(a) Entrance to Nandi cattle-kraal, (b) Nandi hut (Plate V) . 

To face p. 14 
Iron and wooden hoes (Figs. 1-4) . . . . . .18 

Axes and bill-hook (Figs. 5-7) 18 

(a) Nandi herdsman. (6) Stream near Nandi Fort (Plate VI) 

To face p. 20 
Nandi shooting with bow and arrow (Plate VII) . To face p. 23 
Bow and arrows used for bleeding purposes (Figs. 8-1 3) . . 23 
Knife used for tapping palms (Fig. 14) ..... 25 

Drinking straw (Fig. 15) .26 

(a) Pipe, tobacco pouches, snuff-boxes, &c. (6) Girls' dresses 

(Plate VIII) To face p. 26 

(a) Nandi girl wearing the ingoriet-ap-ko garment and the osiek 
apron. (6) Nandi woman wearing her ear-rings as a neck- 
lace (Plate IX) To face p. 29 

Needle (Fig. 16) 30 

Nandi warrior, showing cicatrices raised on shoulder and scars 

burnt on wrist (Plate X) To face p. 30 

Spears (Figs. 17-20) 31 

Quiver, scabbard, and swords (Figs. 21-24) .... 32 
(a) Ear-rings worn by men, women, and boys, (b) Ostrich- 
feather head-dress and ostrich-feather receptacle (Plate XI) 

To face p. 32 

Clubs (Figs. 25-27) 33 

Bows (Figs. 28, 29) 34 

Arrows with wooden and iron heads, and shaft (Figs. 30-36) . 34 



Necklaces worn by men, women, and children (Plate XII) 

To face p. 35 
(a) Nandi pots and jars. (b) Milk gourds and calves' feeding 

bottle (Plate XIII) To face p. 36 

Smith's pincers or tongs (Fig. 37). Cutting-iron (Pig. 38) . 37 

Pestle and mortar (Figs. 39, 40) 38 

Nandi stool (Fig. 41) 38 

Nandi bellows (Plate XIV) To face p. 38 

Nandi lyre (Fig. 42) ; Lumbwa lyre (Fig. 43) ... 39 

(a) Barrel used by old men for putting their garments in. 
(b) Basket. (c) Boys' bull-roarer and friction drum 

(Plate XV) To face p. 40 

(1) Water-jar. (2) Girls' friction drum. (3) Drum stick 

(Plate XVI) To face -p. 43 

Bag in which warriors carry eleusine flour when proceeding on 

a raid (Fig. 44) 43 

(a) Nandi warrior blowing a war-horn. (6) Nandi warriors' 

dance (Plate XVII) . . . . . To face p. 45 
(a) Bracelet used by archers for protecting the wrist, (b) Arm- 
lets (Plate XVni) To face p. 46 

Kipchomber or Ar-ap-Koileke, the Chief Medicine Man of the 
Kipsikls or Lumbwa, with his son, Sonaiet or Ar-ap- 
Kipchomber, his principal advisers, and the headmen of 
Buret and Sotik (Plate XIX) .... To face p. 50 

Two specimens of Kimaranguchet head-dress (worn by boys 

after circumcision) (Plate XX) . . To face p. 53 

Boys' circumcision knife (Fig. 45) . . . . . .53 

Tarusiot, or boy recently circumcised, wearing the nyorkit garb 

and the kimaranguchet head-dress (Plate XXI) To face p. 54 
Tarusiot, or girl about to be circumcised, wearing warrior's 

garments (Plate XXII) To face p. 56 

(a) Tarusiek, or girls recently circumcised, wearing the nyorkit 
garb, the soiyuet head-dress, and carrying the motolik 
sticks. (6) Soiyuet head-dress, worn by girls after circum- 
cision (Plate XXIII) To face p. 59 

Girls' circumcision knife (Fig. 46) 59 

Nariet head-dress (Plate XXIV) .... To face p. 60 

A Nandi bride (Plate XXV) To face p. 63 

A wife and daughter of Ar-ap-Koileke, the Chief Medicine Man 

of the Lumbwa (Plate XXVI) . . . . To face p. 64 
(a) Nandi hut. (6) Granary and hut (Plate XXVII) To face p. 69 
(a) Nandi elder with two of his daughters. (6) A Nandi family 

(Plate XXVIII) To face p. 76 



Boys' wooden spears (Figs. 47, 48) . . . . . .82 

(a) Warrior's shield (painted). (6) Boys' wooden shields 

(Plate XXIX) To face -p. 83 

Boys' arrows and shaft (Figs. 49-51) 83 

(a) Nandi woman and child ; (6) Warriors' thigh hell ; calves' 

bell and cows' bell (Plate XXX) . . . To face p. 87 
(a) Stones used by medicine men for divining purposes. 

(6) Divining boxes (Plate XXXI) . . . To face p. 88 
(a) Nandi boy wearing the kipalpaliot ear-rings, lapuonik neck- 
lace, and the seeds of the murguyuet tree in his hair. 

(b) Nandi women carrying their children (Plate XXXII) . 

To face p. 90 
Group of Nandi with goats and sheep (Plate XXXIII) To face p. 94 
Nandi elder with his goats and sheep (Plate XXXIV) To face p. 98 
Waterfall in Nandi (Plate XXXV) . . . . To face p. 100 
(a) Group of Nandi warriors, (b) Drinking-place for cattle 

(Plate XXXVI) To face $. Ill 

(a) Group of Nandi boys and warriors. (b) Group of Nandi 

women and children (Plate XXXVII) . . To face p. 119 
Nandi elder— (a) full face ; (6) profile (Plate XXXVIII) . 

To face p. 122 
Nandi outposts (Plate XXXIX) .... To face p. 129 
(a) Nandi warriors, (b) Nandi girls (Plate XL) . To face p. 130 
(a) Nandi honey barrel, (b) A Nandi bridge (Plate XLI) 

To face p. 135 
(a) Nandi women crushing grain. (6) Nandi women going to 

market (Plate XLII) To face p. 138 

Small knife (Fig. 52) 142 

(a) A salt-lick, (b) Eiver in Nandi (Plate XLIII) . To face p. 143 
Woman's walking-stick (Fig. 53) . . . . . .144 

Two young Nandi warriors — (a) full face; (6) profile (Plate 

XLIV) . . . . . . . . To face p. 144 

Map of the Disteict To fold out at end 










In a previous work 1 Mr. Hollis gave an account of the 
language and customs of the Masai, one of the most important 
and interesting tribes of Eastern Equatorial Africa. The 
present volume, which contains a similar study of the 
Nandi, may be regarded as a continuation of the same re- 
searches, for the two tribes are certainly connected, and all 
information about the physical characters, language, customs, 
and religion of either sheds light on the origin and affinities 
of both and of the whole group to which they belong. 

The Nandi have obtained a considerable prominence, partly 
because the Nandi plateau is one of the most beautiful and 
fertile districts in the East African Protectorate, and partly 
because they were long an obstacle to the pacification and 
administration of the country. Ten or twenty years ago 
they intercepted caravans on their way from the coast to 
Uganda and killed many traders. Somewhat later they 
attacked the telegraph line and the Uganda Eailway. In 
1905 certain sections of them were removed, and the whole 
tribe has been placed in a reserve a little to the north of the 
plateau where they formerly dwelt. It would seem, however, 
that the pre-eminence of the Nandi is simply political, and 
that for the ethnologist they are merely one section of a large 
tribe which, though appearing under many and often obscure 
names, is really one in language and customs, and is dis- 
posed in a semicircular belt extending from Mount Elgon to the 
Southern Mau, but not reaching the shores of Lake Victoria 
at any point. Among the divisions of this tribe are (1) those 
inhabiting Mount Elgon, particularly the Kony, less correctly 
called Elgonyi ; (2) those inhabiting the mountains round the 
Kerio Valley, such as the Elgeyu or Keyu, the Kamasia or 
Tuken, and the Mutei ; (3) those living farther south in the 
districts called after them Lumbwa, Buret, and Sotik (or 
Soot). Lumbwa, though now accepted as an official and geo- 
graphical term, is really an opprobrious Masai word signifying 
those who have given up the noble art of war and taken to 
agriculture, and the people known as Lumbwa call themselves 
Kipsikis ; (4) the Nandi proper, who according to their tradi- 
tions came partly from Elgon and partly from the Lumbwa 

1 The Masai: Their Language and FoVdore, Clarendon Press, 1904. 



In considering the distribution and possible migrations of the 
Nandi in the past, we must take account of the interesting 
but somewhat perplexing fact that most of the wild hunting 
tribes called Dorobo speak a dialect of Nandi. This seems to 
be certain not only for the Dorobo of the Mau, Lumbwa, &c, 
but also for those who live on Mount Kenya and in Kikuyu, 
and near the Natron Lake in German territory. As far as 
the linguistic evidence goes, the Dorobo might be regarded as 
an offshoot of the Nandi ; but this view is hardly probable, 
for the traditions of the Masai and Nandi agree in represent- 
ing the Dorobo as a primitive race who occupied the country 
before their advent, and the Dorobo, even when they live 
among the Nandi and speak their language, remain distinct 
from them. Also the Dorobo dialect contains words which 
are not Nandi, and a Dorobo colony to the north of Mount 
Kenya, near the Guaso-Nyiro, is reported to speak a quite 
different language. 1 It is therefore probable that the Dorobo 
have borrowed the language of the Nandi. It is common 
in Africa for an inferior tribe to adopt the speech of a 
stronger tribe whom they recognize as being in some way 
their masters, and it is said that another example of the same 
process may be seen in Kikuyu and near Kilima Njaro, where 
the Dorobo speak Masai as well as Nandi. But the difficulty 
is by no means solved by admitting that the Dorobo have 
borrowed the Nandi language, for there are now no Nandi in 
Kikuyu or the Rift Valley or anywhere east of Lumbwa and 
Kamasia. We may suppose either that the Nandi once occu- 
pied Kenya, Kikuyu, and the country to the south, and were 
driven westward by the Masai and others, or that the Dorobo 
once spread from the Mau to Kikuyu across the Rift Valley. 
The whole tribe would thus have been in touch with Lumbwa, 
Nandi, and Kamasia, until a Masai invasion supervened, and 
by occupying the Rift Valley drove in a wedge of Masai popu- 
lation between Kikuyu and the Mau. This solution is per- 
haps the simpler of the two, for I think that the balance of 
probabilities indicates that the Nandi came from the north- 
west ; but a contrary theory, that they came from the north- 
east, is also tenable, and derives some support from the 
existence of the Nandi language in Kikuyu and from place 
names in the Rift Valley. 2 Also there can be little doubt 
that in the past the Nandi were in contact with Gallas and 

1 See the account and short vocabulary in ' Further Notes on the El-Dorobo 
or Oggiek ', by C. W. Hobley, in Man, 1905, pp. 43-4. 

3 e. g. the river Morendat (N. marandut, footprint) and Mount Suswa (N. 
sitsuo, susua, grass). 


Somalis: their numerals alone show this. Now there is a 
tradition that these tribes formerly had settlements in Kikuyu 
and were driven out about seventy years ago, but as far as 
I know we have no record of their presence on the Mau. 
Still the most probable hypothesis is that the area where 
took place the contact and fusion which resulted in the 
formation of the Masai, Nandi, &c, lay to the north or north- 
west of the Rift Valley. Sir Samuel Baker states that the 
Galla once extended, or interpenetrated, as far as the Latuka 
territory. Many data indicate that in the last century the 
Galla, as a whole, have receded northwards and eastwards, and 
it is probable that the Masai and Nandi have moved south- 

Mr. Hollis thinks that the Nandi had not been for many 
generations on the Nandi plateau when they were discovered 
by Europeans. There had probably been much fighting and 
migration in the previous hundred years. The Nandi have 
a tradition that they were once expelled from their country 
by the Sirikwa, a tribe who lived on the Uasin Gishu plateau 
and built stone kraals. These Sirikwa were driven out by 
the Masai, and the Masai themselves were subsequently anni- 
hilated owing to internal quarrels. An inspection of an 
ethnographic map (e. g. in Sir H. Johnston's Uganda Protec- 
torate, p. 884) suggests that the Nandi retired from the plains 
and open pasture lands before the Masai and Turkana, but 
maintained themselves in wooded and mountainous districts. 1 
A tradition, which may contain elements of historical value, 
states that circumcision was introduced by a person called 
Kipkenyo who came from a country called Do and settled in 
Nandi at a time when it was called Ghemngal. Sir H. John- 
ston states that none of the Nile races circumcise when free 
from Mohammedan influence. 2 Now in Turkana the word 
tlgaal (probably borrowed) means camels. Can this tradition 
contain an allusion to the borrowing, direct or indirect, of 
the rite of circumcision from camel-riding Mohammedans 1 

It is generally admitted that the Masai, Turkana, Nandi, and 
Suk are, to some extent at any rate, hybrids, one element in 
their composition being the Galla or Somali, two tribes which 
should probably be regarded as identical for ethnological pur- 
poses. This element seems to be stronger in the Nandi and 
Masai. We know less of the Suk and Turkana, but their 
features are reported to approach the type of the Nilotic 

1 Lumbwa, though a low district relatively to Nandi, is not a plain like the 
Rift Valley, and is very uneven. 

2 Uganda Protectorate, p. 760. 


negroes more closely. It is also admitted that the evidence 
of language and customs (such as dress or the want of it, 
the shaven heads of the women, drinking the blood of living 
animals, &c.) connects all four tribes with the Latuka, 
Bari, Dinka, and other Nilotic peoples. All the known 
evidence indicates that a section of these tribes moving east- 
wards became modified by contact with the Gallas and So- 
malis. Other authorities, especially Merker 1 and those who 
accept his statements, are of opinion that the Masai (and pre- 
sumably with them the Nandi, Turkana, &c.) are the remains 
of a Semitic race which has wandered southwards from 
Arabia and been mingled with African elements. The chief 
objection to this theory is that the undisputed facts which 
support it are very slight, seeing that in spite of search no 
confirmation has been found of most of the traditions re- 
ported by Merker. On the west we find a clear series of 
links uniting the Nandi, Masai, &c, to the Nilotic group both 
by language and by customs. To the east there are no such 
links : no tribes have been singled out in Abyssinia or Soma- 
liland as specially akin to the Masai or Nandi. There has 
been contact and influence, and there is a considerable resem- 
blance in religion, but no proof has been brought forward of 
a migration from the north-east or of more than an infusion 
of Hamitic (Galla-Somali) blood. It is perhaps well to 
emphasize this point, since some of the most recent authorities 
(e. g. Keane, article on Africa in Encyclopaedia of Religion 
and Ethics, 1908) classify the Masai, Turkana, and Wahuma 
as Eastern Hamites without further qualification. 

In language, the Nandi (which term I use in the wider 
sense to include the Lumbwa, Kamasia, &c.) seem to be most 
nearly allied to the Bari among the Nilotic tribes. A glance 
at the map will show that from the territories of this people, 
who inhabit both banks of the Nile between Nimule and 
Kero, there extends to the Mau and Rift Valley a continuous 
linguistic area in which languages of the same class (Latuka, 
Karamojo, Suk, Turkana, Nandi, Masai) are spoken. But_it 
is not recorded that in other respects the Nandi specially 
resemble the Bari, and in their customs and manner of life 
they show more affinity to the Masai." This may Tie - the 
result not only of-Cjommcaa-origin andparallel^development, 
but also of direct imitation. The Masai were admirea as the 
most formidable tribe of East Africa, and we find that the 
Nandi medicine-men are descended from a Masai clan, and 

1 Die Masai, Berlin, 1904. 


thakjthe_sQBg whichisjrang at the Nandi war-danee is in 

The features which distinguish the East African section of 
Nilotes — that is, the Masai, Turkana, Nandi, and Suk, to whom 
we ought perhaps to add the little-known Latuka — are that 
they are more or less nomadic, and that the young men are ■' 
organized as a special class of warriors. It is clearly as a 
result of these features, which are perhaps due to the admix- 
ture of Galla-Somali blood, that they have spread so widely 
over East Africa. The other tribes, such as the Bari, Acholic 
Aluru on the Nile, and the Ja-luo, who are the neighbours of 
the Nandi on the shores of Lake Victoria, are stationary culti- ' 
vators. They fight on occasion and esteem bravery, but they 
do not consecrate the most active years of their life exclu- 
sively to raiding or despise labour. This feature, as well as 
the nomadic habit, is found most fully developed in the Masai, 
who disdain agriculture x and all occupations except fighting 
and tending cattle. One section of the Suk are agricul- '" 
turists : the other section and the Turkana do little in the 
way of cultivation, but hunt and tend cattle. The various 
divisions of the Nandi appear to have taken to agriculture in 
the last few generations, and to practise it in a somewhat 
desultory fashion. In Lumbwa their methods are so imper- V 
feet that the country has recently been more than once •'" 
threatened by famine owing to the total failure of the crops, 
and a serious loss of life would have ensued had not the popu- 
lation been able to fall back on their large herds of cattle 
and goats or on food provided by the Government. 

Though the Nandi are thus to a certain extent cultivators, it ' 
is clear both from Mr. Hollis's account of their customs and ~") 
from their conduct in the last decade that, like the Masai, 
they regard recurring, if not continuous, warfare and raiding 
as part of the proper business of life. They had not the same 
power of executing rapid and extensive movements, but the 
position of their country, which commanded all the old cara- ,- 
van routes to Uganda and subsequently the railway, brought 
booty to their doors. The circumcision, classification, and 
life of the warriors is much the same as among the Masai, 
and a solemn ceremony takes place about every seven and 
a half years by which the country is committed to the care 
and protection of the new age, that is to say the warriors 
who have been circumcised about four years previously. As 

1 The best-known sections of the Masai do not practise agriculture at all, 
but in a good many places when impoverished by cattle disease or defeat they 
have settled down as cultivators. 



among the Masai, this tendency to recognize no ideal but 
successful raiding and to place the principal authority in the 
body of young warriors has prevented the Nandi from form- 
ing a state like the kingdom of Uganda or from becoming 
more than a republic of military herdsmen. The Orkoiyot 
or medicine man is greatly respected, and has the power of 
sanctioning or forbidding raids, but his authority seems to 
depend on his supposed power of predicting the result of these 
expeditions. Nevertheless, the civil organization of the tribe 
was somewhat more developed than among the Masai, and we 
seem to see traces of two administrations, for the Nandi coun- 
try was divided into districts, each governed by two men, the 

i representative of the Orkoiyot and of the people respectively. 

"' As the Orkoiyots come of a Masai family, and their office is 
precisely equivalent to that of the Masai Laibons, it is probable 

i that the whole system was introduced a few generations ago, 

| and that the Kiruogik, or representatives of the people, are an 

folder institution. The fourth Orkoiyot was killed by the 
Nandi in 1890, but ultimately this act of rebellion strength- 
ened the position of his successors, for it was held to be 
the cause of all the disasters which fell on the tribe. It is 
probable that the institution of Laibons and Orkoiyots is 
traceable to the Gallas, among whom magicians, who employ 
similar methods of divination, enjoy great influence, though 
they have not the same position as military and political 

/ The Nandi, though no longer even partially nomadic like 
-- the Masai, have no villages or towns. The absence of such 
centres is the more remarkable because their neighbours, 
both Bantu and Ja-luo, construct well-defined villages sur- 
rounded by hedges or mud walls. In Nandi and Lumbwa 
alike there are no collections of houses, but from any given 
point one or two huts may usually be seen. The result is 
that the inhabitants are generally distributed and visible at 
the waysides to the traveller on his march, a striking contrast 
to most parts of East Africa, where long stretches of country 

I showing no signs of human habitation are occasionally 
interrupted by populous villages. This scattering of dwell- 
ings evidently implies that the Nandi have little fear of either 
external invasion or internal robbery, and is a proof that 
both the national defence and police, or the customs which 
take their place, must be efficacious. 

Mr. Hollis has given a very full and interesting account of 
the Nandi customs, and I need not recapitulate his statements. 
Anthropologists will find particularly interesting the lists of 


totems and the degrees of relationship expressed by special 
words. These terms show that the Nandi have a system of i 
classificatory relationship which has not hitherto been recorded \ 
from this part of Africa. It may, however, be worth while to V 
review what we know of their religious beliefs, for these \ 
have an important bearing on their affinities and their pos- 
sible relationship to Semitic peoples. Mr. Hollis has not been J 
able to discover among the Nandi, any more than among the ^y 
Masai, traditions resembling those of the Pentateuch, such as 
Merker states are current in German East Africa. The 
legends which he reports are meagre and childlike : they do 
not give any account of the origin and government of the 
world which can be compared to the creation stories and 
theogonies of Europe and Asia. 

The religious ideas of the Nandi are concerned with the ^ 
worship of (1) a supreme deity, identified with the sun, and 1 
(2) spirits of the departed. The deity is called Asis, or, with \ 
the article, Asista. No native derivation is forthcoming for \ 
this word, 1 and one might easily suppose it to be borrowed, \ 
but no probable origin in any of the neighbouring languages J 
has been suggested. On the other hand, Asis is the ordinary J 
word for ' sun ', and we find that the name of God among the 
Ja-luo 2 (Chieng) and among the people of Taveta 3 (Izuwa) 
has the same meaning. The language used about Asista has 
little reference to his special attributes as the sun. We do 
not hear of his splendour, his rising and setting, &c, but are 
led to suppose that he is a benevolent and powerful but some- 
what vague deity. Though we are told that he created man 
and beast, and that the world belongs to him, yet when we 
examine the myths collected by Mr. Hollis, we find instead of 
this general statement a number of inconsistent legends which 
have a rude and primitive air. Thus the world was produced 
by the union of the sky and earth (a very old and widespread 
idea), and also the sun married the moon. When Asista came 
to set the earth in order it was inhabited by a Dorobo, an 
elephant, and the thunder, who, according to a quaint story, 4 
retired to the sky because he was afraid of the Dorobo. 
This, like various Masai traditions, assumes that the Dorobo 
are an ancient aboriginal race. So, too, we hear that a 
Dorobo's leg swelled, and that when it burst the first man and 
woman (that is, apparently, the first Nandi) came out of it. 

' * Sis means to be silent, but the connexion in meaning is not clear. 
2 A Nilotic race closely allied to the Acholi, and resident in Kavirondo. 
8 A mixed race of Masai and Bantu elements. 
4 See pp. 111-14. Cf. The Masai, p. 266. 

b 2 


Cattle, goats, and sheep are said to have issued from a lake at 
the bidding of a personage who is given no name but appears 
to be similar to Naiteru-Kop. 1 Leopards and hyenas are the 
descendants of a pair of lion cubs who painted themselves. As 
in the Masai legend, the dead ought to return like the moon, 
and the present unfortunate arrangement is the result of a 
misunderstanding. Besides Asista, we hear of a demon called 
Chemosit, who seems to be a fantastically shaped ogre rather 
than a spirit, and of two Thunder Gods, exactly as in the Masai 
legend, called Ilet-ne-mie and Ilet-ne-ya, or the good and the 
bad God. Ilet (cf . the Suk Mat, God) is possibly borrowed 
from the Somali Ilahe, which in its turn appears to be bor- 
rowed from the Arabic. It is also probable that the Nandi 
believe in various nature spirits inhabiting trees, water, &c, for 
though Mr. Hollis records few definite beliefs of this kind, he 
tells us that trees and rivers are sanctuaries, and that trees 
are rarely felled, because it is unlucky if the branches make 
a noise which is called crying. 2 Both the Nandi and Masai 

1 /pray to the new moon. But the Thunder Gods and other 
spirits seem to have little importance in the life of the Nandi, 

/" whereas prayers are constantly addressed to Asista. Men 

\ are supposed to pray every morning and evening, and addi- 
tional supplications are offered on special occasions, such as 
when the warriors are away on a raid, after harvest, or in 
the time of cattle disease and drought. These prayers are 

" mostly simple requests in the form, ' God (Asis) give us health 
(offspring, cattle, milk, &c). Guard our children and cattle.' 
They certainly imply that, however vague the personality of 
Asis may be, he takes a benevolent interest in the daily life of 
the Nandi. Thus he is invoked when a house is built, and by 
potters when baking pots. ' God give us strength,' they say ; 
'let us bake them so that men may like them.' The daily 
prayer is somewhat anthropomorphic. It says, 'I have 
prayed to thee. Thou sleepest and thou goest. I have 
prayed to thee. Do not say, " I have become tired." ' A 
somewhat similar idea seems to underlie a ceremony performed 
after the birth of a child and called ki-inget Asis (that God 
may be awakened). Spitting as a sign of blessing is a charac- 
teristic of the Nilotic tribes, and hence we find that on various 
occasions the Nandi spit towards the rising sun. The Chagga 
of Kilimanjaro have a similar observance, and call their 
deity Ruwa, which also signifies sun. Libations of beer, 
milk, &c, and offerings of salt are made, and animals are 

The Masai, p. 270. » pp. 74, 60. 


ceremonially slaughtered. These proceedings are described 
as sacrifices, but it is not clear that the animal is in any way 
offered to Asista, or that he is invited to partake of the flesh 
or blood, or that any portion of the victim is burnt. The 
entrails are inspected in order to obtain omens, and the flesh 
after being roasted is eaten by the company. The rite thus 
appears to be a sacred meal rather than the presentation of 
an oblation. But at one ceremony the old men take beer and 
milk into their mouths, which they spit out towards the 
rising sun, and say, ' Asis . . . look at this beer and milk.' 
And in Taveta, where the religious customs are probably 
derived from the Nandi or some kindred tribe, it is recorded 
that the heads, tongues, or viscera of victims are thrown into 
water or set aside. 1 When a Nandi child is four months old, its 
face is washed in the undigested food found in the stomach of 
an animal sacrificed in honour of the occasion, and this stomach 
is invoked in a prayer together with Asis and the spirits of 
ancestors. ' Asis, give us health : Asis, protect us : spirits of 
the departed, protect this child : stomach, protect this child.' 
There seems to be here a combination of several stages of 
religious belief. 

The cult of the dead is fairly well developed. The spirit 
is believed to reside in the shadow, and when adults die it 
survives, though children are supposed to perish entirely. 
The spirits of the departed, called oiik, 2 are supposed to live 
under the earth, and are rich or poor in this spirit-world just 
as in their human existence. The widespread story of a man 
who went to the country of the dead but was sent back 
because he had arrived before his time, is known to the Nandi. 
Earthquakes are caused by the oiik moving about in their 
underworld. Hornets' nests in the ground and steam-jets 
(such as are found in various volcanic districts of East Africa) 
are their peep-holes, and white ants are said to issue from 
their cooking-pots. Snakes are sometimes considered to be 
spirits or the messengers of spirits, perhaps because they 
live in holes. 

These oiik are regarded as the cause of sickness, and when 
a Nandi is ill, it is necessary to discover and propitiate the 
particular ancestor who has occasioned the disaster. But 
they cannot be wholly malevolent, for they are invoked to 
protect children and absent warriors. The daily prayer after 

1 'Notes on the History and Customs of the People of Taveta,' by A. C. 
Hollis, Journ. African Soc, 1901, pp. 119-20. 

2 The singular of this word is oiin, and it is probably connected with oin. 
old age, and oo, great, 


addressing Asista continues : — ' Our spirits, (be not angry) 
for you died (naturally), and do not say "a man killed us" : 
protect us who are here above.' The spirits are supposed 
to be below, and it is evidently implied that the spirit of a 
murdered man would be malignant and revengeful. Another 
prayer, accompanied by libations of beer poured on the ground, 
says, ' Our spirits, we have prayed to you. Look at this beer : 
give us health.' Still more definite is the offering of beer 
and corn to a spirit who is supposed to have caused sickness. 
' Go away : look at this beer and grain. Beer and grain 
have been sprinkled on you : enjoy them as you go.' Corpses 
are exposed so that they may be eaten by hyenas, but the 
practice, though horrible, is accompanied by ceremonies which 
show that it must not be ascribed to callousness but is rather 
comparable to the methods of disposing of the dead practised 
by Parsees and Tibetans. Old people and young children are 
buried in cow-dung near the cattle-kraal, and provisions are 
put in the graves of old men. 

Another series of religious — or at least superstitious — 
beliefs is connected with the Orkoiyots, or principal medicine 
men, who are Masai by race and have introduced most of the 
ideas and practices connected with the Masai Laibons, but 
with some variations of their own. They are said never to 
pray to Asis but only to the spirits of their ancestors, and 
to receive miraculous powers from sacred snakes. 1 They 
divine and predict the future, exactly like the Masai Laibons, 
and are credited with the same powers of producing rain, 
children, and success in war. They do not accompany the 
warriors, but are believed to have the power of detaching 
their heads and sending them with the expedition to see what 
is being done. We are not told that they pray to the Masai 
deity Eng-Ai, but after a successful expedition there is a war- 
dance and a song of triumph, the refrain of which is ' I pray 
to Eng-A'i and I pray to Mbatian ' (a former Laibon of the 
Masai). Besides the Orkoiyot, there are minor medicine men 
of various classes, who pretend to discover wizards and to 
make rain. 

Taking the Nandi beliefs as a whole, we find that they are 
very similar to the religious notions of the Gallas. Our 
information about the latter (particularly for the East Africa 
Protectorate) is not full, 2 but the following points seem 

1 Among the Masai the souls of Laibons and influential people are supposed 
to turn into snakes after death. See The Masai, p. 307. 

2 See Paulitschke, Ethnographie Nord Ost Afrikas, 1896. Some recent informa- 
f tion about the beliefs of the Gallas in the East Africa Protectorate will be' 


certain : (a) They worship a Supreme Being called Wak or 
Waka. (6) They pray to him daily and turn to the East when 
doing so. (c) They fear the souls of the dead, who are called 
Ekera. A man's spirit is supposed to be in his shadow. 
When he dies, the spirit goes to a subterranean world but 
may also return and annoy its relations, (d) Various genii 
or spirits (distinct apparently from the spirits of the dead) 
are venerated, (e) Animals are sacrificed, and diviners tell the 
future by inspecting their entrails. Wak seems to mean 
the sky 1 rather than the sun, but the Deity is also called 
adu (sun) and in one prayer is addressed as ' Sun with 
thirty rays'. The turning to the east also suggests sun- 

It has been said that the Nilotic negroes have no religion. 
This is probably incorrect, but we may perhaps conclude that 
they do not, like the Nandi, invoke one God in a public 
manner. We hear, however, that the Jaluo, who are in 
contact with the Nandi, and the people of Taveta, who are 
perhaps a hybrid offshoot from them, worship the sun. It 
would seem that the religious observances of those Bantu 
tribes in East Africa who have not been influenced by the 
Masai, Nandi, or Gallas are concerned almost entirely with 
ancestor-worship. In Uganda, where a whole pantheon had 
been developed before Christian times, the deities seem to 
have been chiefly deified ancestors, but there was a God of 
the firmament called Kazoba, whose name seems to mean Sun. 
It is possible that his worship may be due to the Bahima 
conquerors of Uganda, who are believed to have been a 
Hamitic tribe. It is not surprising that the Nandi and Galla 
should combine with this rude monotheism the worship or at 
least the fear of ancestral spirits. The strange thing rather 
is that this cult should be almost unknown among the Masai, 
who believe that ordinary people cease to exist after death, 
and that only Laibons and persons having many children and 
cattle live on as snakes. I am inclined to connect the lacuna 
with the comparatively little influence enjoyed by Masai 
elders, popular respect being paid to the young warriors and 
the medicine men. 

Those who believe in the Arabian or Semitic origin of these 
tribes may justly point to many Semitic features in their 

found in the Life of Thomas Wakefield (a missionary among the Galla), by E. S. 
Wakefield, 1904, pp. 200-17. 

1 In Nandi Wake means the month of April, and is possibly borrowed from 
Galla, though the connexion of meaning is not clear. Bob, rain, is also 
borrowed from Galla. 


religious beliefs — the practical monotheism, the sacrifice of 
animals, and the place of spirits below the earth. But these 
features are all found among the Gallas, 1 and it seems to me 
most probable that they have simply passed from them to 
the Nandi and Masai. How easily religious names and ideas 
may be transferred in East Africa is shown by the fact that 
the Kikuyu have adopted the Masai deity Eng-Ai, and Nandi 
traditions indicate that the rite of circumcision is borrowed. 
As for the Galla, it may be that they and the Somali came 
originally from Arabia. At any rate, they have had ample 
opportunities of being influenced by Semitic ideas, and I think 
that the Galla prayers, if not due to contact with Moslems or 
Abyssinian Christians, were at least modified by such contact. 
But the information (possibly incomplete) which we possess 
of both the Galla and Nandi religions indicates that they 
resemble the ideas not only of Semites but also of many 
Central Asian peoples and the ancient Chinese. These nations 
have : (a) a vague monotheism, described as the worship of 
heaven; (6) the worship of equally vague nature-spirits; 
(c) the worship or veneration of ancestors. The ideas of the 
tribes which we have been considering are really very similar, 
and are probably characteristic of a certain stage of culture 
among half-nomadic races who have no centres tending to 
develop the cult of local and territorial deities, and little in 
the way of art or literature to foster mythology. 

In its general construction the Nandi language resembles 
Masai. The inflections of the noun only distinguish the 
singular and plural : there are no cases and very few pre- 
positions. The article and the relative play a considerable 
part in the syntax. The verb is well developed and not only 
indicates person and time, but can assume forms which 
express such ideas as the direction or object of an action, and 
thus to some extent compensates for the absence of cases. 
But the two languages show considerable divergences in 
detail : they are parallel developments, and neither is borrowed 
from the other. 

Whereas the article in Masai, as in Greek, can express both 
gender and number in one monosyllable, Nandi denotes gender 
by prefixes ; and the definite article, which is an affix, can 
only indicate number. 2 The prefixes are kip (ki, kim) and 

1 The Gallas also seem to have the custom of sacrificing the first-horn. It 
is said that they expose and leave to die any children who may be born in 
the first few years after marriage. See Maud, Geog. Journ., 1904, pp. 567-8. 

2 It is interesting to find that these languages show the same variation in 
the position of the article that meets us in Aryan and Semitic languages. 


chep (che, chem) for the masculine and feminine respectively, 
these terms being understood, as in Masai, to denote not merely 
sex but degrees of size and strength. Sometimes these pre- 
fixes are simply equivalent to masculine and feminine termi- 
nations, ki-mingat a deaf man, che-mingat a deaf woman 
(= surdus, surda). But they frequently serve to construct 
a derivative noun, and signify a person who is connected with 
the simple noun. Thus, lakwa, a child, chep-lakwa, not a 
female child, but a nurse; kericho, medicine, kip-kericho, a 
doctor ; ter, a pot, chep-ter-e-nio, potter ; kes, to cut, chep-kes- 
wai, knife. They may be added to verbs as well as nouns, and 
then form a nomen agentis ; e.g. kip-uny-i-ke. Here unyike 
is simply a verb in the third person singular, he hides himself, 
and the whole means ' one who hides himself '. The simple 
form of the affixed article is t in the singular and k in the 
plural, but it not infrequently assumes the form ta, to : da, do, 
in the singular, in order, it would seem, to prevent the word 
from ending in two consonants, e. g. sese, dog, seset ; but ror, 
heifer, rorta. 1 Beside the article, demonstrative affixes can 
be appended to nouns, which with these additions assume 
a very varied appearance. Thus from sese are formed seset, 
sesonni, sesenju ; from tien, tiendo, tieni, and tienwagichu. 
But the article is a less necessary part of a word than in 
Masai, and a noun used in a general sense dispenses with it, 
e. g. maoitos ma pei, Fire does not cross water. 

The plural is formed by the addition of various affixes, 
such as oi,ai; s and n, either alone or with vowels ; ua and 
wag, all of which have analogies in Masai. These affixes are 
often attached by connecting syllables, and to the whole may 
be added the plural article, so that we obtain very complicated 
forms, such as Jcepen, cave, kepenosiek ; kor, land, korotinuek ; 
ma, fire, mostinuek. As in Masai, many nouns are in their 
simple form collective, and a suffix must be added to make 
a true singular, indicating one person. Thus Nandi means 
the Nandi tribe, and with the plural article becomes Nandiek. 
A Nandi man is Nandiin, and the same with the definite 
article becomes Nandiindet. Yet with this power of build- 
ing up complicated forms Nandi has not attempted to indicate 

Thus it is prefixed in Masai and Turkana, affixed in Nandi and Bari. 
Similarly, though prefixed in most European languages, it is affixed in 
Bulgarian, Boumanian, Albanian, and the Scandinavian languages. It is 
prefixed in Hebrew and Arabic, but Aramaic uses an affix. In Somali and 
Galla it is affixed. 

1 Sometimes e is inserted before the article, sometimes a or o is added after 
it. The cause of this difference in treatment is not plain. Thus ror, heifer, 
rorta ; but ror, stubble, roret : kotig, eye, konda ; but long, shield, loHget. 


a single case by the use of affixes. The nominative and accu- 
sative are distinguished by their position, the normal order 
being verb, subject, object (maoitos ma pei : crosses-not fire 
water). The vocative is simply a noun with a demonstrative 
(korkdnni, this woman, or woman). Similar instances are 
quoted from Galla, and we may compare ovtos <jv in classical 
Greek. The genitive is expressed by means of a particle 
which appears most commonly as ap, more rarely as pa or po. 
It appears to be a simple preposition, and the language pos- 
sesses only one other, eiig, which indicates local relation in 
the most general sense, its special meaning in any sentence — 
such as motion to or from or rest in — being defined by the 

Though the pronouns show a general resemblance to those 
of Masai, the divergence in detail is very considerable. The 
sound ch seems characteristic of the plural of these words, 
and is found in the personal, possessive, demonstrative, and 
relative pronouns. The demonstratives are affixed, like the 
article. The relative is a prefix, ne in the singular and che in 
the plural. It does not indicate gender, but there is a special 
form ye used with the word olto, place (of. ne in Masai, used 
with the word e-weji). 

In verbal forms the third person is not indicated, 1 but the 
first and second are marked by a and i in the singular, hi and o 
in the plural. These syllables can be prefixed directly to nouns 
and adjectives : as a-orJcoiyot, I am the chief ; a-kararan, 
I am beautiful. This predicative use of the adjective assumes 
a more distinctly verbal shape in the past tense, where we 
find such forms as ki-a-hararan-itu, I was beautiful. Here 
hi is a particle apparently connected with hi-nye, formerly, and 
itu 2 seems to have no temporal or personal meaning, but to 
build up a verbal stem out of the simple adjective. Ordinary 
verbs are conjugated by prefixing a, i, &c, directly to the 
root, and tense signs do not intervene between these syllables 
and the root. The simple root is used as the imperative. 
To make the present, i or e is suffixed to the root, and the 
pronominal signs are prefixed. The following table will show 
the resemblance to Masai 3 : — 

1 But sometimes it appears to be represented by ko. 

' It may perhaps be compared with such Masai forms as A-suj-ita, I am 
following ; ki-ta-gol-ito, we were strong (where ki is first pers. plu., not a tense 

8 The simple present (I follow) in Masai is a-suj, but I have selected the 
progressive present (I am following) because it exhibits the same structure 
as appears in Nandi : personal prefix + root + verbal affix. 


Nandi. cham, to love. 

Masai suj, to follow. 

1. Sing. A-chom-e 


2. I-chom-e 


3. Chom-e 


1. Plu. Ki-chom-e 


2. O-chom-e 


3. Chom-e 


The pronominal object of the verb, if of the first or second 
person, is indicated by affixes, namely (1) a or o, and (2) n or 
in for the singular, (1) ech and (2) ak or ok for the plural. 
Thus, ' you love us ' is o-chom-ech, and ' we love thee ', ki- 
chom-in. Nandi thus has simple objective affixes, and avoids 
the Masai construction by which both subject and object are 
indicated, though somewhat imperfectly, in a single prefix 
(e. g. ki-suj, thou followest me, or, they follow thee). 

As in Masai, there are two classes of verbs which differ 
slightly in conjugation : those beginning with i, and those 
beginning with other letters. This prefix i also appears in 
causatives (i-cham, to cause to love) and apparently intensifies 
the verbal force of a root. The tenses are formed almost with- 
out exception x simply by prefixing particles, not by further 
modifications of the root. The past is formed with hi, ka, 
Ice, or kwo, apparently signifying formerly ; the future with 
ip, go, or inyo, come ; the conditional with various syllables 
such as ingo-nga, in which a nasal predominates. Thus there 
is a scarcity of anything that can be called moods and tenses, 
but in contrast there are a considerable number of derivative 
conjugations expressing modifications of the meaning of the 
verb. They are often lengthy and elaborate formations : al, 
to sell, can form a-ol-to-chi-ni : iro, to see, a-'aror-chi-ni. 
Many of them show a resemblance to the Masai derivatives 
of equivalent meaning. For instance, (1) forms denoting 
motion hither : a-'sup-u, I follow him hither — Masai, a-suj-u ; 
(2) forms with a dative sense : A-'sup-chi-ni, I follow him — 
Masai, A-suj-aki ; (3) the applied forms : na-a-tep-e, that I 
may sit on it — Masai, la barn-ye, or na-bam-ye, that I may 
shave with it ; (4) intransitive forms : mwet-isie, to wash — 
Masai, a-isuj-ish-o ; (5) causatives : cause to wash, iun-e — 
Masai, A-isuj-ye. 

It would appear from a vocabulary of the Dorobo lan- 
guage (about 150 words) and some grammatical notes which 
Mr. Hollis has kindly placed at my disposal, that some sections 

1 The only exception is the present, in which the root vowel a often 
becomes o. Boot cham, present a-chom-e, I love. 


of this tribe at any rate speak a language which, is little more 
than a dialect of Nandi. Mr. Hollis's materials were collected 
in German East Africa near the Natron Lake. More than 
two-thirds of the vocabulary are practically the same as in 
Nandi, and of the words which do not correspond a large pro- 
portion are the names of animals and utensils, which might 
naturally be local. As peculiarities of the Dorobo dialect 
may be mentioned : (1) some pronominal forms, such as arko, 
he, tichee. or ndichee, they. (2) A prefix ar is found in the 
conjugation of the verb, both in the past active (ar-a-mach-a, 
I wanted) and in the passive (ar-ke-mach-a, I am wanted). 
(3) Many nouns in the singular end in anda, though they 
reject this affix in the plural. In Nandi we find such forms 
as tiony, animal, Hondo, the animal ; hong, eye, konda, the eye ; 
and combinations of a substantive with a demonstrative affix, 
such as oriat, an ash, oriandanni, this ash. Apparently this 
usage is extended by analogy in Dorobo, for we have kuyanda, 
bow, where Nandi has kwanget ; pelyandee, elephant, for peliot ; 
puniandee, enemy, for punyot. (4) There are some differ- 
ences in pronunciation. JV is sometimes omitted, i. e. muyare, 
salt (N. munyu) ; taamuye, beard (N. tamnet). There seems to 
be a preference for the broad a sound, maae, belly (N. rno) ; 
kaawe, bone (N. Icowo). P is sometimes replaced by v : Vanda, 
journey (N. panda) ; vaiyaa, old man (N. poiyo). This inter- 
change of p and v is also found in Nandi. 

To the best of my belief nothing is known of the Suk lan- 
guage except the list of words with a few short phrases 
published by Sir H. Johnston in his Uganda Protectorate, 
vol. ii. pp. 903-11, and a vocabulary published by Col. Mac- 
Donald. 1 Examined in the light of Mr. Hollis's present re- 
searches, these lists show that Suk is closely allied to Nandi, 
more closely than Turkana is allied to Masai. More than fifty 
per cent, of the words quoted are obviously the same as their 
Nandi equivalents. This is a very high percentage, for it does 
not include words in which the relationship is obscured by 
phonetic change. With regard to the grammar, it seems clear 
that Suk has an affix resembling the Nandi article, for we 
find porto, body (N. por, porto) ; kumat, honey (N. kumia, 
kumiat) ; kainat, name (N. kaina, kainet) ; Tit, tuit, ox, 
(N. tany, teta) ; diebto, woman (N. tie, chepto). In all these 
words, the t or to clearly corresponds to the Nandi article and 
is not part of the stem. But in Suk this suffix appears to be 
used much more rarely than in Nandi, and there is no proof 

1 Journ. Anthrop. Instit., 1899. 


that it has grammatically the meaning of an article. Polto 
is quoted as meaning sky. In Nandi we find pol, clouds, as 
a collective plural, and in the singular poldo, one cloud, or, 
with the article poldet. Here to or do is clearly not part of 
the root, but it is hard to say if it should be regarded as an 
article or not. There is no trace of a prefixed article in the 
Suk vocabulary unless k sometimes has this function ; nor is 
there any clear instance of a plural except solowa, twins (cf. the 
Nandi forms on p. 174). As far as can be seen, the formation of 
nouns is much the same as in Nandi. The suffix -n denotes the 
agent in the singular : ponin, a witch, tsorin, a thief (N. ponin 
and chorin). As for the prefixes, there are some indications 
that chep is used, though its precise significance is not clear : 
chep-to is a woman, but chep-tenyo is quoted as meaning both 
brother and sister. 1 The names of several animals begin with 
tyet or tyem. The prefix kip is not recorded, but ki seems to 
occur in kiruotito, dream (Nandi, iruotite, to dream), and 
kiruokin, chief (N. kiruogin). The personal pronouns are 
given as ane, nyi, chichino; mu, agwa, puchuno or pichuno. 
Many of these forms are obscure, but chichino and pichuno 
are perhaps not true pronouns, for they resemble the Nandi 
expressions chii-chi, this man, and pii^chu, these men. The 
demonstrative is affixed in three other examples, prefixed 
in one. The following verbal forms may be quoted : I come, 
ane k-a-nyon 2 (N. a-nyo-ne) ; you love, O-cham-inyi (N. 0- 
chom-e) ; I know, Ongetan (N. a-ngen or a-nget) ; I do not 
know, m-ongetan-ye (N. m-d-ngen) ; I do not come, mongu- 
nanye (N. m-d-nyo-ne). 

Mr. Hollis has also kindly supplied me with a vocabulary 
and grammatical notes on the Turkana language, as well as 
a few stories. I proceed to give an abstract of this valuable 
unpublished material. 3 

The following forms are quoted as illustrating the use of 
the article : e-takho* a calf, figi-takh (rarely i-takh), calve9, 
masculine ; a-takho, figa-takh (rarely a-takh) being the corre- 
sponding feminine forms. There is a similar series of forms 
for the definite article : nye-takho, the calf, figi-takh, the calves ; 
and in the feminine, nya-takho, figa-takh. The vowel of the 
masculine, but not of the feminine article, falls out before 

1 In Nandi chep-to means the girl, cheptan-nyo, my girl or daughter. 

* Nearly all the forms quoted for the first person singular begin with k. 

3 In my introduction to The Masai I spoke of the Suk-Turkana group, 
based on the idea that these tribes are similar in physique and manner of 
life. But linguistically they do not form a group. 

4 Kh in Turkana is said to be pronounced as ch in German ach, th as in 
English this. 


another vowel. The following forms are also quoted : nye-kile, 
the male, pi. ngiliokh ; nya-khaal, the camel, pi. ngaal ; nye- 
kileng, the sword, pi. ngilenya; nye-kasgout, the elder, pi. 
ngasgou. In these also, the vowel of the article seems to fall 
out and the resulting combination of consonants is simplified 
in pronunciation. It thus appears that we have a simple 
vowel prefix e, a 1 (cf. epei one, m. ; apei f.) used chiefly in the 
singular, with which can be combined other more definite pre- 
fixes (ny, fig) possibly akin to the demonstratives. 

Substantives have the same general features as in Masai and 
Nandi. The following plural affixes are found : a, ya, o, yo, e, 
ae, t, k, tha, in, syo, is. Nouns ending in an (all the examples 
are nouns denoting an agent) change the n to kh in the plural : 
nye-kalepan, the beggar, figi-kalepakh. Collective words form 
the singular by adding to the plural form i, o, or t (at, it, et) : 
Ngi turkana, the Turkana ; e-turkanait, a Turkana man ; ngl- 
takh, the calves ; nye-takho, the calf. The particle a is used 
to indicate not only the genitive, but also local relation. 
Nye-sikirya a nye-tungunan, the-donkey of the-man; but 
also A-iboikini a nya-moni, I-stay in the-wood. As nouns are 
always quoted with the articles (without which they appear 
to be unintelligible) they are often polysyllabic, but fewer 
prefixes and suffixes seem to be used in their formation than in 
Masai and Nandi. Of prefixes, we find hi for certain, e.g. 
kile, male (Masai ol-lee, il-lewa) ; a-ki-mwo-yin, a finger (Masai 
ol-ki-mojino, Nandi and Bari moriri) ; and more doubt- 
ful prefixes seem to be present in e-lap, moon (Masai ol-apa) ; 
alokoinya, brains 2 (Suk koinyot) ; ja-mu, hides (Nandi mui) ; 
a-kopiro, ostrich feathers (Masai ol-piro). T, i and fig are used 
as affixes, but their significance is indefinite or uncertain. N 
is affixed in the singular to form nouns which generally signify 
an agent : kedalan, lover ; yokon, husbandman ; kokolan, 

Adjectives follow the noun which they qualify and 
are generally connected with it by the relative and another 
prefix, hi or lea : nye-mukura lo-ki-rion, the black mountain ; 
nye-kile la-ka-agongon, the strong warrior. (Cf. the expres- 
sion e-kel ka-nya-tom, ivory.) When used predicatively, the 
adjective precedes the substantive : e-rono nye-tungunan, the 
man is short (he is short the man). 

The numerals are as follows; they are generally used in 
combination with the definite article : 

1 The imperfect vocabularies of Latuka which we possess indicate that in 
it the prefixes a, e and n are articles. 

* It is not clear what is the relation of this word to the Masai ol-le-V- 







m. epei,/. apei 


m. obo, /. nabo. 




m. aare, f. are. 




m. okuni, /. uni. 




m. ooBgwan, /. ongwan. 


akhan or ngan (i.e. 




akhan ka pei (ngan) 




akhan ka are 


m. oopishana, /. naapishana 


akan ka uni 




akhan ka omwan 


m. oudo, / naudo. 





Whereas Masai and Nandi have borrowed words for the 
higher numerals from Galla or Somali, Turkana expresses 
them by multiples of the native numerals as ngi tomon are, 
twenty (Masai tigit&m, Nandi tiptem, from Galla digetam). 
But a hundred is pokol (Somali boghol, Nandi pokol, Masai ip). 
The pronouns are as follows : — 



Sing. Plur. 

Sing. Plur. 

1. AyoBg sua or thua. 

khafig or kang khosi or iyokh. 

2. IyoBg Ezi. 

khon or kon kus. 

3. nyezi Ikezi. 

keny or keng kech. 

Among the examples given are : A-Jchai Jchang, my house ; 
nga-khais kus, your houses. 

The principal demonstratives are : 

]o or en 

ye or ei 

Fern. Used with neni place.' 
na or en ne, this, 

nu ne, these, 

ya inne, that, 

ngun nege, those. 

It is noticeable that the demonstratives follow the noun as 
in Nandi : A-beru-na, this woman ; figi-tunga-lu, these men. 
The relative is the same as the first of the demonstratives 
cited above (lo, na, &c). As in Masai, it undergoes some 
changes when combined with a verb. The interrogatives 
are ngae ? who 1 and ani ? (sing.) ; alu ? (pi. m.), anu ? (pi. fern.), 
what ? or which ? 

As in Masai and Nandi, the verbs are divided into two 
classes, which show some differences in conjugation : those 

lughunya, the-of-the-head (brain). Such a combination is explicable by 
Masai but not by Turkana grammar, as known. Lughunya itself may be 
a derivative of the Turkana ku, head. 
1 Cf. the corresponding usage in Nandi and Masai with olto and e-wlji. 


beginning with i, and those beginning with any other letter. 
The following is the present tense of the verb cham, to love, 
the object being in the third person : — 

Sing. Plur. 

1. A-cham-it, I am loving (him). Ki-cham-it, We are loving (him). 

2. I-cham-it, Thou art loving I-cham-it, You are loving (him). 


3. E-cham-it, He or she is loving E-cham-it, They are loving (him). 


The syllable -it here appears to correspond to the -i of 
Nandi and the -ita of Masai. When the object is the first 
or second personal pronoun, the prefix is changed much as 
in Masai and with the same ambiguities. Thus, ka-cham-it 
means, I am loving thee, or he (they) is (are) loving me 
(cf. Masai Aasuj) ; ki-cham-it means, Thou art loving me, or 
he is loving thee (cf. Masai kisuj). 

There is also an indefinite present tense formed by affixing 
i (-ri, -ni) to the root : a-cham-i, I love ; a-ipena-ri, I sharpen. 
The formation of the past is somewhat uncertain, but ap- 
parently in i-verbs k is prefixed to the root, a-inok-i, I kindle ; 
a-k-inok, I have kindled ; while in others the pronominal 
prefixes are simply added to the root : a-yeng-i, I slaughter ; 
a-yeng, I have slaughtered. The narrative tense is formed by 
prefixing to i- verbs k, and to other verbs t and a vowel: 
K-iri/mo, and he remains ; ta-ma, and he says. Similarly in 
the imperative we have k-iwor, speak, but ta-ma, say to him. 
The particle ani is prefixed to the conditional : ani-a-nyam-i} 
if I eat it. The negative is formed by prefixing ny : ny-a- 
cham-it ; I am not loving him. The derivative conjugations, 
as far as they are known, resemble those of both Nandi and 
Masai. There are quoted ; (1) a passive : ka-cham-it-ae, I am 
being loved ; (2) a form expressing motion hither, with the 
affix un ; (3) a dative with the affix kino ; (4) a causative 
with the prefix ita : a-nyun-i? I see, a-ita-nyun-i, I cause 
to see. 

Turkana clearly belongs to the same group as Nandi, 
Masai, and Suk, and agrees with them in all essential points 
of grammatical structure. It is peculiar in its articles, its 
negative, and some pronouns. It shows some resemblance to 
Nandi in indicating the genitive relation by the particle a 

1 Cf. Nandi am, to eat, but Masai nya. 

* In some parts of the Nandi verb to see, which is irregular, the root 
appears to be iony. 


and in affixing the demonstrative, but on the whole has 
greater affinities to Masai, with which it agrees in such points 
of detail as (1) a prefixed article denoting both number and 
gender in one syllable; (2) verbal prefixes indicating both 
the subject and the object; (3) the forms of the relative. 
These are often formed with I in Masai when combined with 
a verb. The resemblance in vocabulary, though clear on 
examination, is not very obvious at first sight. In some 
stories which Mr. Hollis has provided with Masai versions 
only ten per cent. 1 or less of the words are clearly identical 
in origin. The superficial resemblance to Nandi is even less, 
but I have had no difficulty in identifying about twelve roots 
or simple words, and this number could no doubt be easily 
increased. Loan-words from Somali seem to be more 
numerous than in Masai. Turkana agrees with Masai in 
the numerals two and three, which are are and uni, whereas 
Nandi and Suk have aeng (oyeng) and somok, but differs in 
its word for five (akhan or figari), which also appears in Bari 
and some Suk forms. 

From Sir H. Johnston's vocabularies it would appear that 
Turkana is closely allied to the dialects spoken in Karamojo. 

Mr. Hollis has also made some notes on the language of 
the Kunono, or smiths, who live among the Masai in an 
inferior and almost servile status. It appears to be simply 
a dialect, and to differ from normal Masai less than Dorobo 
does from Nandi. More than two-thirds of the vocabulary 
(150 words) are the same as Masai. Of the remainder, twelve 
words are Nandi. It is curious to notice that four words 
which specially concern the trade of a smith are not like 
either the Masai or the Nandi equivalents : iron, e-samereita ; 
knife, o-siota; spear, en-gandiit ; axe, e-wuyuwuyu. 

All the languages mentioned, including such varieties of 
Nandi as Lumbwa, Kamasia, &c, and also the little-known 
Latuka (which appears to be nearly allied to Masai), form 
a sub-group within the family of Nilotic languages. This 
family is as yet neither thoroughly investigated nor clearly 
defined, but it appears to comprise at least Dinka, Shilluk, 
Bari, Acholi, and Jaluo. The sub-group is characterized by 
a certain homogeneity of vocabulary and by the length of 
its words. Monosyllables are rare, and most of them are 
particles which cannot be used alone ; words of five syllables 
are frequent, whereas in the other languages monosyllables 

1 This percentage may not give a just idea of the resemblance, for the trans- 
lator may have employed the words most idiomatic in Masai, not those most 
like the Turkana equivalents. 


and disyllables appear to be the rule. The greater length 
of the words is due to a wealth of formative elements, both 
prefixes and suffixes, by which derivatives are formed from 

Within this sub-group, Nandi with its dialects, including 
Dorobo, is closely allied to Suk : Masai and Turkana are 
more closely allied to one another than either is to the 
Nandi-Suk division, but can hardly be classed together as 
a corresponding subdivision, for Turkana has special features, 
such as its articles and the use of ny as a negative, which 
seem greater than the peculiarities (as far as our very limited 
knowledge goes) which separate Suk from Nandi. 

The common features of all these languages (perhaps 
shared by some of those spoken on the Nile) are somewhat 
as follows. The syntax, or connexion of words in a sentence, 
is very imperfectly developed. There are no inflectional 
cases, hardly any prepositions, and nothing corresponding to 
the categories and prefixes of the Bantu languages. The 
nominative and accusative are distinguished by their position, 
the usual order (at least in Nandi, Masai, and Turkana) being 
verb, subject, object. Otherwise, the part which a substantive 
plays in a sentence can only be inferred from the general 
sense : 'Ngi-rep-e lakwa rotua ke-ken-ji ket. This means, If 
you take a knife away from a child, give him a piece of 
wood to play with instead ; but translated literally it is, If- 
you-take-from child knife and-you-coax-with wood. It will 
be seen that the general plan of this sentence is given in the 
two verbs. The substantives are left to fit into it as best 
they can : their place is not indicated either by case, preposi- 
tions, or position. The inconvenience of this disconnected 
character is clear, and an attempt is made to overcome it in 
two ways. Firstly, prefixes and affixes are multiplied in 
order to put as much meaning as possible into single nouns 
and verbs. Secondly, words are connected by the relative 
in a way which seems to us superfluous and clumsy. Instead 
of saying ' the beautiful woman ' these languages prefer 
some such form as ' the woman who-beautiful ' : instead of 
' who is at the gate ? ' ' who who-is gate ? ' 

The distinction between verbs and nouns is slight. It is said 
that in Dinka the same word can be used without change as 
a noun, verb, or preposition. In the sub-group pronominal 
prefixes can be added to nouns and adjectives, which then 
become neuter verbs. On the other hand, the prefixes used to 
form derived nouns can be added to verbs : Kipt-wny-i-ke, the- 
he-hides-himself, i.e. a man who conceals himself, Kip-set- 



met, the-go-head, one whose head goes to the wars. 1 Both 
prefixes and affixes are used in amplifying verbs and nouns, 
and what is a prefix in one language may be an affix in 
another. The pronominal subject is always prefixed to a 
verb; the pronominal object may be either prefixed (Masai, 
Turkana) or affixed (Nandi). Signs of tense and mood are 
mostly prefixed (being in fact merely particles), but a few 
are affixed. The opposite is true of the elements which form 
the reflexive, reciprocal, dative, and other varieties of derived 
verbs. They are nearly all affixes : only causatives show 
a prefix. In nouns the articles and demonstratives are either 
prefixes or affixes. All the signs known to indicate gender 
are prefixes. In Nandi these are kip and chep. The former 
is perhaps connected with a widely used prefix, hi or gi. 
More rarely, simple k (perhaps a shortening of kip) is found 
as a prefix, e. g. Nandi lei, ichi-lil, to err, kachilUo, error ; 
imut, to lead, kamutin, a leader; -iak-e, to tend sheep, 
k-oioJc-in, shepherd. Also ma, m- : Nandi karin, riches, ma- 
Icori-o, rich man ; ingir-te, to lessen, m-ining, small ; Masai 
angata, plains, m-angat-inda, an enemy (apparently one who 
comes from, or sweeps over the plains). Mishire, a brand 
mark, and ameyu, hunger, are perhaps derived from the 
verbal roots sir, to write, and iyo, to wish. There is also 
a t prefix : Masai ta-mweiyai, a sick person, from mweiyan, 
sickness, or a-mtveiy-u, to be sick. All these forms are 
perhaps connected with en-gad, death, and a-a, to die. So too, 
in Nandi mcm-ach, to be pregnant; to-mon-o, a pregnant 
woman ; and perhaps tu-lua, a mountain, from lany, to mount. 
The plural is usually formed by affixes, but in Masai, Nandi, 
Turkana, and also in Dinka and Bari, some nouns (chiefly 
those indicating relationship) form it by a prefix which often 
contains k (ke in Dinka, ho in Bari, akut in Nandi, but ta 
in Turkana). K is also one of the commonest elements 
in the many plural affixes, but they are very numerous, even 
within the limits of a single language, and few of them can 
be said to have a definitely plural meaning. Their precise 
significance seems to depend on the use of each word. 
Similarly, the meaning of the affixes used to form nouns 
varies greatly. The most consistent is n preceded by a vowel 
(often i), which in all the languages of the sub-group denotes 
the agent in the singular. Its original significance seems to 
be one person or thing, for it is used to form individualizing 

1 The chief medicine man is siipposed to be able to send his head to the 
^vars without his body. 


nouns from collectives. Thus, in Nandi, Masaein means 
a Masai person ; Chorin a steal-person or thief ; ani or oni 
in Masai is a longer form of the same affix, e.g. areshoni, 
a trap-person or trapper. But other affixes have not so clear 
a meaning, and very often we find that one language will 
select one for a definite grammatical purpose, while the others 
employ it more vaguely. Thus in Nandi t and k have a 
definite grammatical function, and represent the singular and 
plural of the article. But in Masai we find many words 
ending in t in which this affix is neither radical nor an article 
(since another article is used at the same time). Even in 
Nandi we find words like poldo, perto, kwendo (pi. pol, per, 
kwen) in which to or do is indistinguishable in form from the 
article, but is regarded by usage as a mere suffix, since when 
the article is expressed these words become poldet, &c. K, 
which is the plural of the definite article in Nandi, is in 
Masai and Turkana (kh) only an occasional plural termination 
of nouns. Nye, nya, which in Turkana are the singular of 
the definite article, appear sporadically in Nandi and Masai 
as prefixes or particles. Masai : nye-lle ol-tufigani, this man 
here ; nyanym e-ngoroyoni, this woman here ; Nandi : nyo- 
korio, 1 fear (cf. Masai kuret, coward). 

The thought underlying these languages is so simple and 
direct that there are few abstract nouns, but in Masai the 
action of a verb in its general sense is often expressed by 
a noun formed with the affix ata, oto. If the root begins 
with i, k (g after n) is at the same time added as a prefix. 2 
Thus, item, to begin, en-giterunoto, the beginning ; isuj , to 
wash, en-gisujata, the cleaning; tern, to measure, en-demata, 
the measure. This affix has perhaps the same origin as the 
Nandi article, though it is used in a less specialized sense. 
In Nandi, -io or -yo is a common nominal affix, but it is hard 
to assign to it any special meaning. The form -eyua or 
-eyuo seems to denote instruments, as Jcanameyuo, tongs 
(nam, to take in the hand) ; roteyua, a slender pole (rat, to 
bind) ; che-sol-eyua, paint (sal, to paint). The formation of 
the few abstract nouns quoted is various : ya-itio, badness ; 
mie-no, goodness; kararin, beauty (but beautiful, kararan, 
pi. kororon) ; nyikisin, thickness (nyikis, thick) ; kvmnon, 
strength (Km, strong). 

If a series of formations in one of these languages is 

1 These words have also a k prefix, for in Masai the verbal root is ure. I» 
this the same as Nandi iyuel 

s I defer to Mr. Hollis's explanation while wondering if we should not write- 



examined, and still more if kindred forms in other languages 
are included, it soon becomes clear that the common part, or 
the root in contradistinction to prefixes and affixes which can 
be detached, is very short. Thus we find in the Nandi vocabu- 
lary : old age, oin ; old, os ; an old person, poiyo or chepioso. 
Here the common part seems to be simply o or oi. Oo, great, 
is probably akin ; chep is certainly a prefix, and perhaps the 
p of p-oiyo represents the remains of kip. Similarly, the 
verbal root signifying to pray is found in the simple form 
s« or eo, intensified as sa-ise or sai-sai. This root is apparently 
amplified to som l , in the sense of to beg or request, sa-o or 
som-o, prayer ; som-in, beggar ; chep-soiso, beggar ; and, 
with the same meaning, chem-nge-susuo, which appears to be 
a derivative from the same root. Nandi ma, fire ; mat, the 
fire ; plural mostinua (ek) ; Masai en-gi-ma, the fire ; Turkana, 
Karamojo, &c, a-ki-m ; Dinka mach, and also 'mange or man 
in certain combinations ; Bari ki-ma ; Jaluo maty. Similarly, 
Masai kina, singular, breast ; plural ki ; Dorobo Una, plural 
iinosye; Nandi kina, pi. klnaiik. Masai fige-jep, tongue ; 
Nandi nge-lyep, plural nge-lyep-ue-k ; Bari nye-dep ; Acholi 
leb-a ; Jaluo lep, leiu-a ; Aluru ma-lep ; Dinka lyep or lyeme. 
In this example a curious interchange of consonants seems 
established, namely j = I. But the change of d to I or r can 
be paralleled in other languages, and j in Masai seems to 
be originally dy, 2 and in the present case we find the 
form nye-dep in Bari. Compare Masai en-geju, the foot; 
Nandi kel-do. Among other remarkable changes of letters 
it may be mentioned that the syllable io or yo seems to 
develop a palatal consonant with great ease, e.g. Nandi 
mopcho, sugar-cane, for mopio ; Turkana yokon, but Masai 
chokut, a herdsman (Nandi ko-iokin). In Masai verbs, initial 
i when preceded by another i becomes m if it is followed by 
a labial, and n if it is followed by d, k, g, t, or sh : imbot for 
i-i-pot, thou callest ; indim, for i-i-dim, thou art able. The 
change apparently is purely phonetic and due to a desire to 
emphasize the syllable. 

It would appear from the foregoing that the roots in 
these languages are short, generally monosyllabic, and often 
consisting of only a single consonant or vowel. But disyllabic 
roots are also found ; some may be primitive ; some are due 
to reduplication ; and many are formed with the prefix -i, which 
seems to intensify their verbal force. 

1 It is not clear what, if any, is the relation of the Masai omono, prayer, to 
this root. 
9 Hollis, The Masai, p. 2. 


As it has been suggested that these tribes, especially the 
Masai, are of Semitic origin, it may be well to give a list of 
the points in which their languages show some resemblance to 
the Semitic and Hamitic families : — 

(1) The vowels of a word undergo changes which some- 
times at any rate have a definite grammatical meaning ; (a) 
they distinguish the singular and plural : Nandi panan, poor, 
plural ponon: kararan, pi. kororon, beautiful. Similarly, 
tangoch, pi. tongoch, riddle. This is rarer in Masai, but we 
find rok, pi. rook, black ; oti, pi. ooti, small. (6) In Nandi the 
vowel a in a verbal root generally becomes o in the present 
tense : Cham, love, present, achome, I love ; so, wal, alter, 
mvole ; itany, forge, a'tonyi. 

(2) The article plays a prominent part, and often distin- 
guishes both number and gender. In Somali also there is 
an affixed article which denotes sex, e. g. nin-ki, the man ; 
nag-ti, the woman. 

(3) The affixes used to form the plural are not dissimilar in 
general character from those found in Galla (-o; -ota, -n, 
-oni, -oli) and Somali (-yal, -in, -o, -yd). But the commonest 
method of forming the plural in Galla and Somali seems to be 
by reduplication, and this process is not much used in the 
languages which we are considering. Nandi offers one in- 
stance, ngd, who ? plural ngd ngd. Reduplication is sometimes 
employed in the formation of stems, but the only instance in 
which I have found it as an aid to inflection is the second 
person plural of the Masai verb, i, e. i-suj, thou followest, i-suj- 
usuju, you follow. In Nandi we find nun-at, rotten ; nu-na- 
nun, very rotten. Roots are not infrequently reduplicated. 1 

(4) The simplest forms of the verb bear a certain resem- 
blance to Semitic and some Somali forms. But on examina- 
tion it seems clear that the chief distinction between the 
personal signs, that is the pronouns, lies in the vowels (Masai 
a-suj, i-suj, e-suj). There is no trace of t in the second 
person, nor of n in the first, but all the languages associate 
ki with the first person plural. In the second person Nandi 
indicates the pronominal object by n in the singular and ak 
or ok in the plural, but k in the singular is not recorded. 2 It 
will thus be seen that the resemblance to the Semitic pro- 
nouns and verbs is really very slight. It has been suggested 

1 See, for examples, p. 227 below, and The Masai, p. 97. 

3 The Masai verbal prefixes in which the pronominal subject and object 
are combined {The Masai, p. 48) are not very clear. Aa indicates I — thee, 
he — me, they — me : ki indicates we — thee, him, them ; thou — me ; you — me ; 
they— thee. 


that isuj (thou followest) is for tisuj, the t falling out as in 
na-ito, O girl (for na-tito). But na-ito is an isolated form in 
Masai, and neither in Masai nor Nandi is there any objection 
to beginning a word with ti. 

(5) The order of words in the sentence is verb, subject, 

(6) Some vague resemblances may be noted. Both pre- 
fixes and affixes are employed to form nouns, and may be 
used together. Compounds of the type found in Aryan lan- 
guages are rare, but two words united by the genitive 
particle ap are often used to express a single idea. 
Thus in Nandi a market is called kdpivalio (ka-ap-ivalio), 
house of exchange. The verb is susceptible of several deri- 
vative conjugations, but they are formed chiefly by affixes, 
whereas in Semitic languages they are formed chiefly by 
prefixes or changes in the roots. 1 In vocabulary the resem- 
blances are few. There are obvious loan-words from Somali 
and Galla, but only a few words show a possible and by no 
means conclusive similarity to the Semitic languages. Such 
in Nandi are tukul, all, iro, to see, me, to die, Ici-maitu, a dead 

Just as there is probably a strain of Galla or Somali blood 
in the Nandi, Masai, &c, so also there is nothing improbable 
in the idea that Somali influence may be traceable in their 
language. They certainly owe to it some of their numerals, 
and it may be that the use of the articles and the order of 
words are due to the same cause. But in details I see no 
proof of near kinship. The resemblances mentioned above 
are mostly of a very general character, and they diminish on 
closer examination. 

Thanks to the researches of Mr. Hollis we have now an 
account of the language and customs of two tribes, the Masai 
and Nandi. It would be rash to make any general statements 
about the whole group until we have similarly full accounts 
of some of its western members, such as the Bari and Dinka, 
and of the Gallas of the East African Protectorate, but all our 
information favours the theory, indicated in the foregoing 
observations, that its home is on the banks of the Nile, and 
that the more eastern sections represent an eastern migration 
which has come into contact with Hamitic tribes, probably 
Gallas. The influence exercised by these tribes was both 

1 Causatives formed by prefixing i (N. chain, love ; i-cham, cause to love) 
might be compared with the Hiphil conjugation in Hebrew, but other 
Semitic forms indicate that the essential feature of this conjugation is not an 
i prefix. 


linguistic and religious. The Galla worship of Wak, though 
not borrowed from Christianity or Islam, has certainly been 
modified by intercourse with Abyssinian Christians and 
Mohammedan Somalis, and in this sense it may be said that 
some Semitic ideas have penetrated among the Nandi and 
Masai. But there is no proof that the foundation of either 
the language or the religious beliefs is Semitic. 

Before concluding I should like to draw attention to the 
valuable results which Mr. Hollis has obtained by training 
African natives to take down the language of the wilder and 
more distant tribes. Thus the Turkana vocabulary and 
stories were collected by a native of Taveta, who had learnt 
to write in the Mission there, and then spent some months 
among the Turkana. It would appear that the intelligence of 
an educated native of East Africa is quite equal to such a 
task. I do not know if this method has been employed in 
other parts of Africa, but it has clearly great advantages, 
besides being a considerable economy of time. A native 
inspires less mistrust in the wilder tribes than a European ; he 
understands their ideas more readily, and his notes are not 
likely to be influenced by preconceived theories. 






SI fe5 



The Nandi tribe inhabited, until 1905, the whole of the highlands 
known as the Nandi plateau. This country was roughly bounded by 
the TJasin Gishu plateau, extending to Mount Elgon on the north, by 
the Nyando valley on the south, by the Elgeyo escarpment on the 
east, and by Kavirondo on the west. Recently, as a result of a puni- 
tive expedition, rendered necessary by the continued attacks of the 
warriors of certain sections of the Nandi on the Uganda Eailway and 
on inoffensive natives, the whole tribe has been placed in a reserve 
somewhat to the north of the escarpment which bears their name, and 
away from the immediate neighbourhood of the railway. 

The origin of the Nandi people is uncertain. We know that they 
are allied to the Masai and Turkhana, &c, and that all of these tribes 
are also allied to the Bari, Latuka, and other peoples living on the 
Nile ; but the Nandi represent doubtless a mixture of many different 
negro races, and, according to Dr. Shrubsall, 1 they exhibit in their 
cranial characteristics the incomplete fusion of something like four 
stocks — the Nile negro, the Masai, the Bantu, and some pigmy element, 
possibly allied to the Bushmen of South Africa. There may even be, he 
thinks, a dash of a fifth element — the Galla. 2 In appearance the Nandi 

1 The Uganda Protectorate (Johnston), vol. ii, p. 867. 

2 I do not consider that the part which the Galla have played in building 
up the Masai, Nandi-Lumbwa, and other races, such as perhaps the Bahima 
of Uganda, has been sufficiently realized or taken into account in the past. 
The influence of their Galla ancestors is frequently shown in the personal 
appearance, religion, customs, and, in a lesser degree, in the languages of 
many of these tribes. 

It may be worth mentioning that there are at the present day many 
Samburu Masai women living amongst the Gallas on the Tana River. These- 
women, who are called Korre (this being the Somali and Galla name for 
Masai), were formerly kidnapped by the Somalis of Kismayu and kept as 
slaves, but they have since effected their escape, and live contentedly with 
the Gallas, whom they regard as friends, and with whom they have inter- 

Mr. Dun das reports, in an article appearing in Man, 1908, pp. 136-9, that 
according to a tradition of the Kikuyu and Dorobo the Gallas or other allied 
people had formerly extensive settlements in what is now Kikuyu country, 
and that they were only driven out some seventy years ago. 



sometimes resemble the Masai, i.e. there are men of tall stature, 
with features almost Caucasian; at other times dwarfish types are 
noticeable with marked prognathism and low foreheads. 

The Nandi are closely allied to the Lumbwa 1 (or Kipsikls), the 
Buret (or Puret), and the Sotik (or Soot) on the south ; to the Kam- 
asia (or Tuken), the Elgeyo (or Keyu), the Mutei and other smaller 
and less known tribes on the east and north-east ; to the Nyangori 
(or Terik) on the west ; and to various tribes inhabiting Mount Elgon, 
notably the Kony, 2 on the north-west. The tribe of hunters usually 
known as the Dorobo, Andorobo, or "Wandorobo, 3 who live in forests 
stretching from about 1° north to 5° south of the Equator, are also 
nearly akin to the Nandi, and generally speak a dialect closely related 
to the Nandi tongue. 

The ancestors of the main body of what constitutes the so-called 
Nandi-Lumbwa group came, beyond doubt, from the north. There is 
a distinct tradition to this effect, and it seems probable that the tribes 
allied to the Nandi who live on or near Mount Elgon 4 (the Lako, 
Kony, Mbai, Sabaut, Sapin, Pok, and Kapkara) are only a section of 
the migrants, the remainder having pushed on to the south and east, 
and settled in Nandi, Lumbwa, Buret, Sotik, Elgeyo, and Kamasia. 
Both Sir H. Johnston 6 and Mr. Hobley 6 date this migration at a fairly 
remote period owing to the large area over which the group has 
spread ; and I am inclined to agree with them. But I do not consider 
it at all certain that the Nandi country has been inhabited by the 
Nandi tribe for more than a few generations, for there exist in Nandi 
the remains of irrigation canals, 7 which, although of no great age, are 
the workmanship of other people. The Nandi have a tradition that 

1 This name is a misnomer. It is a term of opprobrium applied by the 
nomadio Masai to all pastoral tribes who have taken to agriculture ; but it 
has been adopted by the Swahili as the name for the Kipsikls, and has, like 
so many other names, been accepted by Europeans as the correct designation 
for this tribe. The Kipsikls are called by the Masai the Kakesan, 

' Commonly but incorrectly called Elgonyi. 

3 The Masai name is IUTorobo. The Dorobo call themselves Okiek, which 
is also the Nandi name for them. 

1 Mr. Hobley reports that the Lako have a tradition that they and the 
Nandi were at one time settled on Kamalinga Mountain, forty-five miles 
north-west of Mount Elgon. (The Journal of the Anthropological Society for 
Qreat Britain and Ireland, 1903, p. 832.) 

5 The Uganda Protectorate, p. 796. 

6 Eastern Uganda, p. 10. 

7 I am indebted to Mr. Hobley for this information. 


they were at one time expelled from their country by the Sirikwa, 
a tribe about whom very little is known beyond the fact that they 
inhabited the Uasin Gishu plateau, that they lived in Btone kraals, 
the ruins of which are still to be seen, and that they were eventually 
exterminated or driven south by the Masai. 1 It is possible that the 
canals were cut by the Sirikwa ; but it is more likely that the work 
must be ascribed to a former Bantu occupation, which in that case 
would not be of very ancient date. 

The more recent history of Nandi dates back less than twenty 
years. The country was practically closed to Arab and Swahili 
traders, for the Nandi, who were hardy mountaineers and skilful 
fighters, refused to allow strangers to cross the threshold of their 
country without special permission. It frequently occurred that 
caravans, after safely passing the plains that were infested with the 
dreaded Masai, met with a serious check at the hands of the Nandi. 
On arriving at the frontier the Coast people were usually met by a few 
old men who told them in course of conversation that there was a large 
supply of ivory at a place situated two or three days' journey from the 
camp, but that only a small party consisting of ten or twenty men might 
go to barter for it. So great was the avidity of the Swahili trader that 
he often fell into the trap, and a small party would be dispatched 
laden with cloth, wire, and other trade goods, only to be ambushed by 
the Nandi and massacred. 

The first actual outbreaks of the Nandi were provoked by the 
aggressions of a Scotch trader who had penetrated into their country. 
The reprisals which they took included the murder of another white 
trader, and it was subsequently found necessary to dispatch an expedi- 
tion against them in 1895. Since then punitive measures have been 
undertaken against them on two occasions, in 1900 and 1903, but the 
Nandi were never really subdued, and remained hostile to the 
Administration and overbearing towards other tribes. Eventually, 
owing to their truculent behaviour, it was considered necessary in 1905 
to deal them a crushing blow, the result of which has been to move 
them into a reserve and, it is hoped, to settle once and for all a diffi- 
cult native problem which has long confronted the peaceful administra- 
tion and settlement of the East Africa Protectorate. 

1 To the present day the Nandi speak of the Masai living near Ikoma 
in German East Africa as the Sirikwa. It is therefore possible that the 
Sirikwa were only a branch of the Masai. 

B 2 



The Nandi country is divided into six counties (emet, pi. emctinuek) 
as follows : — 

North : Wareng. 

East: Masop. 

South : Soiin or Pelkut. 

West : Aldai and Chesume. 

Central : Em-gwen. 

The Nandi people are divided geographically into districts or divi- 
sions (pororiel, pi. pororosiek), and parishes or subdivisions {siritiet, 
pi. siritaiik), and genealogically into clans and families (pret, pi. orti- 
nuek). Each clan has one or more totem or sacred animal. In the 
following lists the divisions and the traditional places or tribes of 
origin of the various clans are given : — 


1. Kamelilo 

2. Kapchepkendi 

3. Kapkiptalam 

4. Koileke 

5. Kakipooh 

6. Kapianga 

7. K&psile 

8. TipiSgot 

9. Cheptol 2 

10. Kimfigoror 2 

11. K&kimno 

12. Murk'-ap-Tuk' 


13. Kaptumoiia 
\i. Kapsiondoi 

15. Tuken 



Tapkendi (woman's 

Spotted sheep 
Tapianga (woman's 

Tapsile (woman's 

TipiSgot (man'sname) 
Warriors' cows 


Tapsiondoi (woman's 

Kamasia country 


Warefig, formerly Soiin. 1 
Wareng, formerly Soiin and 

Masop. 1 
Wareng and Masop. 1 

Aldai and Wareng. 





1 Moved after the 1905-6 punitive expedition. 

a Included for administrative purposes in Murk'-ap-Tuk' (Kapwaren). 

Plate IV 

Nandi warriors in battle array. Eastern clans on left, Western clans 
in centre, Central clans on right (Hart). 

The peace conference, December 14, 1905, with the Nandi escarpment 
in the background (Henderson). 

To face p. 4 


Genealogical Divisions. 

Principal name 
of clan (oret). 

1. Kipoiis 1 

2. Eipkoiitim 

3. Kipamwi 

4. Kipkenda 

5. Kipkokos 

6. Kipiegen 

7. Talai 2 

8. Toiyoi 

9. Kipsirgoi 

30. Sokom 

11. Moi 

12. Kiptopke 

13. Kamwafke 
li. Tungo 

15. Eipaa 

16. Kipasiso 

17. Chemur 3 

Other names (used 
by women only). 





Mail mi 




















Kapcher - Mwam- 


Totem, or saered 
animal (Hondo). 

(Leluot) Jackal 

(Solopchot) Cock- 

(Peliot) Elephant 

(Nyiritiet) Chame- 

(Cheptirgichei) Dui- 

(Segemyat) Bee 

(Mororochet) Prog 

(Cliepkokosiot) Buz- 
(Moset) Baboon 
(Muriot) House rat 

(Ngetundo) Lion 

(Pirechet) Soldier 

(Robta) Rain 
(Toret) Bush pig 

(Chcpsiriret) Hawk 

(Kongonyot) Crested 

(Soet) Buffalo 
(Chereret) Monkey 
(Cercopithecus griseo- 

(Taiyuet) Partridge 

(Kimaketyet) Hyena 

(Erenet) Snake 
(Koroiityet) Colobus 

(Asista) Sun 
(Pungungwet) Mole 
(Kiptuswet) Wild cat 

Traditional place 
of origin. 

Mt. Elgon and 

Mt. Elgon and 
Segela Masai. 

Mt. Elgon, Sotik 
and Kosowa. 

Mt. Elgon and 

Mt. Elgon. 

Mt. Elgon and 

Segela Masai and 

Segela Masai. 

Mt. Elgon and 

Mt. Elgon and 

Mt. Elgon, Elgeyo 

and Marokor. 

Mt. Elgon and 

Mt. Elgon and 




1 The Kipoiis clan is said to have been the first to inhabit the Nandi 
country. It will be noticed that they claim to be a mixture of people from 
Lumbwa (Kipsikls) and Mt. Elgon (Kony). They are believed to have first 
settled on Terik Hill (Nyangori). 

2 The medicine men, or Orkoiik (equivalent to the Masai 'L-oibonok) all 
belong to this clan. 

3 It is uncertain whether this clan is still in existence. 


Each clan is subdivided into families, the names of the families 
being taken from the ancestors who are believed to have been the first 
to settle in Nandi. Thus, the Kamarapa family of the Kipiegen 
clan are descended from one Marapa, and the Kapkipkech family of 
the Sokom clan are descended from one Kipkech. 

Families may often not intermarry though there may be no direct 
prohibition against the intermarriage of the clans to which the 
families belong. 

A man may not marry a woman of the same family as himself, 
though there is no objection to his marrying into his own clan. 
This rule also applies to warriors having sexual intercourse with 
immature girls before marriage. 


In former times the killing of his sacred animal, or totem, by the 
clansman was strictly forbidden, and any breach of this law was 
severely dealt with, the offender being either put to death or driven 
out of his clan and his cattle confiscated. Nowadays custom is less 
severe, and although it is still considered wrong to kill the sacred 
animal, if this is done, an apology to the animal is apparently all 
that is necessary. Thus, a Kipkoiitim once told me that he shot an 
elephant, his sacred animal, because it had good tusks. When the 
animal was lying dead on the ground, he went up to it and spoke 
somewhat as follows : ' So sorry, old fellow, I thought you were 
a rhino.' He traded the tusks with the Swahili, gave the elders 
a present, and no notice was taken of his action. Children are, 
however, taught to respect the totem of their clan, and if a child 
were to kill or hurt his totem he would be severely beaten. 

The following little episode illustrates, I think, a real (not merely 
a magical) control exercised by a Nandi over his totem. In March, 
1908, I was on the point of encamping at the foot of the Nandi 
escarpment. The porters were pitching the tents, the cook had lit 
his fire, and I was having lunch. All at once an ominous buzzing 
warned us that a swarm of bees was near at hand, and in less than 
a minute we had to leave our loads and fly, hotly pursued by the 
bees, which, to use a Swahili expression, had made up their minds 
to wage war on us. During the course of the afternoon we tried 
two or three times to rescue our loads, but without success, some 
of the porters being badly stung in the attempt. At four o'clock, 
when I had just decided to do nothing more till dusk, a Nandi 


strolled into camp and volunteered to quiet the bees. He told us 
that he was of the bee totem, and that the bees were his. He 
said we were to blame for the attack, as we had lit a fire under the 
tree in which their honey-barrel hung. He was practically stark 
naked, but he started off at once to the spot where the loads were, 
whistling loudly in much the same way as the Nandi whistle to 
their cattle. We saw the bees swarm round and on him, but beyond 
brushing them lightly from his arms he took no notice of them and, 
still whistling loudly, proceeded to the tree in which was their hive. 
In a few minutes he returned, none the worse for his venture, and 
we were able to fetch our loads. 

The only animal that all Nandi, like most East African tribes, 
hold in respect or fear is the hyena, which animal was once aptly 
described by Sir A. Hardinge as the living mausoleum of their dead. 
It is true that the Nandi will kill or wound a hyena if it is on 
nobody's land, but they will not touch him if he prowls round their 
houses. Should the droppings of a hyena be found in a plantation, 
the corn is considered unfit for use until the field has been purified 
by a person from Kamasia, who receives a goat as payment. Nobody 
dares to imitate the cry of a hyena, under pain of being turned out 
of the tribe or of being refused a husband or wife in marriage. If 
a child is guilty of this, he is not allowed to enter a hut until a goat 
has been slaughtered and the excrement rubbed on to him, after 
which he is well flogged. When a hyena howls at night time, all 
Nandi women, except those of the Tungo clan, flick their ox-hide 
covers until it stops. 

The Nandi say that hyenas are hermaphrodites, and that they are 
the longest sighted and possess the keenest scent of all animals. 
When they leave their burrows to forage they are supposed to put 
on spectacles (merkonget), and an apparatus for assisting them to 
smell called kangweto. They are also believed to talk like human 
beings, and to hold communication with the spirits of the dead. 
Whenever several children in one family have died, the parents place 
a newly born babe for a few minutes in a path along which hyenas 
are known to walk, as it is hoped that they will intercede with the 
spirits of the dead and that the child's life will be spared. If the 
child lives, it is called Chejpor or Ghemaket (hyena). 

Besides holding certain animals sacred, there are various things 
which the members of the different clans may or may not do. In 
the following list the several prohibitions and peculiarities are given. 


Clan — Kipoiis. Totems — Jackal and cockroach. 

No man of this clan may take as his first wife a woman who 
has previously conceived, but if he himself has caused her to con- 
ceive he may take her as a junior wife. The Kipoiis may not 
make traps, though they may hunt ; they may not build their huts 
near a road ; and they may not wear the skins of wild animals 
except the hyrax. The Kipoiis may not intermarry with the 
Talai clan. 

Clan — Kipkoiitim. Totems — Elephant and chameleon. 

The Kipkoiitim do not as a rule hunt, but they may eat all 
kinds of game. They may not wear garments made from the skins 
of any wild animals, except the hyrax, and they may under no 
circumstances marry a girl who has previously conceived. 

Clan — Kipamwi. Totem — Duiker. 

The Kipamwi are great hunters and live largely by the chase. 
They may not, however, eat the flesh of the duiker or of the rhinoceros. 
No Kipamwi may plant millet, nor may they settle in Lumbwa, or 
have any intercourse whatever with the smiths. They may not even 
build their huts in the proximity of the smiths, buy their weapons 
direct from them, or allow their goats to meet the goats belonging 
to the smiths on the road. The Kipamwi are forbidden to intermarry 
with the Tungo clan. 

Clan — Kipkenda. Totems — Bee and frog. 

No person of this clan may go to Kavirondo or to Kamasia. The 
Kipkenda may not hunt, make traps, or dig game pits, but they may 
eat all kinds of meat and wear the skins of any wild animal except 
the duiker. Whenever a marriage ceremony is held, a goat must be 
slaughtered when the bride is fetched. The Kipkenda and Kiptopke 
may not intermarry. 

Clan — Kipkokos. Totem — Buzzard. 

The members of the Kipkokos clan are forbidden to settle in 
Nyangori and in Kavirondo ; they may not hunt, but they may eat 
the flesh of all game except the rhinoceros and the zebra ; they may 
not wear the skins of wild animals except the hyrax ; and they may 
not marry a girl who has previously conceived. The Kipkokos are 
prohibited from intermarrying with the Tungo clan. 

Clan — Kipiegen. Totems — Baboon and house rat. 

No Kipiegen may settle in Lumbwa, eat zebra meat, hunt, dig pits, 


make traps, or wear the skins of wild animals, except the hyrax. They 
may not bleed oxen or collect honey during the rains, and they may not 
marry as first wife a girl who has previously conceived. A Kipiegen 
may, however, take a girl who has given birth to a child as junior 
wife, provided that he or one of bis brothers has caused her to conceive. 
Forbidden clans for the purpose of marriage are the Kiptopke and 

Clan — Talai. Totem — Lion. 

The Talai may not eat the meat of an animal killed by a lion, 
or wear a lion-skin head-dress ; they may not settle in Nyangori or 
Kamasia ; they may only fight on the right flank in a battle ; they 
may strike no person on the head ; and they may only bleed oxen 
in the morning. All children of this clan wear a necklace made of 
pieces of gourd, called sepetaiik, and during the circumcision festival 
boys wear a necklace made of ostrich egg-shell beads, called kelelik. 
The Talai do not perform the rikset ceremony after circumcision, and 
may not see the bull-roarer or friction drums. 1 A man of this clan 
may not marry a person who has previously conceived, or intermarry 
with the Tungo, Kipoiis, or Sokom clans. 

Clan — Toiyoi. Totems — Soldier ant and rain. 

If soldier ants enter the house of a Toiyoi they are requested 
to leave, but no steps are taken to drive them away, and the house 
is vacated if necessary until the ants have passed on. During a heavy 
thunderstorm, the Toiyoi seize an axe, and, having rubbed it in the 
ashes of the fire, throw it outside the hut, exclaiming at the same 
time : Toiyoi, sis kain-nyo (Toiyoi, or thunder, be silent in our town). 
In the event of a hut being struck by lightning a member of this clan 
is called in to burn the place down, and when an ox is struck it is the 
duty of a Toiyoi to turn it over on its side. 2 

No Toiyoi may build in or near a forest, wear the skins of wild 
animals, except hyrax, or settle in Kamasia, Elgeyo, or Lumbwa. They 
prefer eloping with the girl of their choice to the ordinary form 
of marriage ; and instead of it being considered a disgrace for their 
daughters to conceive before marriage, they look upon it as a good 
sign, as they are likely to be prolific. They may not, however, take a 
girl who has previously conceived as their first wife. No Toiyoi child 
is named until it is six or seven years of age. The women of this clan 
generally wear brass instead of iron-wire ornaments. 

1 Vide p. 56 sq. 2 Vide also p. 99. 


Clan — Kipsirgoi. Totem — Bush pig. 

The Kipsirgoi are mainly hunters, but whenever a beast has 
been wounded by a person belonging to another clan, they may not 
kill it. They may also not touch a donkey or allow one to graze near 
their herds. Whenever a Kipsirgoi wishes to marry for the first time, 
he must select a girl who has previously conceived ; if he has difficulty 
in finding such a one, he must capture his bride and arrange with the 
parents regarding the purchase-price afterwards. 1 

Clan — Sokom. Totem — Hawk. 
The members of this clan may not settle in Kavirondo or Lumbwa ; 
they may not eat the flesh or wear the skin of the duiker, but with 
this exception they may eat any kind of meat and wear the skin 
of any wild animal ; they must always live apart and build their huts 
away from the huts of other people ; and they must make their own 
fires by means of fire sticks. The Sokom may not intermarry with the 
Tungo, Kiptopke, and Talai. 

Clan — Moi. Totems — Crested crane and buffalo. 

The Moi are not allowed to settle in Kamasia, or raid in Kavi- 
rondo ; they may not build in or near a forest ; they are prohibited 
from taking small boys prisoners in order to adopt them ; they may 
not wear a garment made from a bush-buck or duiker skin ; and their 
first wife must be a woman who has not had a child. When they 
move their kraals or break down their huts, they must select a site to 
the east of their former abode. Three days before a circumcision 
festival is commenced the members of the Moi clan perform a special 
ceremony called hireku leget. The cattle belonging to the members of 
the Moi clan are not branded like most Nandi cattle, the distinctive 
mark being clipping of the ears. 

Clan — Kiptopke. Totem — Monkey (Cercopithecus griseo-viridis). 
The Kiptopke may not dig game pits or make traps, and their 
cattle may not pass the night outside their own kraal. Intermarriage 
with the Kipkenda and Sokom clans is prohibited. 

Clan — Kamwaike. Totem — Partridge. 

No person of this clan may settle in Nyangori or marry a girl 
who has previously conceived. The Kamwaike may not intermarry 
with the Kipaa and Tungo clans. 

1 Some Kipsirgoi repudiate this and say that they, like most other Nandi, 
may not marry as first wife a girl who has previously conceived. 


Clan — Tungo. Totem — Hyena. 

The Tango are held in high esteem, and one of their number 
is selected as a judge or umpire in all disputes. It also falls to their 
lot to close the roads against an attacking enemy and to form the 
rear-guard in case of retreat. No man of this clan may elope with 
a girl if the parents refuse their consent, and he must not ask for 
a bride until the girl has performed the Mpkiyai ceremony. 1 The 
marriage price for a Tungo girl is less than for any other clan, being 
only one ox and five goats. 2 The women do not flick their ox-hide 
covers when a hyena is heard at night time, as is the case with the 
other clans, 3 and when a Tungo dies and the corpse is not at once taken 
by the hyenas, it must not be changed from one tide to the other. 4 The 
Tungo do not intermarry with the Kipamwi, Kipkokos, Kipiegen, 
Talai, Sokom, and Kamwaike clans. 

Clan — Kipaa. Totems — Snake and Colobus monkey. 

The Kipaa may not hunt or make traps, and they may wear the 
skin of no wild animal except the hyrax ; they may only bleed their 
oxen in the morning during the rains ; they may not take as first wife 
a girl who has previously conceived ; and they may not intermarry 
with the Kamwaike. Whenever possible a member of this clan is 
engaged to erect the Jeorosiot sticks at weddings. 5 

Clan — Kipasiso. Totems — Sun and mole. 

The Kipasiso may not catch rain-water in vessels or use it for 
cooking. If a goat sniffs at their grain or walks over it when it 
is spread out to dry or ripen, they may not use it except for feeding 
unnamed children, which ceremony dees not take place with them 
until a child is six or seven years of age. Whenever the Kipasiso 
prepare porridge, they must first of all sprinkle a little spring water 
on the fire. The members of this clan may drink milk one day after 
eating game. 6 

Clan — Chemur. Totem — Wild cat. 
No prohibition or peculiarity known. 


According to the social system of the Nandi the male sex is divided 
into boys, warriors, and elders, the female sex into girls and married 
women. The first stage is continued till circumcision, which may be 

1 Vide p. 60. * Vide p. 61. 3 Vide p. 7. 

4 Vide p. 71. 5 Vide p. 62 sq. 6 Vide p. 24. 


performed between the ages of ten and twenty. A boys' circumcision 
festival takes place about every 7-| years, 1 and lasts for a couple of 
years. All boys who are circumcised at the same time are said to 
belong to the same ipinda, i. e. age or cycle. There are seven ages in 
all, which gives about fifty-three years. They always bear one of 
the following names (which are taken by their respective members), 
and succeed one another in the following order : — 

Maina (small children, who will be circumcised about 1915). 

Nyonge (boys between 10 and 20, circumcision festival commenced 

Kimnyike (men between 18 and 28, circumcised about 1900). 

K&plelach (men between 26 and 36, circumcised about 1892). 

Kipkoiimet (men between 34 and 44, circumcised about 1885). 

Sowe (men between 42 and 52, circumcised about 1877). 

Juma (men between 50 and 60, circumcised about 1870). 

In each age or cycle there are three subdivisions, called fires (mat, 
pi. mostinuek), probably from the fact that the members of each sub- 
division associate round their own fires, and do not allow the members 
of the other subdivisions to join them. The seniors of each age 
belong to the Ghangen-opir fire, the next ones in point of years are 
called Kipal-kong, 2 and the youngest are the Kiptoito (pi. Kiptoiinik, 
the young bulls). 

The Saket-ap-eito ceremony. The ceremony of handing over the 
country from one age to another is one of the most important in the 
annals of Nandi history. This takes place about every 7\ years, and 
some four years after the circumcision festival. The last one took place 
about 1 9 4, the next one will be held about 1911. All the adult male 
population that can conveniently do so collect together at a certain 
spot, but no married warrior may attend, nor may he or his wife leave 
their houses whilst the ceremony is taking place. The Orkoiyot, or chief 
medicine man, must be present, and the ceremony is started by slaughter- 
ing a white bullock, which is purchased by the young warriors for the 
occasion. After the meat has been eaten by the old men, each of the 
young men makes a small ring out of the hide, and puts it on one of 
the fingers of his right hand. A circle is then formed round the chief 

1 Since the removal of the Nandi to their reserve they seem to have 
altered this custom, and boys are now circumcised every year or so like 
the girls. 

2 These two expressions are meaningless in Nandi ; but they are equivalent 

to Big ostrich feathers and We tear out the eyes in Masai. 


medicine man, who stands near a stool, about which is heaped cow 
dung studded with the fruit of the lapotuet shrub. 1 All the old men 
and the members of the age immediately preceding the one in power 
stand up, whilst the warriors who are going to receive the control of 
the country sit down. On a sign from the chief medicine man the 
members of the preceding age divest themselves of their warriors' 
shins and put on old men's fur garments. The warriors of the age in 
power, i.e. those who were circumcised some four years previously, 
are then solemnly informed that the safety of the country and the 
welfare of the inhabitants are placed in their hands, and they are 
instructed to guard the land of their fathers. 2 

At the conclusion of the ceremony everybody departs to his own 
home and nobody may sleep by the wayside. 


Houses. The Nandi, like the Lumbwa and other nearly allied 
tribes, do not live in villages or towns, but each man has his own hut 
(kaita) or group of huts {nganaset), which he builds in or near his 
fields of eleusine grain and millet. 

The huts (Mpsat, pi. korik-ap-sat) are circular in shape, and are 
built of wattle and mud mixed with eow dung ; the walls are about 
four feet high, and the grass roofs are conical. There are two rooms 
in each hut, one occupied by the man, his wife, small children, and 
a few goats, and the other by the calves, sheep, and the remaining 
goats. The former is called Koiimaut, the latter Injorut. The two 
rooms are separated by a wattle and daub partition called totet, in 
which is a small doorway. The Koiimaut is used as a kitchen as well 
as a living-room and a bedroom, and there is a ceiling of wickerwork 
less than four feet from the floor. In the space above the ceiling, 
which is reached by a large open skylight (kutit-ap-taput), grain, 
tobacco, gourds, and cooking utensils are stored. A few inches below 
the ceiling and over the fire a wickerwork tray is slung. This is 

1 Solanum campylanthum. 

2 Mr. Hobley in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, 1903, p. 343, 
writes: — "The use of the solanum fruit with clay, as a charm for good, 
seems to be rather widespread, for at the close of the Nandi campaign of 
1900, when the chiefs were making overtures for peace, they brought to the 
Government Station a native stool, on which was a conical mass of moist 
red clay, which rather reminded one of a child's mud pie ; this was studded 
all over with the yellow solanum fruit, and was said to be a great peace 
medicine.' Were the Nandi handing over the control of their country to 
the white man ? 



Diagram of Nandi- Hut. 

I Man's "bed. 

2,. Woman's "bed. 

0. Clay div-lsiorc.. 

4 Cooking stones. 

5 Skt/Ught sappo^t. 

6 Depression, for beer- Toot. 

7 Urinal gutter- 
8. "Eye." of gtdtcn 
9 iTiongs j=or fcjin^, ap goats. 

10. Door posts.. 

II Entrance to goat-Cnar«ber; 

12. Milk cowparf merit. 

13. Partition wall. 

1t Pegs,. 

15. Pegs for rmlk- gourds. 

16. Pole supporting roof. 
17 Wall oj hut. 

Section IV? rough. A- B 

1d. "H-ay for drying grain. 

19. Ceiling oj- living- rcom. 

20 Skylight. 

21. Filial oy cewtral pole. ^ ao 

23.. Grass DiTjcU.n.g'. 

23. Broken "pot. A 

24. Crass roof- 

BetcK Boor. 

Plate "V 

Entrance to Nandi cattle-kraal (Stordy). 

Nandi hut (Meinertzhagen). 

To face p. 14 


called sainet, and is used for drying grain. A small compartment is 
built out of the wall and is set aside for storing milk. It is called 
Ktylengut, and the milk gourds are hung round it. A depression in 
the floor, which is known as kilonget, is made near the central pole 
for the accommodation of a beer pot. 

The furniture of the huts consists of cooking utensils, jars, gourds, 
arms, and stools. The arms and gourds are suspended from the partition 
by means of pegs (ireusiek). There are also two mud beds, which are 
usually slightly raised at one end, a small mound of earth and sheep's 
dung doing the duty of pillow. The beds are covered by an ox-hide. 

A short inaugural ceremony is performed when the erection of 
a house is commenced. The elders of the family pour milk and beer 
and put some salt into the hole which has been prepared for the 
reception of the central pole (taloita), and say : 

Asis ! 



Asis ! 








the-eleusine-grain . 



kii tukul 
thing every 





ak tuka. 
and the-cattle. 

All work in connexion with the building of the huts is performed 
by the men until the skeleton is ready, when the work is taken over 
by the women, who finish it. The posts and poles are cut by the 
men during the waning of the moon. When the house is nearing 
completion a piece of a cooking-pot or a wreath of grass is passed over 
the apex of the roof, and the top of the central pole is bound round 
with grass. If, as is frequently the case, the central pole is not tall 
enough, it is surmounted by a stick, and the erection, which is styled 
kimonjokut, is frequently almost phallic in appearance. 2 During the 
first four days after the house has been occupied the owner may not 
sleep with his wife, and nobody in the house may mention the ground- 

1 Guard our children and cattle. 

2 For further particulars vide p. 71 sq. 


hornbill (cheptlbii) by name. Were either of these rules to be broken, 
it is believed that the house would always be draughty and cold. 
One month later a few sticks of the lepesuet 1 tree are put. in the 
ground in the form of a circle near the front door and are bound round 
with some cord of the chemnyelilet tree. This little charm is called 
mabwaita, and is supposed to bring good luck to the occupants of the 
house. Those Nandi whose ancestors hail from Lumbwa generally 
renew the mabwaita after it has become dilapidated, whilst others 
throw the sticks away. 

Near the huts are as a rule one or two granaries called ehoket. 
They are built on poles about two feet from the ground, are circular 
in shape, and are made of wickerwork or wattle and daub mixed with 
cow dung with thatched roofs. 

A little to the rear is the sigiroinet, where the unmarried warriors 
sleep. As many as ten men sometimes inhabit one hut, which on the 
outside resembles in appearance the ordinary houses. Inside, however, 
there is no room for the goats. The unmarried girls are allowed to 
visit the warriors in these buildings, staying with them for a few days 
at a time and living with them in a state of free love. No married 
women may enter the sigiroinosiek, and when the warriors go away 
for a time or depart for the wars, their ' sweethearts ' look after these 
huts until their return. There is also at times a kind of club house 
called kait'-am-murenik (the warriors' house) in which the warriors 
meet occasionally, and in which the old men drink beer, depressions 
for the accommodation of their pots being made round the central 
pole. No women are allowed access to this house. 

Youths and young girls generally live in huts by themselves or with 
old women. Small boys, who are used by the warriors as servants, 
frequently sleep in the sigiroinet. 

The warriors also have small huts in the woods where they go and 
slaughter oxen from time to time. These places are called ekoruek. 

A few head of cattle are usually kept near the dwelling huts in 
a peut, or cattle enclosure, but the bulk of the stock live the greater 
part of the year on the grazing grounds some distance away. The 
cattle kraal is called Kdp-tich. It is formed of thorny bushes kept in 
place by poles, and it has two entrances, one for the cows and the other 
for the calves. In the centre of the kraal is a hut called chepkimaliot. 
This hut, like the ordinary dwelling huts, is divided into two rooms, 
but instead of a conical grass roof it has a flat roof covered with cow 

1 Croton sp. 


dung, and the walls, which are of wattle and cow dung, are about five 
feet high. The herdsmen with two or three warriors and girls sleep 
in one room, whilst the calves occupy the other. Each morning, when 
the cattle have left the kraal, the girls, who remain at home, sweep up 
the enclosure and throw the refuse on one side, where in course of 
time it forms a large mound. 

A small grass hut, known by the name of keriet, is sometimes seen 
in Nandi. It is built in the cornfields and is used when the grain is 
ripening as a shelter for the people who are engaged in driving away 
the birds. 

A few superstitious customs are observed in regard to the interior of 
huts. Nobody may stand upright in a hut, or sit at the door or on 
the threshold. If a person has entered a hut by one door he must 
leave by the same door, unless he pauses for a time in the hut, when he 
may go out by the other door. Nobody may peep into a hut and then 
go away ; the threshold must be crossed before a person can proceed 
on his way. A man may not touch the threshold of his house, or 
anything in the house except his own bed, if his wife has a child at 
the breast. No warrior may leave a hut in the dark, and if he wishes 
to go outside, he says to his mother or to whoever is the owner of the 
hut, Hal mat (Make up the fire). A chesorpuchot, i. e. a woman who 
gave birth to a child before she married, may never look into a gran- 
ary for fear of spoiling the grain. When food is scarce in the land 
and the women have to undertake long journeys to purchase what is 
required, it is customary for small children during their mothers' 
absence to embrace the door-posts and say : A-sa-i, eiyo, ip-u omdit 
(I pray, mother, bring food). Other superstitions are mentioned on 
pages 7, 61, 66, 68 sqq., 74, and 90. 

Oaves. In former times the Nandi are said to have lived in caves 
like some of the tribes on Mount Elgon. During the military expedi- 
tions which have been undertaken in the Nandi country the inhabi- 
tants have invariably found shelter for themselves and their cattle in 
the vast natural caves which lie hidden in the almost impenetrable 

Agrieultwre. The Nandi were probably originally a tribe of hunters, 
like the Dorobo at the present day l ; in fact, they have a tradition to 
that effect. 2 They have, however, now taken to agriculture, and grow 

1 Vide p. 2. 2 Vide p. 120. 




large quantities of eleusine grain l and millet. Other products are 
beans, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, and tobacco ; and in small quantities 

1 2 3 4 

Figs. 1-4 (scale ^). Hoes : (1) Side view. (2) Front view. (3) Wooden 
hoe. (4) Blade of hoe used by people of the western counties. 

Figs. 6-7 (scale J). (5) Axe. (6) Axe used in the western counties. 

(7) Bill-hook. 

1 Eleusine coracana, Gaertn. 


maize and bananas. The only agricultural implements are the iron 
hoe, a two-pronged fork, an axe, and a bill-hook. In rocky ground 
a wooden digging-stick or hoe is used instead of the iron hoe. 

The rough work of clearing the bush for plantations is performed by 
the men, after which nearly all work in connexion with them is 
done by the women. The men, however, assist in sowing the seed, and 
in Harvesting some of the crops. As a rule trees are not felled, but 
the bark is stripped off for about four feet from the ground and the 
trees are then left to die. 

The planting is mostly, if not entirely, done during the first half of 
the Kiptamo moon (February), which is the first month of the year, 
and when the Iwat-kut moon rises (March) all seed should be in the 
ground. The chief medicine man is consulted before the planting opera- 
tions begin, but the Nandi know by the arrival in the fields of the 
guinea-fowl, whose song is supposed to be, O-hol, o-kol ; rni-i tokoch 
(Plant, plant ; there is luck in it), that the planting season is at hand. 

When the first seed is sown, salt is mixed with it, and the sower 
sings mournfully ; Ak o-siek-u o-chok-chi (And grow quickly), as he sows. 

After fresh ground has been cleared, eleusine grain is planted. This 
crop is generally repeated the second year, after which millet is sown, 
and finally sweet potatoes or some other product. Most fields are 
allowed to lie fallow every fourth or fifth year. The Nandi manure 
their plantations with turf ashes. 

Great damage to the crops is at times done by moles, rats, and field- 
mice, but the Nandi are skilled trappers, and place small nooses just 
inside the holes. As bait they use the root of the menjeiyuet plant * 
for moles, and pieces of meat for rats and mice. All plants destroyed 
by vermin as well as weeds are thrown on the heaps or mounds made 
by the black ants, one or two of which exist in most plantations. 
These mounds are called kdpsagunik. If the damage is considerable 
the plants are scattered in the road, the person scattering them 
walking towards the west. 

Charms are put in the fields or hung on the hedges to guard the crops 
against locusts and birds. 2 Traps are also set for birds. 

The eleusine crops are harvested by both men and women. All 
other crops are reaped by the women only, who are at times assisted 
by the children. 3 

The corn is pounded and winnowed by the women and girls. When 

1 Indigo/era sp. 2 Vide p. 86. 

3 For further particulars vide p. 46. 

c 2 


there is no wind to separate and drive off the chaff from the grain, the 
girls whistle and say, Chepusoon/ A-ting^w-n lahwet (Wind! I will 
seize thy child and put it in my lap). 

When in the plantations, nobody may carry a spear or put one in the 
ground; thigh bells must not be worn ; a hide may not be dragged 
along the ground ; and nobody may whistle. 

After an earthquake or a hail storm, 1 when a death has occurred in 
th« family, if a hoe breaks, or a beast of prey seizes a goat, no -work 
may be performed in the fields for the rest of the day and for twenty^ 
four hourB afterwards, as it is believed that any sick person who eats 
the grain when harvested, or who drinks beer made. from the grain, 
will die, and that pregnant women will abort. 

If the owner of a plantation dies whilst his crops are ripening, all 
the grain must be eaten and none may be reserved for sowing, other- 
wise it is feared that the grain will rot in the ground. 

Stock. Cattle, sheep, and goats are kept and bred. Formerly the 
Nandi owned enormous herds, but during the late punitive expedition 
they lost large numbers. As they do not often sell their animals or 
kill them for food, there is no reason, unless cattle-disease breaks out 
in the' Nandi Eeserve, why they should not again become as wealthy 
as before. 

Cattle-herding is the chief occupation of the men and big boys. 
They love their beasts; as they say themselves, more than anything 
in the world ; they talk to, pet and coax them ; and their grief is 
great when a favourite sickens and dies. A couple of herdsmen can 
easily manage a herd of two hundred cows ; and the animals under- 
stand the men so thoroughly that they come and go as directed. 
The warriors who accompany the herds are generally fully armed, as 
it is their duty to protect the animals and guard against the attacks 
of wild animals and enemies. The herdsmen themselves are only 
armed with long sticks with which they drive the cattle while 
whistling. A favourite attitude of these men is to stand on one 
leg, with the other raised and the sole of the foot placed on the 
calf or knee of the supporting leg, while they lean on their spear 
or stick. 

As already stated^ the bulk of the stock live the greater part of 
the year on the grazing grounds away from the owners' houses and 

1 If the sun shines shortly after a hail storm, work may be done the 
next day. 






plantations. The herds are driven forth each morning just before 
sunrise, when the dew is on the grass, for the Nandi, unlike most 
East African tribes, believe that the wet grass is fattening. At 
10 a.m. the cattle return to the kraal to be milked, and they go off 
to feed again at 11.30. At 1 and again at 4 p.m. they are watered, 
and at sun-down they are milked a second time, and the doors of 
the cattle-fold are closed. 

The goats, sheep, and big calves are herded by small boys and 
girls. They go to the grazing grounds, or they start feeding near 
the huts at 7.30 a.m., and they return to the kraal two hours later. 
At 10 o'clock they are again driven forth, at 12.30 they are watered, 
and at 5 p.m. they are locked up for the night. 

Small calves and kids do not go with the herds and flocks. They 
remain near the huts during the day, and, after being suckled in the 
evening, go into the huts for the night. 

No artificial food is given to the stock, nor are they fed after 
entering the kraal. They are driven to the salt-licks once a fort- 
night. The calves are always reared by the mothers, unless the cow 
dies, when the calf is fed by means of a gourd on to which is 
fastened a leather mouth-piece. The calves are watered at wooden 
troughs, a little salt being usually added to the water. 

The cows are able to restrain their flow of milk, and do so if their 
calves are not with them. On this account the calf is allowed to 
suck first, before any attempt is made to milk. When a calf dies 
the skin is preserved and produced each time the cow is to be 

The milking is usually done by the boys and girls, who at times 
also "milk the animals direct into their mouths. If the cow passes 
water at the time of milking, the milker rinses his hands in the 
urine. Cows that are restless when being milked have the hind legs 
bound together by a leathern thong just above the hocks. 

The only vessels that may be used for milk are the gourds or 
calabashes. If anything else were employed, it is believed that it 
would be injurious to the cattle. The gourds must be fumigated every 
time after milk has been put in them, a stick of the itet tree being 
burnt for this purpose. The smoke gives the milk a flavour without 
which it is not. palatable to the taste of the Nandi. "When milk is 
allowed to stand for some while, the gourds are cleansed by cow's 
urine, after which they are well washed with boiling water. It is 
the duty of the women to fumigate and cleanse the milk pots. 










of the meat (liver, kidneys, intestines and fat) is always eaten raw. 
All meat must be cut at the joints, and the hones may not he stripped 
before roasting. The tongue and heart must be cut in half length- 
ways, and divided between two persons. Boys and girls may only 
eat the meat off the joint of full-grown animals. Warriors, women, 
and old people may eat any part of the animal. No pregnant woman 
may eat the flesh of cattle killed by a wild beast, or of a pregnant 





=3 I 



Figs. 8-12 (scale I). Arrows used for bleeding purposes : (8) Goats. 
(9) Sheep and young calves. (10) Calves and cows. (11) Bulls. 
(12) Shaft. Fig. 13 (scale |). Bow. 

animal. An unborn calf or kid is given to small children if the hide 
has formed ; otherwise it must be thrown away. When cattle, goats, 
or sheep die or are slaughtered, care must be taken not to step over 
the carcase or to stand with the carcase between one's legs. If this 
is done, it is believed that the meat will cause all those who eat it 
to have pains in their stomachs. All blood-stains must be washed 
off the hands and knife of the butcher by the undigested food from 
the animal's intestines. 


Milk may be drunk fresh ' or sour, but it may on no account be 
boiled, and meat and milk may not be taken together. If milk is 
drunk, no meat may be eaten for twenty-four hours. Boiled meat in 
soup must be eaten first, after which roast meat may be taken. 
When meat has been eaten, no milk may be drunk for twelve hours, 
and then only after some salt and water has been swallowed. If 
no salt, which is obtained from the salt-licks, is near at hand, blood 
may be drunk instead. An exception to this rule is made in the 
case of small children, boys and girls who have recently been cir- 
cumcised, women who have a short while before given birth to 
a child, and very sick people. These may eat meat and drink milk 
at the same time, and are called pitorik. If anybody else breaks 
the rule he is soundly flogged. 

Fish is not known to most Nandi, but is eaten by the western 
clans, who purchase it from the Kavirondo people. 

Game is as a rule much appreciated. It is customary amongst the 
Nandi to hunt in large numbers, and when a herd has been sur- 
rounded, they shoot or spear as many head as they can. They also 
train dogs to hunt. The clans that live farthest north make wooden 
traps and also snare game by means of a leather noose, the end of 
which they fasten to a heavy log of wood, whilst underneath a pit is 
dug, the whole being carefully hidden. 

Certain animals may not be eaten if it is possible to obtain other 
food. These are waterbuck, 2 zebra, elephant, rhinoceros, Senegal 
hartebeest, and the common and blue duiker. If a Nandi eats the 
meat of any of these animals, he may not drink milk for at least 
four months afterwards, and then only after he has purified himself 
by taking a strong purge made from the segetet tree, mixed with 
blood. 3 No Nandi will eat the flesh of lion, leopard, hyena, jackal, 
cat, Colobus monkey, snake, or frog ; but baboon meat, rats, moles, 
locusts, and flying ants are considered delicacies. 

There are a few superstitious customs observed by hunters. If 
a man has started out to hunt he must not be called back, otherwise 
he will miss his quarry. To step over a snare or trap is to court 

1 People who have been wounded or who are suffering from boils or ulcers 
may not drink fresh milk. 

2 Waterbuck (kipsomeret) is considered an unclean beast. It is often 
alluded to by the name chemakimwa, the animal which must not be talked 

3 The members of the Kipasiso clan are exempt from this rule. They 
may drink milk the day after eating any game. 


death and must be avoided at all costs. A man who has recently 
prepared poison, 1 or one who has shot an animal with a poisoned 
arrow, or who carries poisoned arrows on his person or in his quiver, 
may not eat mutton, sleep on a new ox-hide, or associate with 
women. Before he can do any of these things he must purify himself 
by bathing in a river and by taking a purge. 

Fowls are rarely kept, and are not eaten by women; but wild 
birds are caught and eaten. The francolin or spur-fowl is looked 
upon in much the same light as the waterbuck, and although it may 
be eaten, milk must not be taken for several months afterwards. 
The crested crane, 2 ox-pecker, woodpecker, African pheasant, sparrow, 
and all carrion birds are forbidden articles of food, as also are eggs. 

Honey is much relished and is an important article of diet. The 
honey-comb and grubs are likewise eaten. Honey is principally 
obtained from the hives of wild bees. 3 Hives built in trees are 
called pondet, those made in rocks, kvpenet. Bees are also kept in 
a semi-domesticated state, and honey barrels (moinget) are placed or 

Pio. 14 (scale J). Kesimoret, knife used for tapping palms. 

hung in trees for them to build in. 4 Bees' wax is used for fastening 
the handles on to knives, spears, bill-hooks, etc. 

Intoxicating drinks, which may only be taken by old people in 
any quantity, are obtained from honey and from the sap of the 
wild date-palm, whilst beer is made from eleusine and millet grain. 
Honey wine, which is called Japhefmih, is made by mixing honey 
and a little water in a calabash into which a piece of the fruit of the 

1 The poison is obtained from the wood of the keliot tree (Acocanthera 
Schimperi). This is cut up into small chips, which are boiled for some hours 
until the water has a thick and pitch-like appearance. After straining, 
the poison is smeared on sheets of bark or put in a half calabash, called septet, 
and kept in trees out of the reach of children. 

2 The Nandi are very fond of the crested crane, owing to its beautiful 
plumage. Whenever children see these birds they say: Kongony ! Chepa- 
rarewa 1 Chepa-iiW-moii I (Crested cranes I The daughters of heifers ! The 
daughters of the calves' ears !) 

3 The Nandi ascertain where the hives are by following the Cuculus 
indicator bird. They prefer honey made from the tepengvjel flower (Emilia 
integrifolia) to any other. 4 Vide aJso p. 38. 


rotinuet tree l is placed. The beverage is allowed to stand for three 
days, at the end of which time it has fermented and can be drunk. 
The preparation of the wild date-palm wine (porokeh) is even simpler. 
The sap is tapped and allowed to stand for one day in a calabash, 
when it is ready for drinking. The method of brewing beer (rnaiyek) 
is more complicated. The grain is first mixed with water and put 
in an ox-hide. It is then buried in a hole in the ground which is 
lined with the leaves of the wild banana plant, and the hole is filled 
in with leaves and sticks. At the end of ten days, when the grain 
has become malt, it is taken out of the hole and roasted in a pot by 
a slow fire for twelve hours. The women and children at this stage 
eat a little of the malt and have a dance, in which they represent 
the men after they have had a carousal, behaving like drunken 
creatures and rolling on the ground. The malt is next spread in 
the sun for two days, after which it is boiled for forty-eight hours. 
It is then put into pots which are placed in the loft, and for the 
next two days, until it is ready for drinking, the men and women 
may not sleep together in the house. When the beer is ready for 
drinking, the women hold a dance at which they go through the 

Fia. 15 (scale J). Drinking straw. 

performance of grinding and crushing the grain, to the accompaniment 
of the scraping of their iron bracelets. 

Tobacco is enjoyed by both sexes. Most warriors take snuff; 
others, and many old men, chew tobacco, and a few old men and 
women smoke it. Snuff-boxes (chepkiraut) are made of wood, gourds, 
ox-horn, or, rarely, of ivory ; they have a leather cap, and both the 
box and cap are ornamented with beads. Tobacco pouches are made 
out of the scrotum of a goat or the horn of an ox (olpesienyet or 
hiprauf). Both pouches and boxes are slung round the neck by 
a thin chain. The Lumbwa or Kipsikls people make a liquid snuff; 
but although the Nandi employ the Lumbwa word for the snuff-box 
(Jrirongesiet), they do not take tobacco in this way themselves. Their 
pipes they purchase from the Kavirondo. 

Bhang or hashish (nyasoret) grows wild, but is not used by the 

1 Kigdia aethiopica. 



Nandi, though it is well known and is smoked by some of the neigh- 
bouring tribes, e. g. the Kavirondo. 

Cannibalism is not practised; but in former times, whenever 
a Nandi warrior killed an enemy, he used to eat a small portion of the 
dead man's heart to make himself brave. To the present day, when 
a person of another tribe has been slain by a Nandi, the blood must 
be carefully washed off the spear or sword into a cup made of grass, 
and drunk by the slayer. If this is not done it is thought that the 
man will become frenzied. 

Cooking. Food is cooked in earthen pots inside the houses, and 
is served up on a piece of smooth hide. The men eat first and the 
women afterwards. Children have their meals separately. The 
young girls wait on their parents and brothers. 


Dress and ornaments. Both men and women are scantily dressed. 
The former show no signs of shame at being seen naked, but women 
must not appear without their lower garments. 

Babies and small children run about naked. Young boys wear a 
goat's skin garment (ingoriet) and a necklace of black beads (sonaiek). 
Young girls wear an apron called osiek, the name of the seeds of the 
murguyitet tree with which it is adorned. 1 It is made of strips of 
leather fastened on to a belt ornamented with cowries. They also 
at times wear a dressed skin or cloth, called ingoriet-ap-ko. Their 
ornaments consist of iron wire and iron chain necklaces (asingaiit and 
sirimwagik), iron wire bracelets (makirariot), armlets (indinyoliet) 
and leglets (tapakwet), and bead armlets (sonaiek) and anklets (kipkar- 
karek or ingipiliek). Boys and girls stretch the lobe of the ear by 
inserting enormous pieces of wood, called ketit-ap-iit ; the former also 
wear wooden ear-rings, called kipalpaliot, which are polished, orna- 
mented, and cut into various shapes. The Nandi tribal mark, like 
the Masai, is a small hole bored in the upper part of the ear. Into 
this boys and girls fix small pegs or reeds called soliot. 

The dress of the warriors consists of two or three black goats' 
or calves' hides sewn together and loosely fixed by a strip of leather 
over one shoulder. The hair is left on the hides, which are ornamented 
with white or coloured beads. This garment is called kipoiet, and the 

1 No boy or man may ever wear a girl's apron. 

»— t 








03 ' 






wire bracelets (samoiyoi) and necklaces (asingaiit), and iron wire or 
chain ear-ringa (sirimwagiJc or kimeiteitiot). They also frequently 
wear iron rings on their fingers (tamokyet), an ivory arm-ring, and 
a fur or skin cap (cheptulet). 

If a person dies, his next younger brother or sister has to wear 
a certain ornament for the rest of his or her life. This is not a sign 
of mourning, but is to prevent the evil spirit or disease from attacking 
the next member of the family. Little girls generally have an arrange- 
ment of beads called songoniet, which is attached to their hair and 
hangs over the forehead and . nose. Boys and girls wear a necklace 
made of chips of a gourd (sepetcriik), and boys also at times wear 
a garment made of Colobus monkey-skin instead of goat-skin. "Women 
wear an iron necklace, called karik-ap-teget, and men an iron armlet, 
called asielda. Men and women also frequently wear a claw or a 
piece of the hide of a lion or leopard. 

Twins wear an ornament known as samoiyot. Boys, girls, and 
women wear it as a necklace, men as an armlet. 

If a man has been wounded in one of his limbs he wears a chain 
bracelet or leglet; if he suffers from rheumatism or if his ear aches, 
he wears an ostrich egg-shell armlet, leglet, or ear-ring ; and if his 
head aches he wears- strapped on to his forehead a piece of iron called 

Hair. Nandi women and small children have their heads shaved 
once a month ; old men and boys once a quarter. Some women, 
however, do not shave the whole head, leaving the crown covered with 
short hair and shaving only over the temples, ear s r and back of the 
neck. This custom is called piur, and may not be followed by girls. 

Boys are fond of twisting the seeds of a tree called nw/rguyuet into 
their hair. This gives them a curious appearance, their hair standing 
up in a number of little knots on their heads. They also frequently 
wear a single feather of a hawk or vulture hanging down the back 
of the head. 

Warriors let their hair grow long and plait cloth or wool into it to 
give them a good pigtail behind. They also sometimes wear their 
hair plaited into three pigtails behind and at other times let it hang 
loose. In front they either wear their hair in about a dozen tags 
hanging over their foreheads, or, like the Masai, in one pigtail over 
each ear and between the eyes, or gathered up in a bunch, or hanging 
loose and flapping about on their heads as they move. 


It is customary amongst the Nandi to shave the head as a sign of 
grief, and to throw the hair away towards the west in the direction 
of the setting sun. At other times when the head is shaved the hair 
is thrown towards the rising sun, or taken towards the east and hidden 
in the grass. When a prisoner of war is taken his head is shaved 
by his captor and his hair kept until he is ransomed. The hair is 
returned with the prisoner. When a person is adopted, his foster 
father shaves his head and throws the hair away towards the east. 

All Nandi shave their eyebrows. The hairs of the beard, arm-pits, 
pubes, and shins are plucked out, but not shaved. 

Teeth. All Nandi have the two middle incisors of the lower jaw 
extracted as soon as the milk teeth have been replaced by the 
permanent set. 1 The operation is performed by means of a longnei, or 
arrow used for bleeding cattle, and a katet, or large needle. The child 
must throw the teeth away towards the rising sun and say, Asig, ee 
kelek che-murucmen, kon-o che-lelach a-lu-ote che po moi (God, take the 

Fig. 16 (scale |). Needle. 

brown teeth and give me white ones, so that I may drink calf's milk). 
As with the Masai, the origin of this custom is said to be in order to 
enable a person suffering from tetanus to be fed. 2 

The cast milk teeth of children and the extracted teeth of adults 
must be hidden or buried in goats' dung. 

If children cut their upper teeth before the lower ones or the side 
teeth before the front ones, the old men of the clan make a medicine 
out of certain trees. Some of this medicine is given to the child 
to drink, after which the teeth, which are called needles, are said to 
stop growing until the other ones have come. Children who are born 
with teeth in their mouths are made away with at birth. 

Tattoo. Some Nandi girls tattoo themselves by cutting three hori- 
zontal lines in their cheeks below the eyes, or, like the Kavirondo, 
by drawing one line down the forehead and nose, or, like the Masai, 
by making a pattern round the eyebrows and eyes. A black dye is 
rubbed in to make the mark permanent. 

1 Sir H. Johnston (The Uganda Protectorate, p. 868) and Mr. Hobley (Eastern 
Uganda, p. 38) are incorrect in stating that a chief or medicine man also has 
a tooth of the upper jaw removed. 

2 For another possible explanation vide p. 82. 










Warriors frequently burn five or 
six scars on the front of the thighs 
and on the wrists, and raise a dozen 
cicatrices on their shoulders. Girls 
sometimes also make similar marks 
on their shoulders. 

Weapons. The arms of the fighting 
men usually consist of a spear, shield, 
sword, and club. 1 There are four 
kinds of spears in use. The warriors 
of the western counties have Bmall- 
bladed, long-shafted spears called 
ndwit (Fig. 19); those of the eastern, 
northern, and southern counties use 
a weapon which is similar to that 
of the Masai, i.e. long and narrow- 
bladed, with long iron butt, short 
socket and short shaft (Fig. 17); 
and those who live in the central 
county (the Em-gwen) have short 
and broad-bladed spears with short 
iron butts (Fig. 18). These spears 
are both known by the name of ngotit. 
The old men use a spear called eren- 
gatiat (Fig. 20), which resembles the 
Masai spear of thirty or forty yearss 
ago. It has a short and small leaf- 
shaped blade with a long socketed 
shank and a long butt. The spears are 
used for stabbing, not for throwing. 

In order to remind one another of 
war, warriors sometimes fix a knot 
of the feathers of the plantain-eater 
bird on the end of their spears. 

Figs. 17-20 (scale ■&). (17) Ngotit, spear used by the war- 
riors of the northern, southern, and eastern counties. 
(18) Ngotit, spear used by the warriors of the central 
county. (19) NdHrit, spear of the warriors of the 
Western counties. (20) Erengatiqt, old men's spear. 

1 No female may make pretence of using a spear or gird 
on a sword. 





This knot is similar in appearance to the Masai peace-knot of ostrich 
feathers. When a man has thus decorated his spear, he may. not 
associate with a woman. 

The shields (longet) are much like those of the Masai. They are 
made of the skin of the buffalo, eland, or giant pig, and are nearly 
21 22 23 24 

Figs. 21-24 (scale I). (21) Quiver. Note the patch of leather sewn on to 
mend a tear. (22) Scabbard. (23) Sword, present (Lumbwa) style. 
(24) Sword, old (Masai) style. 

oval in shape. A narrow piece of wood is sewn tightly round the edge 
and a broader piece down the centre of the inside. This latter is 
detached from the shield in the middle and thus forms the handle. 
Nandi shields are painted, and each geographical division has its own 
design. The various siritaiik (parishes or geographical subdivisions) 
are also represented by different marks in the main design. The 

Plate XI 

1. Kimeiteitiot. Old men's ear-ring. 2. Chepolungut. Warrior's ear-ring. 

3. Engosholaiit. Ear-ring worn by men in the upper part of the ear. 

4 and 5. Taok. Married women's ear-rings. 6. Kipalpaliot. Boy's ear-ring. 

1. Ostrich feather head-dress. 
— " . i <■ i ostrich feathers in. 

To : 


colours used in painting these shields are white, red, black, and grey 
or blue. 1 

The swords (rotuet or rotuet-ap-chok) 25 26 27 

are of a peculiar shape, being long, 
slender, and ill-balanced. They are nar- 
row towards the hilt and broader to- 
wards the tip. The swords of the present 
day are longer than they were formerly, 
and the fashion seems rather to follow 
the Lumbwa or Kipsikis, whose sword 
blades measure as much as %\ feet in 
length. The sheath or scabbard (chohet) 
is attached to a leather belt (jpireyuot), 
which is ornamented with cowries and is 
worn round the abdomen. 

The club or knobkerry (rungut), which 
is used for throwing at an advancing or 
retreating foe, or for giving a fallen 
enemy the coup de grdce, is twisted into 
the leather fastening (torokeyuoi) of the 
sword belt. Old men use a club with a 
long handle, called sharit. 

Some warriors, like the old men and 
boys, carry a bow (kwanget) and arrows 
(kdtet). The quiver of arrows (mootiet) 
contains between twenty and thirty, some 
of which are usually poisoned. Fire sticks 
(jrionik), a needle (Jcatet), and spare arrow 
heads and barbs are also carried in the 

No war party is complete without a 
greater kudu horn (ikondit), which is used 
as a trumpet, and when sounded can be 
heard at a great distance. 

Figs. 25-27 (scale J). (25) Warrior's club. (26) Old man's club. (27) 
Club with rhinoceros-horn head, used by a man who is unclean. 

1 White is obtained by mixing water with white clay ; red clay mixed 
with the juice of a solanum and blood produces the red paint ; black is 
procured from charred potsherds and gourds ; and grey or blue from cindera 
mixed with white clay. 














Figs. 80-36 (scale J). Arrows : 
(30) Supetiet (wooden head). 
(31 and 82) Tukwariot (iron 

(33) Chepilcmgiot (iron head). 

(34) Kipchapet (iron head). 

(35) Kipitinyot (iron head). 

(36) Shaft. 

Fios. 28-29 (scale $). (28) Old 
man's bow. (29) Boy's bow. 

qj p p! 

-= Sfe: 

o a) 

Pi ° 

































o ,3 p, 


be cS 



l^ 1 -' 

r= • 






■ £ 


















































W ^ 








Earthenware. The Nandi use a number of cooking and other pots 
which are the handiwork of certain women of the tribe who are known 
as chepterenik. The work is performed in or near the huts erected for 
this purpose and called karik-ap-terenik. From the outside these 
huts closely resemble the ordinary dwelling houses, but inside there 
is no partition dividing off the goats' compartment from the rest of the 
house, nor are there any beds or pegs or a loft, for neither goats nor 
people may sleep in them, nor may grain or utensils be kept in them. 
No man may go near the karik-ap-terenik or watch the women 
at work. 

A place in which pottery is made is called K&mmon ; the two best 
known spots where the potters' clay (menet) is found are Kapkepen 
and Kapimen. 

The only implements employed by the potters in making their wares 
are the handle of a hoe, which is used for pounding and stirring the 
clay, and the shoulder-blade of an ox, a stone, a seed pod called 
cheptaipesiet, some plaited taparariet grass, and three pieces of straw 
called saatyet, with which the pots are smoothed and ornamented. 
The pottery is unglazed, but is ornamented by patterns, each chepte- 
reniot having her own designs. A favourite pattern is the handles, 
or, as they are called, ears, of the meat cooking-pot. 

After the pots have been baked, the potters recite the following 
prayer : — 

Asis 1 kon-ech koweit. 
God ! give-us strength. 

Inge-kwang-e ko-cham piich. 

Let-us-cook-in-them that-they-may-like-them men. 

In the following list the principal earthen pots, jars, and cups are 

given : — 

Kipanyinyit, cooking-pot for vegetables only. 
Kipwngut, cooking-pot for vegetables and meat. 
Kimwanit, cooking-pot for fat. 
Kipiitinit, cooking-pot for meat. 
Kipkorotit, cooking-pot for blood. 
Loet, pot used for roasting malt. 
Kipteregit, pot used for boiling malt (large size) . 
Riseyuot, pot used for boiling malt (small size). 
Tapokut, pot used for standing beer in. 
D 2 


Teret-ap-kirnoi, pot used for cooking porridge in. 

Teret-ap-pei, water-jar. 

Saiget, men's drinking cup. 1 

Tapet, cup used when eating porridge. 

Nobody may step over a pot, and were anybody to do this it is 
believed that he would fall to pieces when the pot is broken. A thief 
dare not steal from a potter, as he would be cursed the next time she 
heated her wares. Ipet-aM ho-uu ter, pirit-it-u-n ho (Burst like a pot, 
and may thy house become red), she would say, and the thief would 
die. If a cooking-pot is broken when food is being prepared in it, 
no Nandi man may eat the food, but Nandi women may eat food 
cooked or served up in a broken pot. Warriors may not eat food 
that has been cooked in new pots ; and warriors who have killed an 
enemy may not stand or sit near the cooking utensils. 

Gourds. Gourds or calabashes are obtained from pumpkins, which 
are planted for this purpose. They are used as cups and jugs for milk 
and blood, and are of various sizes. Small gourds also at times take 
the place of the ox-horn or wooden snuff-boxes, this custom having 
been introduced by the Kamasia. 

Each owner of a gourd has his own private mark, which isburnt on 
the gourd. Warriors' gourds are ornamented with cowries. 

No warrior may drink from a new gourd. 

The smelting and forging of iron. There live with the Nandi a 
number of Uasin Gishu Masai who have become smiths {kitoiigik). 
These people speak both Nandi and Masai. The following account 
is given by the smiths of the arrival of their ancestors in Nandi. 
After they had lost all their cattle from various causes, the Uasin 
Gishu Masai quitted their homes and split up in different directions. 
Some of those who wandered into Nandi were hospitably received by 
an old man named Ar-ap-Sutek, who was the only smith in the 
country at the time. Ar-ap-Sutek taught his proteges his trade, and 
when he died the secret passed into their hands. In those days the 
Nandi spear-heads were very small, they had no hoes, but used 
wooden digging sticks ; and they bought their axes and other imple- 
ments from neighbouring tribes. Each clan now has its own smiths, 
who are for all practical purposes members of the clan, and are treated 
by the Nandi almost as equals. Very few of the Nandi clans will, 
however, openly intermarry with the smiths or allow their cattle to 

1 Women's drinking cups, called mwendet, are made from gourds. 

Plate XIII 

Nandi Pots and Jaes. 
1. Kipungut. Cooking-pot for vegetables and meat. 2. Saiget. Men's drinking cup. 

3. Kipiitinit, with four handles. Cooking-pot for meat. 
4. Teret-ap-pei. Water-jar. 5. Kipiitinit, with three handles. Cooking-pot for meat. 

1. Women's milk gourd. 
To face p. 36 

2. Calves' feeding bottle. 3. Warriors' milk gourd. 


herd or breed with the cattle belonging to the smiths ; and whenever 
a Nandi picks up anything new which a smith has made, he first spits 
into his hand. 

The smiths work in small open huts or smithies called k&p-kitanyit. 
They smelt iron by means of a clay furnace, which they heat with 
charcoal and work with bellows (kopanda). The bellows are made of 
wood and covered at the top with a goat's skin, in the middle of which 
is a hole known as the mouth (kutit). The end of the tube of the 
bellows is called rupeitit, and the small clay pipe in the fire, through 
which the air is blown, soiyot. The rupeitit is said to be the male, the 
soiyot the female. Nobody may step over the tube or over the bellows. 
The pig iron is beaten out on a stone anvil (topet) by means of an iron 
hammer (Mrisuei). 1 The only other implements used are a knife or 
cutting iron (laita) and pincers or tongs (konameito). Spears, swords, 
arrow-heads, tools, and ornaments are made. 

Fig. 37 (scale J). Smith's pincers or tongs. Fig. 38 (scale £). Cutting iron. 

No woman may enter a smithy or watch the smiths at work ; and 
nobody dares to steal anything from a smith, as the owner of the stolen 
article will heat his furnace, and, while blowing the bellows, will curse 
the thief, who will surely die. 

A number of smiths live at a place called Kaptilol in Em-gwen, as 
plenty of iron ore is found near there. A place in which iron ore 
occurs is known as Ngoriamuk. When the smiths search for the ore 
they recite the following prayer : — 

Asis ! kon-ech sapon, 
God ! give-us health, 

Asis ! kon-ech karik. 
God! give-us iron. 1 

The task of digging for the ore is performed by the men, whilst 
their women-folk carry it to the smithies. Nowadays, owing to there 

1 No Nandi smith will part with his hammer, though he will readily sell 
his other implements, and even his forge, if a good price is offered. 



chololion che-mi-i Keyu (Look, here is a warm house, pour your honey 
in here, all ye who are in Elgeyo). 

Stools, baskets, doors, clubs, the handles of weapons and imple- 
ments, &c, are all made by men. There is, however, nothing of 
42 43 


Figs. 42-43 (scale £). (42) Nandi lyre. When played upon, only five 
strings are used, the sixth one being unfastened and kept in case one 
of the others breaks. (43) Lumbwa lyre. Only four strings are used. 

In both the Nandi and Lumbwa lyres a small piece of wood is sometimes 
placed under the strings as a supporter, like the bridge of a violin. 

interest to be recorded regarding them, and no superstitious customs 
are observed in connexion with them. 

Mimical Instruments. The art of music has not reached a very 
advanced stage in Nandi. With the exception of a five-stringed lyre 


(kipokandet) and a pipe (indurerut), they have no musical instruments, 
though boys use a wooden horn called serengwet, and antelope horns" 
are sometimes blown by warriors when taking their cattle to the salt- 
licks, and by raiding parties. The war-horn which is echoed from 
parish to parish throughout the land in the event of an attack is 
a greater Kudu horn. 

No ordinary drum is used, though there is a name for the drum of 
other tribes (sukutii). At some feasts old shields are beaten by sticks 
as a substitute for drums, and at the rlhset ceremony, after boys and 
girls have been circumcised, 1 a friction drum is employed. For boys 
a ketet is used. This is a small wooden barrel, in which the old men 
keep their fur garments when not wearing them, and a drum is made 
by covering one end with a goat's skin. For girls a water-jar is 
treated in a like manner. A deep noise, said to resemble a lion's roar, 
or a leopard's growl, is produced by drawing both hands, which have 
been previously wetted, along a stick resting against the centre of the 
drum head. The boys' friction drum is called ngetundo or lion, the 
girls', cheplanget or leopard. The stick is known as the male and 
the drum as the female. It is regarded as an unlucky omen if the 
stick perforates the goat-skin. 

There is also a bull-roarer, which is likewise called ngetwndo or 
lion. This is employed by the warriors to frighten boys who have 
been recently circumcised into staying in their huts after dark. 2 It 
is made of a small flat piece of wood 3 cut into an oval shape, and it is 
whirled round the head at the end of a strip of goat's hide. A booming 
sound Is produced, which reminds one of a lion purring and grunting. 

No uncircumcised person and no woman may see the bull-roarer or 
the boys' friction drum, and no uncircumcised person or man may see 
the girls' friction drum. 

At some dances women accompany the dancers by scraping their 
bracelets one against the other. The sound produced is by no means 
an unpleasant or unmusical one. 


The religious beliefs of the Nandi are somewhat vague and un- 
formulated. The supreme deity is Aeista, the sun, who dwells in the 

1 Vide pp. 57 and 60. a Vide p. 56. 

3 The tumoiyot tree is used for this purpose. 

Plate XV 

Kerepet. Basket. 

Barrel used by old men for putting 
their garments in. 

Boys' bull-roarer and friction drum. 

ToJace c. 40 


sky^ he created man and beast, and the world belongs to him ; prayers 
are addressed to him ; he is acknowledged to be a benefactor and the 
giver of all good things ; and offerings are at times made to him in 

Besides Asista, there are two other superhuman beings, the kindly 
and malevolent thunder-gods called respectively Tlet ne-tnie and Ilet 
ne-ya. The tradition regarding these two gods and their battles * is 
very similar to the Masai tradition of the Black and Bed gods. 2 The 
thunder-gods are not worshipped, nor are offerings made to them. 

The Oiik, i.e. the spirits of departed ancestors and adult relations, 
are held to be responsible for sickness and death, and they are appealed 
to and propitiated with milk, beer, and food whenever necessary. The 
human soul is embodied in a person's shadow, and it is firmly believed 
that after death the shadows of both good and bad people go under- 
ground and live there. People who have great possessions on earth are 
equally blessed when they die, whilst the spirits of poor people have 
as bad a time after death as they had during life. Years ago a man is 
said to have gone to the land in which the spirits live. He fell into 
a river one day and lost consciousness (or died). When he came to 
himself again he was in a strange country, where there were hills, 
rivers, plantations, and oxen, just as on earth. The spirits came to 
him and said : ' Young man, your time has not yet come when you 
should join- us. Go back to the earth.' With that they struck the 
ground and the man lost consciousness again to wake up near the 
place where he had fallen into the river. 

There is also a devil called Chemosit, who is supposed to live on the 
earth and to prowl round searching to devour people, especially 
children. He is said to be half man, half bird, to have only one leg 
but nine buttocks, and his mouth, which is red, is supposed to shine 
at night like a lamp. He propels himself by means of a stick 
which resembles a spear and which he uses as a crutch. His method 
of catching children is to sing a song at night-time near where they are 
living, and the children seeing the light and hearing the music think 
that a dance is being held, and are lured on to their destruction. 

The prayers of the Nandi, like their religious beliefs, are somewhat 
vague. The commonest form of prayer, which is supposed to be 
recited by all adult Nandi twice a day, but which is more particularly 
used by old men when they rise in the morning, especially if they 
have had a bad dream, is addressed to both Asista and to the spirits 
1 Vide p. 99. 2 Vide The Masai, p. 264. 


of deceased ancestors. The attitude assumed when saying this prayer 
is a sitting one, with the arms crossed so that the elbows rest in the 
palms of the hands. It is as follows : — 

Asis, ka-a-sa-in tuk-u-a lakok ak 

God, have-I-besought-thee cover-for-mel the-children and 

guard J 

the cattle. 

Ka-a-mus-in korirun ak lakat. 

Have-I-approached-thee morning and evening. 

Asis, ka-a-som-in i-ru-e ak i-wend-i. 

God, have-I-prayed-thee thou-sleepest and thou-goest. 

Asis, ka-a-som-in a-mati-ile : ' Ka-a-nget.' 

God, have-I-prayed-thee and-do-not-say : ' Have-I-become-tired.' 

Oifk-chok, amu ki-o-pek-u, a-mo-o-'len: 
The-spirits-our, for you-died, and-do-not-(ye)-say : 

' Ki-par-ok chii ', o-tuk-w-ech che-mi-i parak. 1 

' He-killed-us man', (ye)-cover-for-us) who-are-there above. 

guard ) 

War. When warriors have gone to the wars, the men's mothers tie 
four knots in their belts, and every morning go outside their huts 
at about seven o'clock, and, after spitting towards the sun, cry out 

aloud : — 

Asis ! kon-ech sapon. 
God ! give-us health. 

The fathers meet together regularly, and before drinking their beer 
one old man rises and says : Pwo-ne, o-'le, pwo-ne (They will return, 
say, they will return). The rest reply, Pwo-ne (They will return). 
The old man who is standing then says : Gham-i-he, o-'le, cham-i-ke 

1 Free translation : — 

O God, do Thou Thine ear incline, 
Protect my children and my kine, 
E'en if Thou 'rt weary, still forbear 
And hearken to my constant prayer. 
When shrouded 'neath the cloak of night, 
Thy splendours sleep beyond our sight, 
And when across the sky by day, 
Thou movest, still to Thee I pray.. 
Dread shades of our departed sires, 
Ye who can make or mar desires, 
Slain by no mortal hand ye dwell, 
Beneath the earth, guard us well. 











(They are well, say, they are well), and the others say, Cham-i-ke (They 
are well). After this they all sing : — 

Asis ! uk-w-ech lakok. 

God ! tie-knots-for-us the-children. 1 

Ki-toroch-i, ki-toroch-i. 

That-we-may-greet-them, that-we-may-greet-them. 

When each man has taken his calabash of beer in his hand, he 
sprinkles some on the ground and on the walls of the hut, and says : — 

Oiik-chok ! ka-ki-sa-ak. 

The-spirits-our ! have-we-prayed-to-you. 


O-kon-ech sapon. 
(Ye)-give-us health. 

Whilst their sons are absent, the old men fre- 
quently pay visits to the chief medicine man, to learn 
how the expedition is faring. The chief medicine 
man consults his oracle and gives guarded replies. 

During the expedition nobody at home may men- 
tion the warriors by name : they must be referred 
to as birds. Should the children forget themselves 
and mention the name of one of the absentees, they 
are rebuked by their mothers, who say : Mo-o-rnwa-i 
tarU ehe-mi-i paralc (Don't talk of the birds who 
are in the heavens). The warriors themselves, dur- f u which warriors 

ing an expedition, may not sneeze, eat meat alone cari T eleusine flour 
. ., „ i -,' when proceeding 

or relieve nature on the right side of the road, and, on a ra id, 

instead of making use of the word chepke&wet (knife), 
they must say lorignet (arrow for bleeding cattle). No man may 
mention the ordinary greeting for males, but must say, Tahwenya, 
hikdn-ni (Takwenya, war party). The reply is, Igo. Every morn- 
ing when away from home, an elder, who accompanies the party, 
must spit at the rising sun, and say : 

Asis! inak-e-ech eheko. 
God ! give-us-to-drink milk. 

As soon as cattle are captured during an expedition, the maotiot, 
or chief medicine man's representative, cries out the name of the 
chief medicine man, e. g., Kipeles, and adds, Ip tuha (Take the cattle). 

1 Guard our children. 

2 Vide p. 90. 


If this is not done, it is thought that the cattle will vanish from 

On the return of a war-party, a thank-offering is made if the 
expedition has heen a success. A kambakta, or war-dance, is held, 
at which the warriors wear their full war dress, and sing and dance. 
Curiously enough, the song which they sing, and which is repeated 
over and over again, is in Masai. It is as follows : — 

A-omon eng-Ai ai, n-a-omon M-Batyany. 
I-pray the-God my, and-I-pray Mbatian. 1 

Wo-hoo, Wo-hoo, wo-hoo. 
"Wo-hoo, Wo-hoo, Wo-hoo. 

The cattle are afterwards distributed, the chief medicine man, the 
lesser medicine men, and the rain-makers, each receiving a share, 
as well as the relations of warriors who fell during the fight. When 
the cattle have been distributed, they are taken by each man to their 
future homes. The first night they are not allowed inside the cattle 
kraal, but are tethered outside. On the following day the elders 
make a bonfire near the entrance to the kraal, and milk and beer 
are* poured on the ground to the accompaniment of the following 
song, which is taken up and repeated again and again by all 
present : — 

Koiyo ee ! Koiyo ee ! Koiyo ee ! 

The-raided-cattle, oh! The-raided-cattle, oh ! The-raided-cattle, oh ! 

Asis ka-kon-ech sapon ! 
God he-has-given-us health ! 

The cattle are then driven into the cattle-kraal, and are thus 
welcomed by the owner : — 

Tuk'-chok 1 ine-ni kot ne-lalang. 

The-cattle-my ! it-this the-house which-is-warm. 

A-ma-to-le : ' Ki ngerifig,' 

And-do-not-ye-say : 'We-are few.' 

O-pwa mitio ak o-tep ko-mie. 
Ye-come slowly and ye-stay quietly. 

If the expedition has not been successful and a number of warriors 
have been killed, the survivors must all go to a river on their return 
to their homes and bathe. They then hold a kambakta or warriors' 

1 Mbatian was a great Masai medicine man, the father of the present Chief 
of the Masai, Ol-Onana, or as he is commonly called, Lenana. 










•-.: .: .- ■ ■•■"-: 


60 P 



dance, at which they wear their full war dress. This dance is called 
ki-pir^i pel (the waters are beaten). After the dance, at which the 
women wail and cry at intervals, an old man stands amongst the 
seated warriors, and says : — 

Asis ! ka-ki-'le, ' Oiyo '- 1 
God ! have-we-said, ' Oiyo '. 

Ka-ki-sa-in, ' Emuro '.* 

Have-we-pray ed-thee, ' Emuro ' . 

Cattle. When cattle have been raided by an enemy or killed by 
lightning, the iset-ap-tuka (sprinkling of cattle) ceremony takes 
place. A procession is formed and the cattle are driven to the 
nearest river, where the warriors are drawn up in two lines along 
the banks, whilst the unmarried girls, who are stripped, stand in 
front of them in the water. The herd is driven between the girls, 
and each cow is sprinkled with water as it passes. After this the 
girls drive the cattle home whilst the men sit down near the river. 
One old man then rises and recites the following lines, all present 
repeating them after him : — 

Asis ! tuk-w-ech chu-to, 

God ! cover-for-us s these-here, 


Iuit-w-ech chu-to. 

Guard-for-us these-here. 

When disease breaks out in a herd, a large bonfire is made of 
emdit * wood, on the top of which is thrown some brushwood of the 
lapotuet 6 and kemdiet shrubs. As soon as there is a good blaze, the 
sick herd is driven to the fire, where the animals remain standing 
whilst a pregnant sheep is brought to them. The sheep is anointed 
with milk by an elder, who says at the same time : — 

Asis I kon-ech moiet ne-mie, 

God ! give-us the-belly which-is-good, 

after which all present sit down and wait till it passes water. When 
it has done this, two men belonging to clans that may intermarry 
seize it and strangle it. The intestines are inspected, and if it is 

1 Said when a man stumbles. It is here equivalent to We admit ourselves 


* Said when a man wants peace, like a schoolboy crying Pax. 

1 Guard for us. 4 Olea chrysophilla. 5 Solarium campylanthum. 


found that the occasion is propitious, the meat is roasted and eaten, 
whilst rings are made of the skin and worn by the cattle-owners. 
If the result of the inspection of the entrails is unsatisfactory, 
another pregnant sheep has to be slaughtered. After the meat has 
been eaten, the herd is driven round the fire, and milk is poured on 
each beast. Before the gathering separates, the following prayer is 
recited by all present : — 

Asis ! ka-ki-sa-in, 

God ! have-we-prayed-thee, 

Tuk-w-ech chu-to. 

Cover-for-us 1 these-here. 

If cattle are poisoned at a salt-lick, a similar ceremony is per- 
formed, but the prayer is slightly different. The elders say : — 

Asis ! ianyiny-w-ech ngenda. 

God ! make-good-for-us the-salt-lick. 

'Ngw-am tany tukul, ko-cham. 
If-it-eats-(it) ox any, may-it-like-(it). 

Harvest. During the months of September and October, i. e. during 
the ripening of the eleusine grain, and after the grain has been har- 
vested, the Mpsunde and kipsunde oieng ceremonies are held. At the 
former, each owner of a plantation goes with her daughters into the 
cornfields and makes a bonfire of the branches and leaves of the la- 
potuet 2 and pek-ap-tarit 3 trees. Some eleusine is then plucked, and 
whilst one grain is fixed in the necklaces, another one is chewed and 
rubbed by each woman and girl on her forehead, throat and breast. 
No joy is shown by the womenfolk on this occasion, and they sorrow- 
fully cut a basketful of the corn which they take home with them and 
place in the loft to dry. As the ceiling is of wickerwork, a good deal 
of the grain drops through the cracks, and no attempt is made to 
prevent it from falling into the fire, as it is supposed when it 
explodes that the spirits of the deceased are accepting it. A few 
days later, porridge made from the new grain is served with milk 
at the evening meal, and all the memberB of the family take some 
of the food and dab it on the walls and roofs of the huts. They 
also put a little in their mouths and spit it out towards the east 
and on the outside of the huts. The head of the family then holds 
some of the eleusine grain in his hand, and offers up the following 
prayer, everybody present repeating the words after him : — 

1 Guard for us. 2 Solatium campylanthvm. 3 Lantana saMfolia. 

Plate XVIII 

Lokosta. Bracelet used by archers for protecting the wrist. 


1. Samoiyot. Worn by twins (unbent). 

2. Asielda. Worn by men who have lost their next elder brother or sister. 

3. Old men's ivory arm-ring. 4. Asingaiit. Worn by old men. 

To face p. 46 


Asis ! kon-ech sapon, 
God ! give-us health, 

A-ki-kon-ech uio, 

And-that-it-may-be-given-to-us strength , 

A-ki-k5n-ech che. 

And-that-it-may-be-given-to-us milk. 

'Ngw-am chii tukul, ko-cham. 

If-he-eats-(it) man any, may-he-like-(it). 

'Ngw-am tomono, ko-cham. 

If-she-eats-(it) pregnant-woman, may-she-like-(it). 

After the harvest has been gathered in, permission is obtained 
from the chief medicine man to hold the kipsunde oieng or kipsunde 
nepalet feast. Each pororiet or geographical division holds its own 
feast on the top of a hill or in a large open "plain, and all the 
warriors collect together and take part in a kambakta, or war-dance. 
A large bonfire is made of emdit 1 and tekat 2 wood, on the top of 
which lapotuet 3 and kemeliet shrubs are thrown, and when there is 
a big blaze simotuet* wood is cast on the fire. An erection like 
a door of a cattle-kraal is built near the fire, and as the warriors 
file past, the old men, who stand by the door-posts, take a little 
tnilk and beer in their mouths and spit it on them. The old men 
then sing as follows : — 

Asis ! kon-ech sapon. 

God ! give-us health. 

Asis ! kon-ech koiyo. 

God ! give-us raided-cattle. 

Asis ! kon-ech iiot 

God 1 give-us the-offspring 

Nepo piich ak tich. 
Of men and cattle. 

Before the gathering separates, the old men kill and eat a pregnant 
goat, and the women, who have oiled their bodies, proceed to the 
nearest river and take from the water two pebbles, one of which they 
put in their water-jars, keeping it there till the next kipsunde oieng 
season, and the other they place in their granaries. 

After the kipsunde oieng festival it is customary to hold the girls' 
circumcision ceremonies, and the warriors were wont formerly to start 

1 Olea chrysophiUa. 2 Arundinaria alpina. 

3 Solanum campylanthum. * Ficus sp. near F. elegans. 


their raiding expeditions at this season. It is noticeable that all the 
Nandi punitive expeditions have commenced in October. 

Drought. When there is a drought, it is customary for people to 
look towards the Tindiret or Chepusio Hill every morning, and say, 
Robon, Tindiret (Eain, Tindiret). If the drought is protracted and 
a famine is threatened, the old men collect together and take a black 
sheep with them to a river. Having tied a fur cloak on to the 
sheep's back, they push it into the water, and take beer and milk 
into their mouths which they spit out in the direction of the rising 
sun. When the sheep scrambles out of the water and shakes itself, 
they sing the following prayer : — 

Asis ! ka-ki-sa-in, 

God ! have-we-prayed-to-thee, 

Kon-ech rob. 
Give-us rain. 

Iro-cho maiyo ak che. 

Look-at-these beer and milk. 

Ma-mi-i chii ne-ma-ii-o. 

It-is-not-there man who-does-not-bear. 1 

Tuk-w-ech tomono nepo chii ak tany. 

Cover-for-us 2 pregnant-woman of man and ox. 

Other occasions on which prayers are offered are given on pages 

15, 30, 35, 37 and 65. 


For the purposes of government the Nandi country is divided into 
fifteen districts (pororiet), and subdivided into parishes (siritiet)? 
The whole country acknowledges the over-lordship of the Orkoiyot, 
or chief medicine man ; 4 but each district is governed by two men, 
one called Maotiot, who is elected by and represents the Orkoiyot, 
and the other, called Kiruogmdet,* the spokesman or counsellor, who 
is chosen by the people. The real rulers are the Kiruogik, who are 
responsible to the Orkoiyot (through their Maotik) for the good 

1 We are suffering like women labouring with child. 2 Guard for us. 

3 Vide p 4. 4 Equivalent to the Masai 01-oiboni. 

5 Equivalent to the Masai Ol-aigwenani. 


government of their respective districts, and for the enrolment of 
troops in time of war. Each parish is under a captain called Olai- 
toriot, who is responsible to his Kiruogindet. A parish generally 
contains from twenty to fifty warriors. 

The old men of each district meet together from time to time to 
discuss the affairs of state, the Maotiot and Kiruogindet being present. 
The assemblies are held in the shade of a teldet 1 tree, and the 
places of assembly are called kdp-kiruogutik. 

The Medicine Men. The Orkoiyot, or principal medicine man 
holds precisely the same position as the Masai Ol-oiboni, that is to 
say, he is supreme chief of the whole race. He is a diviner, and 
foretells the future by such methods as casting stones, inspecting 
entrails, interpreting dreams, and prophesying under the influence 
of intoxicants. He is also skilled in the interpretation of omens 
and in the averting of ill-luck. When foretelling the future by 
casting stones (parparek), he uses a box called ketet, or a piece of 
bamboo stalk called soiyet, and he throws the stones on to a fur 
kaross; when making amulets or medicine (pusaruk or kerichek), 
he uses an ox-horn and pours the ingredients into the person's hands. 

The Nandi believe implicitly in the powers of their Orkoiyot. 
They look to him for instruction when to commence planting their 
crops; he obtains rain for them, either direct or through the rain- 
makers, in times of drought ; he makes women and cattle fruitful ; 
and no war-party can expect to meet with success unless he has 
approved of the expedition. On these occasions his official sanction 
is given when he hands a club, on which has been smeared a concoc- 
tion called setanik, to one of the leading men. Before an attack is 
made each warrior touches his forehead and breast with the setanik, 
and the club is carried in front of the party. 

The position of Orkoiyot is a hereditary one. The medicine men 
are descended from the Segela Masai, and belong to the Talai clan, 
whose totem is a lion. The following genealogical table will show 
that the position is not an ancient one, and it seems probable that 
it has been borrowed from the Masai, just as the Lumbwa seem to 
have borrowed it from the Nandi in recent years. It will be 
observed that Ar-ap-Kipsegun and Kopokoii are both termed second 
Nandi Orkoiyot. There was apparently a dual administration until 
the former was ousted. 

1 Fieus sp. 



2nd Nandi Orkoiyot 



3rd Nandi Orkoiyot 

. I 

4th Nandi Orkoiyot, 

killed by the Nandi in 1890 

1st Nandi Orkoiyot 



2nd Nandi Orkoiyot 

(or Ar-ap-Koileke) 

1st and present 
Lumbwa Orkoiyot. 


(or Samwei) 

5th Nandi Orkoiyot, 

killed by our forces 



(or Tamasun) 

6th and present 

Nandi Orkoiyot. 

The person of the Orkoiyot is usually regarded as absolutely sacred. 
Nobody may approach him with weapons in his hand or speak in 
his presence unless first addressed, and it is most important that 
nobody should touch his head, otherwise it is feared that his powers 
of divination, &c, will depart from him. 1 The fourth Orkoiyot was, 
however, clubbed to death by his own people. This was done as he 
was held to be responsible for several public calamities. First of all 
came famine ; this was followed by sickness ; and then a raid, which 
the Orkoiyot had sanctioned against the Kavirondo, was so disastrous 
that out of 500 warriors who set out but two returned alive. Before 
he was put to death, Kimnyole is said to have prophesied that white 
people would come who would wage war with the Nandi, kill their 
sons, seize their cattle, and drive them out of their homes, and that 
they would bring with them a strange being like a serpent that 
would crawl along the ground, shriek, and puff smoke. 2 He advised 
all those who could do so to go and live in the heavens, as the earth 
would no longer be a proper place to live in. All the misfortunes 
which have since befallen the Nandi are attributed to their having 
murdered their Orkoiyot. 

1 It is commonly believed that the Orkoiyot can detach his head from his 
body, and that he is able during a fight to send it to the scene of hostilities 
to watch his troops. 

a The engines of the Uganda Railway. 


The Orkoiyot is said never to pray to Asista, but only to the spirits 
of his deceased ancestors. He is also supposed to receive power from 
certain snakes which he is believed to carry about with him in 
his bag. 

The wives of the principal medicine man may do no work, all their 
household duties being performed by servants, called otttagik. When- 
ever a wife of the Orkoiyot gives birth to a son, the child is 
surreptitiously taken away from its mother's side, when three or 
four days old, and not returned until the next night. If the mother 
does not complain, the child is probably found to have in its hands 
some hairs of a cow's tail, some grass and a tick, which is a sign 
that he may one day become paramount chief ; if, on the other hand, 
she has worried about the boy, he will bring back with him the 
bark and root of a tree and a frog. In this case he can never 
succeed to the position held by his father. 

Besides the Orkoiyot there are two classes of lesser medicine men, 
one of whom is called Kipsakeiyot, the other Kipungut. The for- 
mer all belong to the Talai clan, whilst the latter are not Nandi 
at all, but hail from Marokor, and no blood-money need be paid 
if one is killed. The duty of these men is to ascertain who is to 
blame if a person has died mysteriously, or if -a corpse has not been 
taken by the hyenas, to find out the cause of illnesses, and to detect 
criminals. The Eipsakeiyot, like the Orkoiyot, divines at his own 
house ; the Kipungut proceeds to the spot where the misfortune or 
crime has occurred and divines there. 

Magicians. The people who are believed to practise witchcraft 
(ponik) are much dreaded, and if one of the medicine men divines that 
a certain person is responsible for the death of anybody, that person 
is put to death, unless he can escape and leave the country, when he 
becomes an outlaw. 1 The principal method employed for bewitching or 
injuring people is said to be to ' catch ' their footprints. People can also 
be bewitched by a portion of their clothing or a bead that they have 
worn, by their hair, nail parings, teeth, spittle, or anything that has 
passed from their bodies falling into the hands of a wizard or witch, 
and care must be exercised to prevent this from happening. When 
the head is shaved, the hair is thrown away towards the rising or 
setting sun, or hidden in grass ; 2 after the nails have been cut, the 
parings must be collected and disposed of when nobody is looking ; 

1 For further particulars vide p. 71. 2 Vtde p. 30. 

E 2 


when teeth are cast or extracted they must be hidden in goats' dung ; ' 
and when anything passes out of a person's body it must be covered 
with grass. 

Rain-makers. There is a class of men called Uindet (pi. uik) who 
practise rain-making. They belong to no special clan, and several of 
them come from Kamasia. 

Successful rain-makers are usually very well off. They receive large 
presents of grain when the crops are harvested, and of oxen after 
a raid. 

The rain-medicine (hiptahchat) is a root, and rain is said to be pro- 
duced by putting this root in water. 

When a rain-maker is procuring rain, he may not wash his hands 
or drink water, he may not have sexual intercourse, and he must not 
sleep on the hide of an ox which has been recently slaughtered. 


Boys' circumcision. A circumcision festival is held every 7\ years, 2 
when most youths between the ages of, say, ten and twenty, undergo 
the operation which transforms them from boys into warriors. Young 
boys are only circumcised if they are fairly rich orphans or if their 
fathers are old men. The commonest age is between fifteen and 

A month before the event the old women start collecting milk, 
which they put in big jars and set on one side for the boys' con- 
sumption after the operation. It is generally taken mixed with blood. 

The ceremony is commenced when the moon is in the first quarter. 
Three days before the operation the boys are handed over by their 
fathers or guardians to a number of elderly men called moterenik 
(s. moteriot)? These men act as nurses or godfathers, and as many 
as ten boys are placed in charge of two men. The moterenik proceed 
with their boys to a neighbouring river that has plenty of forest on 
its banks, and set to work to build a hut, which is called menjet. 
In this hut the two men live with their boys for about six months 
after the operation. 

1 For an exception to this rule vide p. 30. 

2 Since 1905 it has become customary to circumcise boys at frequent 
intervals, as is done with girls. 

3 The senior man is called moteriot ne-oo, the junior, moteriot ne-mining. The 
boys and their moterlnik call one another Pa-mwai. 











On the morning following the erection of the menjet huts, the 
moterenik pour some milk and water mixed with salt on a stool which 
has a depression in the centre and rub a little on the boys' heads. 
They then shave the boys, and having collected all the hairs, throw 
them away towards the rising sun. After being shaved the boys are 
given a strong purge, which is made from the segelet, usuet, 1 or suke- 
meriet trees. During the course of the morning warriors visit the 
-menjet huts and seize and take away with them all the boys' clothes 
and ornaments. Young girls next pay them a visit, and give them 
some of their own garments (ingoriet-ap-ko) and ornaments. Having 
attired themselves in these, the boys, who now receive the name of 
tarusiek (s. tarusiot), start off to inform their maternal uncles and 
other relations living in the neighbourhood that they are going to be 
circumcised and invite them to be present. If they have no maternal 
uncle living, a maternal cousin may take his place. Without the 

Fig. 45 (scale %). Kipos, boys' circumcision knife. 

sanction of a maternal uncle or his representative no operation can 
be performed. 

The next day dances are held which are called cheptilet and aiyuet. 
The boys are still dressed as girls and wear a bunch of sinendet 2 in 
their ears. Towards evening they are led away by the warriors, who 
make them sit down and scrutinize their faces and eyes to see whether 
they are likely to behave in a cowardly or brave manner when they 
are operated on. Should the former be anticipated the performance, 
which is called kdponyony, is repeated several times. When the 
boys have been passed by the warriors, their girl friends give them 
bead necklaces to wear. Favourites are often smothered with strings 
of beads. 

After sunset the boys are taken by their moterenik to a large empty 
house and made to sit down outside and gaze at the stars. Presently 
they hear inside the house the operator's knife being sharpened ready 
for the next day. This knife is called kipos, which means bald 
temples, as it is double-bladed with the dividing line down the centre. 
Many warriors are present and make fun at the boys' expense, telling 
them that Kipos is growling and wants something to eat. 

1 Ardisia sp, 2 Fiws sp. 


Later on everybody strips and a procession is formed, which is led 
by one moteriot and closed by the other. Each boy holds the one in 
front of him round the waist and stoops down so as to place his head 
against the other's buttocks. The building is entered by the back 
door, and inside the goats' compartment is a small cage called kimu- 
sanyit, through which the procession has to crawl four times. At the 
entrance and exit of this cage stand warriors armed with stinging 
nettles and hornets. With the former they beat the boys on the faces 
and private parts, the latter they drop on the boys' backs. At the 
end of the other compartment is a kind of throne on which is perched 
an old man who is enveloped in furs and who wears a lion-skin head- 
dress. In the Centre of the room is a fire, round which a number of 
old men are seated. Each boy has now to appear before the old men 
and ask for permission to be circumcised. This ordeal is called ' Going 
to Kimasop ', Kimasop being the name for the old man wrapped 
in furs. On his entrance the boy is shown a torch and told that 
if he does not speak the truth the fire will enter his nose. He has 
then to make a confession of his past life. Should the old men 
believe that he is not speaking the truth or is hiding something from 
them, a little eleusine grain is surreptitiously dropped on the fire, and 
when it explodes he is warned to be careful, as he is displeasing the 
spirits of the dead. Should he still be reticent about his former mis- 
deeds or refuse to disclose any of his past doings, he is made to sit on 
a stool covered with stinging nettles. When the old men are satisfied 
with their examination, the boy describes the cow which he or his 
father is willing to pay for the permission, and the Kimasop nods his 
head. The boy is then taken outside by his moterenik and hidden under 
a fur kaross. After all the boys have been examined, the kimusanyit 
is broken to pieces and buried in cow-dung. The fur covers are 
next removed from the boys, who are led back by their moterenik to 
their hut by the river, where they wait and watch till 5 a.m. 

At that hour the warriors and old men collect together round the 
menjet huts, the boys are brought out, and at sunrise the operation 
commences. All weapons must be removed to a distance, and nobody 
may speak. The boy to be operated on stands up and is supported 
by the senior moteriot from behind. The other boys with the junior 
moteriot sit in a line close by, looking on. The operator, who is called 
poiyot-ap-tttm, 1 kneels in front of the boy, and with a deft cut of the 
kipos performs the first part of the operation, the foreskin being 

1 The boys and their operators call one another Pa-tum ever afterwards. 

Plate XXI 

Tarusiot, or boy recently circumcised, wearing the nyorkit garb and 
the Hmaranguchet head-dress (Champion de Crespigny). 

To face p. 54 


drawn forward and severed just in front of the tip of the glans penis. 
The boy's face is carefully watched by the surrounding crowd of 
warriors and old men to see whether he blinks or makes a sign of 
pain. Should he in any way betray his feelings, he is dubbed a 
coward and receives the nickname of kipite. This is considered 
a great disgrace, and no Mpile may ever attend another circumcision 
festival or be present at children's dances. Those boys that are brave 
receive presents of bunches of sinendet 1 from the women, who greet 
them with cries of joy when they hand the bead necklaces they re- 
ceived after the k&ponyony ceremony back to their girl friends. The 
foreskins are collected by the old men, who pour milk and beer on 
them and put them away in an ox-horn. This done, all the friends and 
relations make merry whilst the second part of the operation is per- 
formed, at which only barren women and women who have lost several 
brothers or sisters in quick succession may be present. The skin of 
the penis is retracted well back, and the inner covering of the glans is 
slit up, peeled off, and cut away behind the corona. The skin is next 
pulled tightly over the glans, and a transverse slit is made on its 
dorsal surface about half an inch long and about the same distance 
from its bleeding edge. Through this slit the glans is pushed, and 
the final stage of the operation is the trimming away of the resulting 
pucker of skin thus formed. During this part of the operation many 
boys collapse from the pain. Only cold water is administered to the 
lacerated parts, after which the boys are taken by their moterenik to 
the menjet hut, where they live quietly for the next few weeks. For 
the first four days they may not touch food with their hands, but 
must eat out of a half-calabash or with the help of a leaf of the sokot 
tree. They are fed on delicacies, and may eat anything they fancy, 
including meat and milk mixed. During these four days nobody 
may go near or regard them except their moterenik. At the expira- 
tion of this period the lapat-ap-eun (washing of hands) ceremony is 
held. Their hands are washed, the girls' clothes are exchanged for 
women's garments, called nyorkit, which, together with a merenget 
necklace, are provided by their mothers, and the old men take the 
foreskins out of the ox-horn and, after offering them to God, bury 
them in cow-dung at the foot of a tepesuet 2 tree. The boys may now 
use their hands when eating, but instead of the ordinary pieces of 
hide which serve as plates, their food is dished up in honey barrels, 
and they must drink out of gourds instead of cups. They may still 
1 F icus sp. 2 Oroton sp. 


see nobody except the young children who bring them their food. 
Any scraps that are left over after they have had their meals are 
called tolongik, and may only be eaten by small children. 

During the next three months or so, whilst the boys are recovering, 
they spend their days shooting small birds, which they attach to a 
special kind of head-dress, called Mmaranguchet. They must, how- 
ever, never be out at night-time, and to frighten them into obeying 
this order the warriors, armed with bull-roarers {ngettmyik or lions), 
often visit the menjet huts after dark and make the boys think that 
lions are prowling about outside ready to devour them. One month 
after the operation the boys and the moterenik sing a song three times 
every day. This is called kaandaet, and records the praises of those 
who were brave during the operation. On these occasions warriors 
and old men may be present. 

"When the boys have recovered, the kdpkiyai ceremony is held. A 
pool is made in the river by means of a dam, and a small hut built 
in it. All strip, and, preceded by the senior moteriot, the boys crawl 
in procession four times through the hut. They are thus completely 
submerged by the water. If anybody is affected by the submersion, a 
goat has to be slaughtered by his father. The boys may now go forth 
and see people, but they must still wear women's clothes, and they 
may not appear without the Mmaranguchet head-gear. They must 
also carry a bow and half a dozen arrows in their hands. Whenever 
they talk to anybody, they must stand some distance off; they may 
call nobody by name, but, if they wish to attract attention, they must 
clap their hands together or slap their thighs. They must be up and 
dressed very early in the morning, and every day must leave their huts 
before the sun rises, and spit towards the east ; they may not enter a 
cattle-kraal or go near the stock, and when referring to a cow and 
goat must say soet (buffalo) and cheptirgichet (duiker) ; they may not 
mourn if anybody dies ; they must spit in their hands and not on 
the ground ; and, most important of all, they must not be out of doors 
when a hyena howls. To ensure this the warriors still frequently visit 
the menjet huts after dark and sound their bull-roarers. 

The period of semi-seclusion lasts about eight weeks, during which 
the boys and their moterenik hold a dance, called suiyet, daily. At 
the end of this time the rlkset feast is held. A large house is set aside 
for the purpose, and the boys, dressed in the nyorkit garb, are shown in 
one at a time. At the entrance stand one or two warriors, who, as the 
moteriot enters, say, Moter, He oi ! (Godfather, ask for permission !) 

Plate XXII 

Tarusiot, or girl about to be circumcised, wearing warrior's 
garments (Wilson). 

To face p. 56 


The warriors then seize the boy by the left hand, fasten a leather 
thong to his little finger, and ask him a question, the answer to 
which is only known to persons who have been circumcised. It is : 
Inge-kwir-chi korko njolia kuu 'le ne I (Quid simile est sono vaginae in 
eoilu ?) And the reply is, Kuu 'le chelelel (Crepitus pinguis quod 
super ignem sibilat). In order that the boy shall not forget the 
answer the thong is given a sharp jerk, which nearly dislocates his 
finger. Whilst this is taking place two or three old men are perform- 
ing on friction drums called ngetunyik 1 in the hut. After all the 
boys have entered the hut, they are shown both the friction drums 
and the bull-roarers, and taught how to play them. They are also 
taught their duties as warriors. 

They have now left the menjet huts for good, and they spend the 
next three or four days in the house, in which their moterenik further 
enlighten them as to their duties. The ngetunot feast is then held by 
the boys' parents. Each boy returns to his father's home, but finds 
the doors closed and barred. He calls out, and his favourite sister 
opens a door for him. For the rest of their lives the brother and 
sister call one another Pa-mwai. The mother now comes forth and 
proudly presents her son with a complete set of warrior's accoutre- 
ments. At the conclusion of the feast the newly-fledged warriors 
must live by themselves in a sigiroinet or warriors' kraal for one 
month, after which they may live where they like, they may have 
sweethearts, they may accompany their elders on raiding expeditions, 
and may generally enjoy the free life of fighting men. 

There is, however, yet another feast which has to be held before 
a warrior is considered fit to have a voice in the government of the 
country. This is called kirie korokon. The warrior selects an ox 
with a good head, which is slaughtered and eaten by all present 
except the donor. His friends then proceed to strike him on the face 
with stinging nettles to make him look fierce, after which he ties 
a piece of the ox-hide on his milk calabash, and the head and horns 
he fixes over the back door inside his mother's hut. He is now 
regarded as an adult ; his spirit lives after death ; and on his death 
his name may be given to a member of his family. 

Girls' circumcision. When a few girls living in the same neighbour- 
hood have reached a marriageable age, their fathers decide to arrange 
a circumcision festival. 

1 Vide p. 40. 


Three days before the date fixed for the operation the moterenik, or 
godmothers, give the girls a strong purge and shave their heads. 
The hair is collected and thrown away towards the rising sun, after 
which their fathers smear their daughters' heads with fat and red clay, 
and present them with the arm-clamp worn by warriors, which they 
don, and a tobacco pouch, which they hang round their necks. Each 
girl's sweetheart gives her his garment, thigh bells, leglets of Colobus 
monkey skin, and club. These she wears in lieu of her ordinary 
clothes and ornaments. Other friends give her their thigh bells, so 
that a popular girl frequently wears as many as ten or twenty of these 
bells at the same time. 

Having attired themselves in men's garments and carrying clubs in 
their hands, the girls set forth to show themselves to their maternal 
uncles and other relations, and to invite them to a feast which their 
fathers provide on the next day. The feast is held in the afternoon, 
the girls having spent the morning in grinding eleusine grain and 
preparing for it. 

On the day before the operation, the warriors bring their girl friends 
bunches of sinendet, 1 which they may wear in their ears if they behave 
themselves bravely. The girls kneel down to receive these presents, 
and each warrior makes a speech to his particular friends and exhorts 
them not to be cowards. In the evening another feast and dance 
called kipsirgoiit is held. At eleven o'clock the old people leave their 
houses, where they have been drinking honey-wine and beer, and join 
the warriors and girls who have been dancing. If one of the girls is 
a virgin, her father at this stage in the proceedings wears a nariet 
head-dress. 2 At midnight the fathers ask their daughters in the 
presence of all whether they have any enemies amongst the warriors. 
If they have, they mention the names, and steps are taken to prevent 
these men from attending the ceremony the next day, in case their 
presence might make the girls afraid. After this the old people keep 
up the feasting till daylight, whilst the warriors and girls retire to rest» 

The operation is performed an hour after sunrise. The fathers, 
maternal uncles, and eldest brothers anoint with milk the girls' faces, 
breasts, and legs, and pour milk on the heads of the moterenik. Only 
a few old women are actually present at the operation, 3 which is 

1 Ficus sp. a Vide p. 61, n. 5. 

8 A man who has lost several brothers or sisters in quick succession may 
witness the operation, as it is supposed to break the spell that has fallen on 
his family. 





A! 02 




























o ^ 


"M .&* 


performed in the open, but a large gathering of warriors and others 
is assembled less than a quarter of a mile away. Whilst the operation 
is taking place the girls' mothers run round the group weeping and 
wailing. The girl sits down, the senior moteriot sits behind her and 
supports her, and the operator, who is called kork'-ap-tum, sits in 
front of her. Only the clitoris is excised, and a small curved knife, 
called mwatindet, is used. If the girl shows no sign of pain, she 
stands up after the operation, puts some sinendet 1 into her ears, 
shakes the warriors' thigh bells above her head, and goes to meet her 
lover, who runs out to receive back his club, thigh bells, &c. She then 
retires to her mother's house. If the girl behaves in a cowardly 
manner, the warrior's things are thrown away. 2 

The moterenik see to the girls' food, which must be the best obtain- 
able. They may not touch food with their hands, but have to eat with 
the help of a half-calabash. Four days after the operation the lapat- 
ap-ewn (washing of hands) ceremony is held. The patients are clothed 


Fig. 46 (scale \). Mwatindet, girls' circumcision knife. 

in long garments, called nyorkit, which reach from the neck to the feet ; 
their heads and faces are enveloped in a kind of mask, called soiyuet, 
which has only two holes in front for the eyes ; a malingotiet necklace 
is thrown over their necks, and they use wooden spoons called segetiet 
instead of the half calabashes. The girls may now be engaged to be 
married. For the next month or two they stay in their mothers' huts 
in complete seclusion. When they are recovering, the moterenik build 
a small kraal call Jcdpteriot. In this kraal four small huts are erected, 
two of which are supposed to be for the reception of the future 
husband and two of his wives, the third for the girl's mother, and the 
fourth for her warrior friends. The girls appear before this kraal 
three times every day and sing the kaandaet songs extolling the 

1 Ficus sp. 

2 The test is a severe one. One ball of goat's dung is balanced on the 
girl's head, another on her knee, and a third od her big toe. If one of them 
falls to the ground, the girl is said to have flinched, and is considered a 


bravery of those who did not behave as cowards during the operation. 
Married women often join the girls at these songs. 

After the girls have all recovered, the kdpkiyai ceremony is held. 
As with the boys, a pool is made in a neighbouring river by means of 
a dam, and a small hut is built in it. Preceded by their moterenik, 
the girls, having stripped, form a line and walk in procession com- 
pletely submerged by the water through the hut. This is done four 

The girls may now be married. If no husband comes for them, 
however, they continue to live in a secluded state for the next few 
weeks, and they must wear their long garments and masks or 
veils. "Whenever they wish to go abroad, they must carry four little 
sticks of the kerundut tree, called motolik, and they must be retiring 
in their behaviour. They may not stand near anybody or call a 
person by name ; they may not enter a cornfield or a cattle-kraal ; 
they may do no work ; they may not go near a fire, harvested grain, 
or cattle ; and they may not mourn if anybody dies. They must 
leave their mothers' huts at daybreak and spit in the direction of the 
rising sun, and they must be indoors by sundown. 

As with the boys, the rlkset feast is held some eight or ten weeks 
after the kdpkiyai ceremony. The girls are taken to a large house in 
which some old women are seated playing on the friction drums, 1 and 
they are taught their duties as wives. After the feast they are clothed 
in married women's garments, but instead of the catherine-wheel- 
shaped ear-rings of married women they wear the nariet head-dress 2 
and a calf-bell suspended from the back of the neck. The head-dress 
and bell are worn for one month, after which they are discarded, and 
the girls assist their mothers in the household work until they are 


"When a Nandi wishes to marry, his father and mother start early 
one morning at the waxing of the moon 3 and proceed to the house 
where the parents or guardians of his intended bride live. This 
journey is called koito, and the father carries in his hand a sprig of 
nokiruet * and the mother a bunch of leaves of the senetwet plant. 5 

On their arrival at the house where the girl's parents live they 

1 Vide p. 40. 2 Vide p. 61, n. 5. 

3 May or June is the usual season for weddings. 4 Grewia sp. 

6 Cassia didymoboirya. 

Plate XXIV 

Nariet head-dress. The wart-hog's tushes may be affixed to the head-dress 
and worn on the forehead if the girl is a virgin. 

To face p. 60 


go to the back door, the kurket-ajt-injor, and enter the goats' com- 
partment, where they remain. The owner of the house looks through 
the ngotie, or door in the mud partition, and on seeing them joins 
them and listens to what they have to say. He then tells them to 
go away in order that he may think over the proposal, and after they 
have gone he makes inquiries regarding the young man's character 
and financial prospects. 

The old people return the next morning, and the first question 
which the girl's parents ask is : Tiony-ngwang ko ne ? (What is your 
animal? i.e. To what clan do you belong?). This information is required 
as certain of the clans may not intermarry, 1 the reason being that 
according to tradition all such marriages are sterile. On learning that 
the young man does not belong to a forbidden clan or family, which 
information the young man's parents had of course been careful to 
ascertain before starting on their journey, and being satisfied with 
the proposal, the price to be paid for the girl is discussed. At the 
present time one bull, one cow, and ten goats are the usual amount, 
though formerly the price was higher. When this matter has been 
arranged, 2 the old people are given butter or fat which they smear on 
their faces, bodies, and legs, and then return home. On their arrival 
they are greeted with shouts of Ka-hi-'il (They have been oiled), and 
everybody knows that the preliminaries have been satisfactorily 

Feasts are now prepared by both families, and the next day the 
bridegroom's relations engage the services of a boy, who is called 
mistoat (herdsman), a girl, who is called cheplakwet (nurse), and the 
bride's two moterenik or godmothers. 3 In the afternoon these four 
are sent to the house of the girl's parents. They enter by the back 
door and remain in the goats' compartment, where they are given 
food. The bride having been freshly oiled, shaved, and dressed in 
the Mskisto 4 and nariet 6 , or wedding garment and head-dress, and 

1 Vide p. 8 sqq. 

2 If the parents cannot come to terms, it is a common custom, except 
among the Tungo clan, for the man to elope with his bride, in which case 
the price is arranged at a later date. 

3 Vide p. 58. 

* The kiskisto is a finely dressed skin lined with black beads. 

5 The nariet head-dress is made of leather and iron wire, and is orna- 
mented with chains and cowrie shells. A pair of wart-hog's tushes in the 
shape of a crescent is bound to the front of the head-dress if the girl is 
a virgin. 


with the taok, or married woman's ear-rings, hanging on her shoulders, 
then enters the house by the front door. She has, however, to be 
coaxed into the goats' compartment, and must be promised a cow by 
her father before she consents to enter. Some time therefore elapses 
before she can be handed over to the bridegroom's emissaries. When 
this is done, she has various household articles tied on to her back. 
These consist of a child's gourd, a sosiot or stick used for cleaning 
gourds, and a longnet or cupping arrow, whilst a calf's bell is sus- 
pended from her left shoulder. All being now ready, the bridal party 
sets out for the village or cluster of huts of the bridegroom's father. 
The boy and one old woman precede, and the girl and the other old 
woman follow, the bride. The journey has to be undertaken with 
great care ; nobody must stumble, as this would be a sign of an un- 
happy marriage, and were one of the party to look behind, it would 
mean that the bride would be driven out of, or would fly from, her 
husband's house back to her parents. The party is timed to reach the 
house set aside for the purpose at six o'clock in the evening. On 
arrival the boy and the first old woman enter by the back door, but 
nothing will induce the bride to follow until her father-in-law and 
mother-in-law bribe her by promising her a cow and a goat respec- 
tively. She then stoops down and enters, and the others follow. In 
the house is the bridegroom, dressed as an old man in the toga-like 
robe called sumet, and without arms or warrior's ornaments. If it is 
his first marriage he has also been shaved and his hair cast towards 
the rising sun. 

"When the bridal party have entered the house, all seat themselves 
except the bride, who remains standing and refuses to take off the 
things which have been tied on to her back. Her father-in-law must 
promise her another cow before he can prevail upon her to lay aside 
her impedimenta. The bridegroom and bride then bind a sprig of 
sehutiet grass ' on to each other's wrists, after which much feasting 
and dancing are indulged in. This is kept up all night long, and 
the bridegroom and bride are instructed by the old men and women 
as to their duties to one another. 

At daybreak some of the husband's friends (of the same mat a as 
himself), accompanied, whenever possible, by members of the Kipaa 
clan, go into the woods and fetch a few sticks cut from one of the 
four following trees, according to the husband's clan : cheptuiyet, 
kosisitiet, choruet, or tepesuet. 3 They also make rope from the sinendet* 

1 Vernonia sp. 2 Vide p. 12. 3 Croton sp. * Fiais sp. 

Plate XXV 

A Nandi bride (Henderson) 

To face p. 63 


and cliernnyelilet trees. The sticks they plant in a circle and bind 
together near the back entrance of the bridegroom's hut. This 
erection is called korosiot. A bonfire is then made, and the bridal 
pair with a few relations and friends walk or dance round it four 
times, after which a goat, called tet'-ap-tumdo, is slaughtered near 
the spot. This goat is specially selected as a strong, healthy animal 
from the flock, and has been anointed during the course of the 
morning by the bridegroom's parents with milk and cow's urine, the 
old people at the same time praying to God that the marriage may 
be a bappy one. Before the goat is strangled, all persons who have 
been recently shaved and all weapons have to be removed to a dis- 
tance. After it has been killed, the entrails are examined. If there 
is no sign of disease, the event is declared auspicious. If, on the 
other hand, the goat is found to be ailing — a most improbable event, 
as it has been specially chosen out of a large flock — another one has 
to be anointed and killed. When the bridegroom's friends have given 
a favourable report, the parents and the two godmothers sprinkle 
milk and beer over the pair as well as over the bystanders, which 
include the girl's mistoat and cheplakwet of the day before, who may 
be termed page and bridesmaid. The goat is then skinned, and while 
the women roast and eat the meat, the skin is rapidly dressed and 
given to the bride to wear. A ring and bracelet of the skin are also 
made, The former is put on the middle finger of the bridegroom's 
right hand, and the latter on the girl's left wrist. The rest of the day 
is spent in feasting. 

Soon after sunset the bridegroom conducts the bride to a friend's 
house, which has been prepared for them. After she has entered, he 
performs the duties otherwise performed by the wife, closing the door, 
making the beds, and attending to the fire. The marriage may not 
yet be consummated. 

The next morning the bride opens the door and cooks some food for 
her husband, whilst her mother brings milk and assists her. The girl 
also brings water with which to wash his hands, and a stool for him 
to sit on ; but he refuses to have anything to do with her. At length, 
after she has promised him the cow her father has given her, he 
consents to allow her to wait on him, but he will not touch the food 
until one of his friends (of the same mat as himself) has been brought 
in. to taste it. He then eats and drinks, and that night the marriage 
is consummated. 

Four days later the bridal pair move into their own house, and for 


a whole month are waited on by the bridegroom's mother, as it is 
unlawful for the bride during this period to work. 

Some time after the first marriage the bridegroom has to slaughter 
a bullock, which is called eit'-ap-muket, and give a feast to his friends. 
This ceremony is similar to the kirie korokon feast. 1 An animal with 
a good pair of horns is chosen, and after the donor, who may not 
partake of the meat, has been well beaten about the face with stinging 
nettles, he is permitted to fix the head and horns over his back door. 
He may then settle down to the humdrum life of a married man. 

Polygamy. A man may marry as many wives as he can support, 
and rich men have had as many as forty wives. 2 Each wife has her 
own house, and with her children attends to a portion of her husband's 
property, both live-stock and plantations. 

The first wife is always the chief wife, and her eldest son is con- 
sidered the eldest son of the family, even if one of the other wives 
bears a son first. 


In the ordinary course of events, a feast, called rutet-ap-karik (the 
boring of iron), is held a few months after marriage, when the. wife 
discovers she is pregnant for the first time. Her relations and friends 
are invited, and whilst the old people are drinking and the young ones 
dancing, she borrows an apron from an unmarried girl and takes off 
the seeds with which it is ornamented. Into these she bores holes 
with a piece of iron, and then threads them on to a cord and sews 
them on to her lower garment (chepkawit). She wears this charm 
until her child is born, when it is hung round the babe's neck. 

A few days before the birth she retires to her house, where she 
is attended by an elderly friend, who is called kork'-ap-sikisis. When 
the child is expected, the female relations and neighbours go to the 
mother's house, and remain outside for some hours discussing the 
happy event. 

As soon as the labour pains begin, the mother sits on the edge of 
a large stone and seizes a pambaniat or rafter of the ceiling. She is 
supported from behind by an old woman, whilst the kork'-ap-sikisis 
receives the child. Immediately after the birth the mother's belt is 
tied tightly round her waist. If she suffers much, the women outside 

1 Vide p. 57. 

2 The present chief medicine man of Lumbwa has twenty-eight wives. 

Plate XXVI 

A wife and daughter of Ar-ap-Koileke, the Chief Medicine Man 
of the Lumbwa (Hobley). 

To face p. 64 


beat grain mortars with pestles to drown her cries. The kork'-ap- 
sikisis washes the child and buries the placenta in cow-dung. 

After the birth of a child the mother remains in her house for three 
days. On the fourth day a feast is prepared, which is called ki-ingk 
Asis (that God may be awakened). To this feast women only are 
invited. A short time before the guests arrive the kork'-a,2)-sikisis 
shaves the mother's head and throws away the hair towards the rising 
sun. The mother then cuts the rest of the umbilical cord with 
a longnet, or arrow used for bleeding cattle. A-til-i annan a-'tuch-i f 
(Shall I cut it off, or shall I leave a piece ?) she asks. Ituch (Leave a 
piece), the kork' -ap-sikisis replies, whereupon the mother cuts the 
cord, which the kork' -ap-sikisis buries in cow-dung. 1 

For one month after the birth the mother is considered unclean and 
may not touch food with her hands, using a stick of the segetiet tree 
to feed herself with, whilst her house is washed out daily with water 
and cow-dung. At the end of this period she proceeds to the nearest 
river and washes her hands and arms, after which she returns home 
and resumes her ordinary daily tasks. It is usual for a woman 
to engage the services of a girl nurse (cheplakwet) about this time to 
assist her with the baby. 

When a child is four months old a feast called tumd'-ap-lakwet is 
held. An ox or goat is slaughtered (male animal for a boy and female 
animal for a girl), and after the mother, child, and animal have been 
anointed with milk by one of the elders of the clan, the child's face 
is washed in the undigested food in the animal's stomach. The elder 
then prays as follows : — 

Asis ! kon-ech sapon. 
God ! give-us health. 

Asis ! iuit-ech. 
God ! protect-us. 

Oiik-chok ! iuit-w-ech lakwan-ni. 

The-spirits-our ! protect-for-us the-child-this. 

Moion-ni ! iuit-w-ech lakwan-ni. 

O-Stomach ! protect-for-us the-child-this. 

After this he turns to the child and says : — 

Eku chii! lak-te tungwo. 

Become a-man ! throw-away cough. 

A child is not weaned until it is two years of age, and it is a common 

1 For further particulars regarding the ki-inget Asis feast vide p. 66. 
nahdi 1? 


sight to see prolific women suckling two children at the same time. 
Until the child is weaned the mother must wash her hands and arms 
daily. In the case of her first two children she must proceed to the 
river every morning : with other children a septet or half-calabash is 
used in the house. 

A man must abstain from cohabiting with his wife as soon as she 
finds she is pregnant, and after the birth of a child three months must 
elapse before he may have his meals in his wife's house or have sexual 
intercourse with her. Until a child is weaned its mother must wash 
her breasts with water every time before she sleeps with her husband. 

If the father is a young man, he may not touch his child until it can 
speak, and the child may not touch its father or anything belonging 
to him. If the father wishes to give his child some food he must 
place it on his foot or on the floor. Children are taught by their 
mothers to respect and obey their fathers. 

No man may touch the threshold of his wife's house or anything in 
the house except his own bed if his wife has a child that has not been 

Names. As soon as all the guests have assembled at the ki-inget 
A sis feast (see p. 65) a ceremony known as hu/rset-ap-lakwet (the 
naming of the child) takes place. The child receives the name of a 
deceased ancestor or relative ; this name is called kainet-ap-oiik (the 
spirit's name), and the deceased ancestor or relative, who is henceforth 
known as hurenet, is expected to watch over and keep his namesake 
from harm. The child is supposed to choose its own name, and the 
ceremony is performed in the following manner : the paternal grand- 
mother, or other near relation of the father, mentions the names of 
various ancestors or relatives who have died, and the child's assent to 
a certain name is signified by it sneezing. In order to make sure that 
the child will sneeze, a little snuff is blown up its nostrils just before 
the ceremony. If the child is posthumous, care is taken to make it 
sneeze when its father's name is mentioned. When the babe has 
sneezed, the women laugh loudly (three times if a girl, and four times 
if a boy) to let the men know that the name has been given. The 
feast which has been prepared is then consumed. 

The original name given to a child, that is to say the name of a 
deceased ancestor or relative, is not used, another one being substi- 
tuted for it, generally a few days later. 1 The second name is usually 

1 The Toiyoi and Kipasiso clans do not name their children until they are 
six or seven years old. 


given to commemorate the time of the child's birth or some event 
which has occurred at that period. In the following list a few of 
the commonest names, and the reasons therefor, are given : — 

K dp-tick, born in the cattle kraal. 

Kip-ruto, Ghep-ruto, born on a journey. 

Kip-or} born by the roadside. 

Kim-ngeny, born when the oxen have gone to the salt-lick. 

Kip-ru-hit, born when there is little food in the land. 

Ki-muihe, born shortly after a relation has been killed. 

Ki-pir-hm, born when the mortars had to be beaten to drown the 

mother's cries. 
Kip-yator, born in the early morning when the door is opened. 
Ki-pet, born in the morning. 
Kip-kemboi, born in the evening. 
Kip-ruiot, born at night-time. 
Ki-maiyo, born at the time of drinking beer. 

The prefix is not necessarily kip if the child is a boy or chep if a 
girl. In the event of a father having recently acquired a cow with 
a crumpled horn, a boy or girl born at the time might be called Chep- 
seta, and if a hornless bull had been purchased or looted the child 
might receive the name Kip-karai. 

These names, unlike the first or ancestor's name, which is rarely, 
if ever, used, are maintained through life, and may be said to be 
equivalent to our Christian names. 

Nicknames are frequently given to children of ten or twelve years 
of age, or even to warriors, old men and women, if any peculiarity of 
the child or person is particularly noticeable. Thus, Eip-hatam, the 
left-handed, Kip-o-iit, the big-eared, Sirtoi, the jumper, Chep-uny-e, 
he who hides his arm, are common names given to big boys or grown- 
up men, and, at any rate amongst acquaintances, take the place of the 
second name. Girls' or women's nicknames invariably commence 
with Tap, 2 e. g. Tap-Mken, she who waits ; Tap-rap-koi, the wealthy 
one ; Tap-arus-ei, the owner of the blue (black) bullock ; Tam-nyole, 
the well-dressed one. 

After circumcision the name is changed for the last time, and both 
men and women are known for the rest of their lives to the outside 
world by what is equivalent to our surname, Ar-ap and Che'-po 
(meaning son of and daughter of respectively) being prefixed to the 

1 The feminine prefix, chep (chem, che), is used in all the following Dimes 
if a girl. 

2 An abbreviation of Chepto-ap, the girl of. 

F 2 


father's second name. In the case of younger sons Ar-ap is frequently 
prefixed to an uncle's name or to some other word, e.g. Ar-ap-koko 
(son of the old woman), Ar-ap-Koileke (son of the Koileke division). 

The following is an example of Nandi names : — 

A man of my acquaintance received shortly after his birth the 
name of one of his ancestors, Paroret, his second name was Chepsiet, 
he has no nickname, but after he became a warrior he was called Ar- 
ap-Kipleting. His son was originally called Eimosong, his second 
name was Kipet, his nickname Tech-teget (he who shields his chest), 
and his surname Ar-ap-Chepsiet. Ar-ap-Chepsiet now has a son 
whose ancestor's name was Kipsum. This boy's second name is 
Kimuike, and his surname will be Ar-ap-Kipet. 

Twins. The birth of twins is looked upon as an inauspicious event, 
and the mother is considered unclean for the rest of her life. She is 
given her own cow and may not touch the milk or blood of any other 
animal. She may enter nobody's house until she has sprinkled 
a calabash full of water on the ground, and she may never cross the 
threshold of a cattle kraal again. 

One of the twins is always called Simatua (Ficus sp. near F. elegans), 
whilst the other receives an animal's name such as Chep-tiony, Chep- 
sepet, Che-maket, Che-makut, Sec. 

Infanticide. Children are buried alive in cow-dung if they cry in 
their mother's womb, or if at birth they present their legs first, or are 
born with teeth, as these events are considered unlucky. Eich people, 
however, often pay a medicine man a large sum to avert the misfor- 
tune and save their children's lives. Children who are blind or badly 
deformed, and illegitimate children, i.e. the offspring of unmarried 
girls, are likewise made away with at birth. 

Barren women. If a woman has no children, it is usual for her hus- 
band to give her some of her step-children to look after and bring up. 

Childless women are permitted to attend the boys' circumcision 
festivities and are present during the second part of the operation, as 
it is believed that they will afterwards become pregnant. They also 
go from time to time to the principal medicine man, who gives them 
an amulet to wear, and who, whilst preparing medicine for them, is 
often closeted with them alone for some time. 

On the death of a childless woman the husband or his heirs expect 
to have the cattle and goats paid for her refunded. 

Plate XXVII 

Nandi hut (Hart). 

To face p. 69 

Granary and ' 

/Tr... ,1 \ 


Divorce. A man may divorce a barren woman if she is a bad 
woman, but he cannot claim back the marriage-portion unless he can 
find somebody else to marry her. A woman who has had a child can- 
not be divorced, though the husband and wife may live separated. In 
a case of this kind it is usual for the eldest child to remain with 
the father and for the second child to go with the mother to live at 
her brother's house or elsewhere. 

A divorce ceremony takes place in the presence of a number of 
people, and is performed by the husband cutting or tearing a bag of 
sand in half, and saying, Tun 'ngo-to-i-tep-a i-pet-aki kuu lol6n-ni 
(The next time thou askest for me thou wilt be torn like this bag). 

When men beat their wives it is usual for the women to take 
shelter with a member of their husband's mat, 1 who is expected to act 
as intermediary and to restore peace. If a man frequently ill-treats 
his wife, he is cursed by the members of his mat. 

A woman who has done wrong and who expects to incur her 
husband's anger generally goes to her father and begs an ox, which she 
takes to her husband as a peace-offering. 


If a person falls ill, it is attributed to one of his or her deceased 
ancestors or relatives, and a brother or other near relation is sent for 
to propitiate the angry spirit. 

A fragment of a broken pot is taken, and after water has been 
poured into it, it is placed on or near the sick bed. Some castor-oil 
leaves with long stalks or some millet stalks (four for a man, three for 
a woman) are then plucked, and the brother endeavours to stand them 
up in the potsherd. Each one is taken in turn, and at the same 
time the name of one of the dead relations is called out. This perform- 
ance is continued until one of the stalks stands upright. The brother 
then cries out: Ka-ko-sich-in, orkoiyo! (I have got thee, O medicine 
man !); and the sick person solemnly kicks it over with his big toe. One 
stalk is thrown on the bed, one in the goats' compartment, one between 
the two rooms of the house, 2 and one outside. Mud or sand is mixed 
with the water and a little smeared on the forehead and throat of the 
invalid, whilst the rest, together with some eleusine grain, beer and 
milk is sprinkled between the bed and the door, and also thrown out- 
side the house, the brother saying to the spirit responsible for the 
1 Vide p. 12. 2 This is omitted if the patient is a woman. 


illness : TJi, anum, iro-cho maiyo ah pai ! Ka-ki-'nah-in maiyo ah pat, 
'e-at-e ! (Go away, so and so, look at this beer and eleusine grain ! 
Beer and eleusine grain have been poured and sprinkled on thee, 
enjoy them as thou goest !) The ceremony is concluded by everybody 
present taking a handful of eleusine grain and throwing it away for the 
benefit of the angry spirit. If any falls in the fire and crackles, it is 
looked upon as a good sign. 

The Nandi make medicines out of the bark, roots, and leaves of 
various trees and plants. These medicines are made use of after the 
spirit of the deceased ancestor or relative has been appeased. Cupping 
is also frequently resorted to, and wounds are at times cauterized 
with fire-sticks. Surgery is practised, and limbs are skilfully set and 
amputated. When a man has been mauled by a wild beast or bitten 
by a snake, it is customary to scarify his body and to give him tobacco 
and water to drink. 

"When a person is nearing death he is carried outside the house. 
The male relatives say : Ka-ko-nyarat-it (The soul has become very 
small), and the women reply : Ki-rlp-e konda (The eye is being 
watched). Just before death, milk is poured into the dying person's 

After a death has occurred the body is taken away at nightfall a few 
hundred yards to the west of the hut, towards the setting sun, and 
placed on the ground. Three adult relations are charged with the 
duty of conveying the corpse to its last resting-place, and great care 
must be taken that nobody stumbles, as this would bring misfortune 
on the whole family. A man is laid on his right side, a woman on her 
left, with the hand supporting the head, and the legs outstretched. 
The body, which is left for the hyenas to devour, is not covered with 
anything except the skin garment which the deceased wore when alive 
and a few handfuls of grass or leaves of the tepengwet plant. 1 When 
depositing the body the relations say, Kirnahetoi! O-pwa o-ani 
(Hyenas ! Come and eat). 

On their return to the place where the death occurred, the persons 
who handled the corpse wail and cry aloud the name of the deceased. 
They then bathe in a river, anoint their bodies with fat, partially 
shave their heads, and live in the deceased's hut for four days, during 
which time they must not be seen by a boy or a female. They may 
also touch no food with their hands, but must eat with the help of 
a potsherd or chip of a gourd, and they may drink no milk. 
1 Emilia integrifolia. 


The body is visited on the second day after death to see if the hyenas 
have eaten it. If it is found that they have not been near the spot, 
a goat is killed and the meat is placed on and near the corpse to 
attract their attention. Except with the Tungo clan, the body is also 
turned over on the other side. Should the hyenas still not come it is 
understood that the deceased has been killed by witchcraft, and the 
relations proceed to a medicine man * to ascertain who is responsible 
for the death. They take iron wire with them as a present, but if 
this is not accepted, they give the medicine man a goat. He then 
divines, by casting pebbles from a divining-box, who the guilty person 
is, and describes him without mentioning his name. The relations of 
the deceased thereupon seize a brother or other near relation of the 
accused and take him before the medicine man, who states what he 
has divined, after which they search for the accused himself, and if 
they find him, kill him. Even if he escapes he must flee the country. 

On the death of anybody but a baby or an old man or woman great 
sorrow is shown, not only by the near relations, but by the whole 
family, and, if the person is well known, by the whole clan. The 
deceased may not again be mentioned by name except at the naming 
of a child or the curing of a sick person. 2 If a dead person is spoken 
of, he must be referred to as kimaitet, the deceased, or as puresik, 

When a married man dies, his widows and unmarried daughters lay 
aside all their ornaments, and the eldest son wears his garment inside 
out. Before the next new moon all the relations of the deceased shave 
their heads and throw away the hair towards the setting sun. 
Distant relations shave only over their ears. Widows mourn for 
a whole year, other persons for from ten days to a month. On the 
death of a married woman her youngest daughter wears her garment 
inside out, whilst her other relations put rope on their ornaments and 
shave their heads. In the case of unmarried people the female rela- 
tions cover their ornaments with rope and the male relations shave 
their heads. 

When the moon is in the last quarter after the head of a family has 
died, an ox is slaughtered and the deceased's relations and friends 
partake thereof. This ceremony is called kaiilet ap karik, as all 
present put oil on their ornaments. One of the brothers, or, if there 
is no brother or half-brother, a paternal cousin, climbs on to the roof 

1 Kipsakeiyot or Kipimgut {vide p. 51). 

2 Vide pp. 66 and 69. 


of the huts and solemnly breaks off the stick called kimonjokut which 
is bound on to the central pole. 1 After this he enters the huts and 
breaks the pegs from which the weapons were suspended, the beds, 
and the mud partition between the rooms ; he also cuts pieces out of 
the stools and baskets, and chips the drinking-cups. The stools and 
cups are chipped as no warrior may sit on or drink out of a dead 
man's things. As long as a widow is in mourning, no warrior may 
enter her house. She is considered unclean, she must speak in 
a whisper, and she may not go near a warrior or stand up whilst 
warriors are sitting down. She may also never re-marry or again 
wear married women's ear-rings. 

In the case of very old men or women and very young children 
(i. e. nominally those who have no teeth), the body is buried in the 
dung-heap near the cattle kraal. No sorrow is shown when old 
people die, and the relations laugh and talk at the burial, for it is said, 
Ka-ko-it ye-ki-iken-i (He has now arrived where he expected to arrive 
a long while ago). The corpse is placed in the grave in the same 
position as with ordinary people, that is to say, males are laid on the 
right side and females on the left, with the hand supporting the 
head and the legs outstretched. Old men are sewn up in ox or 
goats' hides, and milk, beer, and food are put in their graves. 
After the grave has been filled in, a lepekwet 2 tree is planted in the 

"When warriors are slain on the field of battle, or when hunters fall 
victims to the onslaught of wild beasts, the same ceremonies are per- 
formed as with people who die at home. Their bodies are placed 
ready for the hyenas, and their ornaments are taken to their relations 
to be oiled at the kaiilet ap karik ceremony. 


On a man's death his sons inherit his herds and flocks. It is 
customary for the Nandi to distribute their stock amongst their wives 
during their lifetime, each one being given a certain number to look 
after, tend, and milk. The sons of each wife inherit the property 
thus placed in their mother's charge. It is also usual for a man 
to give his sons from their earliest youth upwards a certain number 
of cattle — for instance, when a boy's two middle incisor teeth are 

1 Vide p. 15. 2 Dracaena sp. 


extracted and when his ears are bored, he is given a cow. These 
beasts are herded with their mother's cattle until the boys become 
warriors, when they generally separate their herds from those of their 

The eldest son of the principal wife inherits the lion's share of 
his father's property. He also receives all the cattle which his father 
lent to his childless wives, unless these wives have taken charge of 
any of their step-children, when they are inherited by them. It is 
usual for a father to give or bequeath to each of his sons, if he loves 
them and they have been dutiful, a stick with which to herd their 
stock after his death. If, on the other hand, a father dislikes his son 
he leaves him a knife to enable him to slaughter the cattle he will 

Widows nominally become the property of either their husband's 
next elder or next younger brother ; but they frequently live in their 
old homes with one of their sons, or they go and live with their father 
or with one of their own brothers. The eldest son is expected to 
give a cow to each of his father's widows for her own use. 

The eldest son of each wife looks after his sisters and receives the 
stock which his father would otherwise have received when they 
marry. The cattle paid to a man when his daughters are married 
are inherited by the girl's own brothers. 

When an unmarried warrior or a man with no sons dies, his 
brothers inherit his property and make a home for his daughters if 
he has any. If he has no brothers, his step-brothers are his heirs, 
and failing them his paternal cousins. A father can only inherit 
from his sons when they have not yet reached man's estate. 

Daughters inherit their mother's ornaments and household utensils. 
The sons and daughters inherit her plantations and retain an interest 
in them until they become warriors or are married, when the land 
is taken up by one of the sons' wives or is handed over by the father 
to one of his other wives. On a woman's death her plantation, if 
a new one, is frequently allowed to go out of cultivation. 


Mwrder and homicide. If a Nandi kills one of his countrymen, 
but a member of a different clan from his own, the brothers and cousins 
of the murdered man try to capture a herd of cattle belonging to the 
murderer or to one of his relations. To prevent this, the murderer 


and his relatives drive their cattle to a friendly clan, where the herds 
are mingled with other cattle. If this is accomplished, the aggrieved 
persons may not touch the cattle. They then seek for the murderer, 
whom they club to death should they discover his whereabouts. But 
after bringing his cattle into safety the murderer will hide until the 
old men of his clan have arranged to pay the blood-money to the 
murdered man's relations. The price for a man's life is five cows, 
five bulls and thirty goats ; for a woman's or a child's, five cows, four 
bulls and fifteen goats. One cow at least has to be paid by the 
murderer himself : this cow is called vri-hgot (the breaking of the 
spear). The object of seizing a herd of cattle belonging to the mur- 
derer's family is to pick out the finest beasts, as well as to slaughter 
one or two, after which the herd is returned. 

When the blood-money is paid, five or six elders of both clans meet 
together, each man carrying a handful of grass called taparariet. An 
influential elder of another clan (probably the Tungo clan) is also 
present and hands to each a little food and water. This is taken on 
the spot, after which peace is restored. 

If a Nandi kills a member of his own clan, he is regarded as un- 
clean for the rest of his life unless he can succeed in killing two other 
Nandi of a different clan, and can pay the fine (tuk'-am-met) himself. 
He may never again enter a cattle kraal except his own, and when- 
ever he wishes to go into a hut he must strike the earth twice with 
a rhinoceros-horn club before crossing the threshold. 

A Nandi who murders a Nandi is known as rwmindet ; one who 
kills a person belonging to another tribe is called' parindet. The 
former name is one of opprobrium, the latter one of praise. A 
parindet paints one side of his body, spear and sword red, and the 
other side white. For four days after the murder he is considered 
unclean and may not go home. He has to build a small shelter by 
a river and live there, he must not associate with his wife or sweet- 
heart, and he may only eat porridge, beef, and goat's flesh. At the 
end of the fourth day he must purify himself by drinking a strong 
purge made from the bark of the segetet tree, and by drinking goat's 
milk mixed with bullock's blood. A Nandi will not slay a foe if he 
sees that the man has grass in his hand or if the enemy can throw 
some of his own excrement at him. Trees and rivers are regarded as 
sanctuaries, and no Nandi may kill a man who has taken refuge in 
one of these. He exchanges his garment with his enemy, who becomes 
his prisoner or slave, and remains as such until ransomed. To ensure 


a prisoner not attempting to escape the captor shaves his head and 
keeps the hair, thus placing him at the mercy of his magic. 

Assault. There is no penalty for assault even if the injured person 
loses an eye or a limb, but while he is suffering from the effects of the 
injury, the man who assaulted him has to slaughter oxen and goats 
fairly frequently to provide him with food. Should the person event- 
ually die from the effects of the wound it is regarded as murder, and 
the tuk'-am-met fine has to be paid in full, notwithstanding the fact that 
a dozen bullocks may have been slaughtered during the person's illness. 

Theft. Theft is looked upon as a mean and contemptible crime, and 
a thief is severely dealt with. 

If a man is caught stealing, or if a theft is brought home to him, 
he is beaten and fined four times the value of the stolen property. 
The fine has to be paid by the relations if the man is himself too 
poor. Should a thief be caught a second time, or even suspected, he 
is tortured. A thong or bow-string is tied tightly round his head 
just above his eyebrows and ears, and the ends after being twisted 
are fixed to stakes in the ground. They are then beaten with sticks 
which makes the thong cut deeply into the flesh. Twigs are also 
thrust in underneath the thong, and water is poured over the man's 
head to make the wound smart. After a couple of hours of this 
torture, during which time the wretched man has seen his houses and 
granaries burnt, his crops destroyed, and half his goats and cattle 
confiscated, he is released ; but he bears the mark of the thong and 
is branded as a thief to his dying day. 

On the occasion of a third theft the thief is killed and his goats 
and cattle slaughtered. The animals are not killed in the ordinary 
way, but are thrown on their sides and cut or hacked in half. The 
mode of execution adopted is partial strangulation, after which the 
person is clubbed to death. Two thongs are tied tightly round the 
neck and pulled in opposite directions by about twenty people ; other 
people then rush in and use their clubs. 

If a woman steals, she is severely beaten the first time, and on the 
second occasion she is tied up and thrashed with stinging nettles, her 
face and body being in a terrible state before she is released. The 
same treatment is meted out to children \ and if goats enter the planta- 
tions they are also tortured with stinging nettles, which are thrust 
up their nostrils, into their mouths, and wherever they are most 


He must search for a human skull, which lie takes to the house of the 
accuser and deposits at his door, saying at the same time : 'Ngo-k-ai 
kii-i, kw-am-a met-i ; 'ngo-m-d-ai, kw-am-in (If I have done this 
thing, may this head eat me ; if I have not done it, may it eat thee). 
If the accused is guilty, it is believed that he will surely die within 
a few days ; but, if he is innocent, his accuser dies. 

In the event of a man being falsely accused of theft, he will take a 
handful of grass, and whilst holding it at one end himself will offer 
the other end and a knife to his accuser. Should the latter accept 
the challenge and cut the grass, it is believed that he will die if the 
accused is innocent. But if he does not die, the accused is considered 
guilty and punished accordingly. 

If a person is accused of stealing food he may, before being punished, 
ask to be given a quantity of water to drink. He then puts a stick 
down his throat, and it can be seen when he vomits whether the 
accusation is correct. Should he be innocent he can demand a good 
meal from his accuser. 


Hospitality. When a Nandi is travelling or proceeding on a visit to 
friends, he asks on reaching a place where he wishes to halt for the night 
whether there is anybody belonging to the same mat 1 as himself. On 
being shown a house he leaves his arms outside and enters. If both 
men are married, the host charges his wife to attend to the wants of 
the visitor, and leaves his hut to sleep elsewhere. The wife pours 
water on the guest's hands, brings him a stool to sit upon, gives 
him food, takes his arms, and passes the night with him. If 
the visitor is unmarried, no attention is paid to him beyond giving 
him food ; he sits on the ground and passes the night in the 
warriors' hut. 

In the event of there being nobody of his own mat near at hand, 
the visitor asks to be directed to the dwelling of a member of the 
next mat to his, and when he explains matters to the owner of the 
hut, he is just as hospitably received as if the two men belonged to 
the same mat. But he cannot expect, and will not receive, hospitality 
from anybody belonging to another ipinda, or age, than his own. 

Grass. Grass is held to be sacred, as it is the food of cattle. It 

1 Vide p. 12. 


may not be cut except by women for thatch, and warriors are not 
permitted to till the ground, as they would have to kill the grass. 

When a man or boy is being beaten, he is allowed to go free if he 
can tear up some grass. A Nandi, too, will not kill a native of 
another tribe if he has grass in his hand or on his person. A handful 
of grass held above the head is a sign of peace, and when two people 
fight, one of them has only to pluck some grass to ensure that his 
opponent will desist from attacking him. 1 Peacemakers carry grass 
in their hands after a murder has been committed ; and warriors 
returning from raids and expeditions are greeted by their women-folk 
who run out to meet them singing, and as a sign of peace bearing 
bunches of grass. 

When a man pays a debt in cattle, or when cattle are paid for a 
wife, some grass has also to be handed to the receiver, otherwise it 
is thought that the cattle will die. 

Grass is used on many occasions. For instance, it is thrown on 
the mounds made by the black ant (songotiet), as this insect is con- 
sidered unlucky ; it is held in the hand when an ox, calf, goat, or 
sheep is bled for the first time, or when an unborn calf or kid is 
removed from its mother's carcase ; a bracelet of grass takes the place 
of the wedding ring of civilized nations ; grass is bound round the 
central pole of the house as a sign of life and strength ; and dead 
bodies are partially covered with grass when laid ready for the 
hyenas. If a warrior drops a weapon he must throw some grass 
on it before he picks it up ; and when a person urinates or defaecateB, 
he must cover the spot with grass. Grass is also put in the mouth 
of gourds used for sprinkling warriors with milk when they start on 
a raid, and for anointing boys and girls during the circumcision festi- 
vals. It is likewise employed when the tet'-ap-twndo goat is killed at 
weddings. Grass must never be used for beating either people or cattle. 

Spitting. Spitting is principally used to avert ill luck or to bring 
good luck. It is also used to express astonishment at anything 
phenomenal, as a form of blessing, and in making agreements. 

If a man tells a lie or says anything that is wrong, he spits. He 
also spits when he visits a sick person, when he prays, when he 
smells anything obnoxious, when he has had a bad dream, when he 

1 If there are two or three people fighting on each side, a bow stood up on 
end is the usual sign of peace ; if there are several combatants, an ostrich 
feather is shown (vide p. 84). 


bleeds his cattle, or takes a beehive, when he sees his totem animal, 
chameleon, or other strange creature, when he eats game, when he 
is startled, when he puts on sandals, when he takes anything from 
a smith's hand, or touches a newly-made cooking-pot, and when he 
hears the name of a dead person mentioned. Formerly it was cus- 
tomary to spit whenever a person was seen dressed in cloth, and to 
the present day most Nandi spit when they meet a European. If 
a warrior sees a baby for the first time, he spits on it and says : 
' This child is bad,' at the same time calling it by an animal's name. 
To himself, however, he says : ' This child is good ; it is like a calf.' 

When the new moon is seen, when shooting-stars or a comet are 
visible, or when there is an eclipse of the sun or moon, the Nandi 
spit and pray for good luck. 

Old people and warriors often spit on children when they greet 
them, and old men spit in their hands before shaking hands with 
warriors. A dying father, uncle, or elder will spit in a boy's hand 
when the latter comes to bid him farewell, and the boy will rub the 
spittle on his face. 

At peace ceremonies, and when marriages are arranged, both parties 
spit to ensure the agreement being propitious. When cattle, grain, 
or household utensils are sold, the seller spits after payment has been 
made to show that the sale has been completed. 

Omens. If a person is proceeding on a journey and strikes the sole 
of his foot or the big or little toe against a stone, it is a good omen. If, 
on the other hand, he strikes his second, third, or fourth toe. it is a bad 
omen. To call back a person who has started on a journey portends 
evil. Should he be wanted, someone must run after him and tell him 
whilst accompanying him what is required. If a fly enters a tra- 
veller's mouth and he spits it out, he may expect a good reception at 
his journey's end ; but if he swallows it, it is a sign that he will go 
to bed hungry. A rat crossing the path in front of one is propitious, 
whilst a snake is unlucky. 

Like the Masai, the Nandi are great believers in the Mptiltiliat 
bird. 1 A war party starting on an expedition listens intently for the 
first sound of this bird's note. Should it be on the left side of the 
road all is well, but if it is on the right side the party will probably 
return at once. ' When a man is driving home goats, it is a good sign 
if he hears the bird calling on the right side of the road, but a bad sign 

1 Mesopicus spodocephalus, Bp. 


if on the left side. With sheep it is the reverse — a good sign on the 
left side and a bad sign on the right. If a person is starting out to 
plant eleusine grain, he will return home again if he hears the bird's 
call on the right side of the path ; and the same with millet if the 
bird calls on the left side, as he may look forward to a bad harvest. 
Should a traveller hear the kiptiltiliai 's note in front of him it is 
unlucky ; but if he hears it behind him he may expect a successful 
journey, provided he does not shake hands with a chance acquaintance 
that he may happen to meet. 

If a francolin or spur-fowl is heard by a war party, it is a sign that 
one or more of the party will die, and should the cry be repeated 
the head of the expedition would be foolish to continue on his way. 

When a buzzard is seen sitting on a tree or pole, it is a bad sign 
if he shows his back, but a good sign if his breast is visible. 

No Nandi will kill a bush-buck or Colobus monkey, as he may 
expect to die shortly afterwards if the animal cries. For the same 
reason trees are rarely felled, as it is believed that if the branches 
when rubbing against one another make a scraping noise, or, as the 
Nandi say, cry, the axe-man will die. 

If a hyena or snake is killed and a mess made on the ground, the 
slayer must slaughter a goat, otherwise he will fall ill and die. 

It is a most lucky sign if a grasshopper settles on a warrior's spear. 
Not only does it affect the owner of the spear but all the members of 
his mat. 

To have one's garments carried away by the wind is very unlucky 
and portends great distress. It is also a bad omen to have one's 
garment caught by a bush. 

A man who has no calf to his leg is looked upon as an evil person, 
and a long-armed man is put down as a thief. A one-eyed man and 
a one-eyed cow are considered lucky. 

A cow that protrudes its tongue to an excessive length, one that 
grinds its teeth, and one that twists its tail round a tree, are 
objects of ill omen and must be killed, the head being roasted the 
same day. Likewise, if a goat or a sheep seats itself like a dog, or if 
a sheep climbs on to the roof of a hut, it must be slaughtered, and 
the flesh eaten at once or thrown away. Should a dog climb on to 
the roof of a house, it is a sign that the head of the family will die. 
It is said that both of the late Orkoiih or chief medicine men 
(KimDyole and Koitalel) were warned that their death was near by 
dogs climbing on to the roofs of their houses a day or two before they 


were killed. In the case of Koitalel, the dog was shot by Ar-ap- 
Chemongor, the maotiot of Murk'-ap-Tuk' (Kapwaren). 

If a goat goes to the front door of a house it is an omen of good 
luck, but a sheep that attempts to do the same thing must be driven 
away, as it is a sign that a death will occur in the family. 

When a spider spins its web across an open door, it is a sign that 
misfortune will befall the household, and unless the house is a new 
one, it must be pulled down and re-erected by the owner. If it has 
only recently been built, the elders must be paid to come and pray 
that the house may be freed from the spell cast upon it. 

Shooting stars and comets are a sign of great ill-fortune — especially 
the latter — and when people see them they must spit and offer up 
a prayer. 

At all ceremonies, such as births, deaths, and marriages, and on 
all important occasions, as, for instance, when cattle fall sick, when 
warriors start on an expedition, or when people dream of the dead, a 
bullock or goat must be slaughtered, and the entrails examined to ascer- 
tain whether the omen may be regarded as propitious or otherwise. 

Sneezing, Hiccoughs, Yawning, Sfc. "When a person sneezes, those 
present say, Ko-'weit-in A sis (May God be good to thee). The reply is, 
Iweit (He is good). 

Should a person ask for something which the owner does not wish 
to give away, he (the owner) sneezes before replying. It would then 
be unlucky for the person to receive it. But if the owner were to 
refuse and then to sneeze, he would have to part with it. A common 
practice is for a man, who intends to ask for something which he does 
not expect to get, to take some one with him. The third party then 
sneezes before the owner has time to reply, and the man gets what he 


If a man wishes to buy something and the owner refuses to sell, the 
intending purchaser will sneeze and throw a piece of wood in the direc- 
tion of the owner. No one else will then purchase the article, and 
the man who wants it will probably be able to get it at his own price. 

When a person hiccoughs, it is a sign that he will shortly eat meat. 
A throbbing of the pulse leads a person to expect sexual intercourse. 
To yawn is bad : it is said to bring illness into the house. 

Sleep, Dreams, Madness, Intoxication, Sfc. During sleep the soul is 
supposed to leave the body, and a person must not be awakened roughly 



or boisterously for fear of the soul not finding its way back again. 1 If 

a person falls into a trance or faints, he is said to die. It is believed 

47 48 D y some that the soul leaves and returns to the body 

through the gap caused by the extraction of the middle 

incisor teeth of the lower jaw. 

The Nandi believe in the reality and truth of what 
they see in dreams, and, when a person dreams, he is 
supposed to be holding communication with the spirits 
of the deceased. The meaning of dreams is interpreted 
by the medicine men, who themselves are believed to 
obtain oracles and to be able to foretell future events 
from what they see in dreams. Adults always pray 
after they have dreamt a bad dream. 

The theory of madness and intoxication are the same. 
A person is said to lose the power of his head and is 
rather pitied. The insane are left to themselves unless 
they become dangerous, when they are kept under re- 
straint. People who make themselves obnoxious when 
drunk are forbidden by the elders of their clan to drink 
fermented liquor. 


Henstruous girls and women keep 
themselves in seclusion. They may not cook food or 
shake anybody by the hand, and they must not be 
struck. When men allude to them during the time 
they have their periods, they do not make use of the 
ordinary word, sunonik (menstruous people), but refer 
to them as having been killed by the Kavirondo (tiplk 
che-ko-par Lemek). 

All women must bathe when their periods are 
finished, and girls must be careful not to go to the 
warriors' huts for some days afterwards for fear of 
becoming pregnant after intercourse with the men. 

Games. As elsewhere in Africa and in other parts 

of the world, Nandi children have toys and play at 

different games. Small children are fond of building 

huts in the sand, and collecting snails, pebbles, and 

solanum berries, which they say are cattle, goats, and 

Fios. 47, 48 sheep ; boys make tops out of the Kimoluet 2 fruit and 
wooden spears. l See also enigma No. 48, p. 144. a Vangueria edulis. 




clubs out of bulrushes, and they arm themselves with wooden spears 
and shields ; and girls dress dolls, which they make out of the fruit 
of the sausage tree/ in skins, and make necklaces and bracelets of 
vegetables and seeds. 

A game little boys and girls frequently play is called mororochet 
(frog). They jump round in a circle, sitting on their heels and 
singing: Kipchokchok kohgongong supeet. 2 Another game is to hop 
on one foot whilst holding the other one, and to sing, Ea-pel-a hoko, 
kw-eet-a mama (Grandmother has burnt me, but uncle has stopped 
her). In the game called kimnis from ten to twenty children sit in a 
circle and take a piece of live charcoal, which they pass from one to 
another. One child stands outside the circle and guesses who has the 
charcoal. If he guesses correctly he is told he will have meat for 
supper, but if he is wrong he will be given donkey's flesh. A game 
which only the children of the chief medicine man are allowed to 
play is to form a ring, hold hands, and sing : Ki-po kip-set-met, ko-mi 



Figs. 49-51 (scale J). Boys' arrows (wooden heads) : (49) for killing rats 
(kipiriot) ; (50) for killing birds (koiisit) ; (51) shalt. 

porto ka (We belong to the person whose head goes to war whilst his 
hody remains in the kraal). 3 

Big boys and girls sometimes have mock circumcision festivals. As 
children may not talk of circumcision they call the rite ' branding ', and 
they use in place of the circumcision-knives pieces of wood cut into 
shape like branding irons. Boys also play at war, when they take 
girls prisoners, keeping them as such until ransomed or rescued by 
their friends. Other games which big boys play at are called talus, 
chemosiraitet, and kangetet. The first-mentioned is supposed to repre- 
sent the bleeding of oxen. A tick is shot with an arrow and the 
blood caught in a shell. Chemosiraitet is a high jump and kangetet is 
lifting the spear. 

The almost universal game of bau (a kind of draughts) is known, 

1 Kegdia aethiopica. 

2 This is untranslatable, but is said to mean, 'Thus jump the frogs.' 

3 Vide p. 50, n. 1. 

G 2 


and is sometimes played by grown-up people, but they do not use a 
board containing compartments, like the Bantu tribes. Instead of this 
they make holes in the earth in which they circulate seeds. This 
game the Nandi call kechuiek. 

Peace ceremonies. Somewhat elaborate ceremonies are performed 
by the Nandi in the making of peace after war. The placing of an 
ostrich feather in a prominent position in a high-road is a sign that 
peace is desired, and after the terms have been settled, one of the 
following ceremonies is gone through. Perhaps the most binding 
ceremony of all is when the chiefs and elders go to a soldier ant-heap, 
and having spat in it, say : Chiito ne-ngem-e tilion-ni, ko-ii-chi 
kering(m-ni (May the children of the man who breaks this peace be 
born in this hole). Some Nandi cut a dog in half, one man of each of 
the parties who have met to make peace holding it, whilst a third man 
says : Chiito ne-ngem-e tilion-ni, hi-par ses6n-ni (May the man who 
breaks this peace be killed like this dog). Others kill with blows of 
a club a tortoise, or smash a calabash full of water and flies, and say : 
Chiito ne-ngem-e tili&n-ni, ki-par tukii-chu (May the man who breaks 
this peace be killed like these things). Others again castrate a goat, 
and after one man of each party has taken one of the testicles in his 
hand, say: Chiito ne-ngem-e tilion-ni, ho-lat Asis (May God castrate 
the man who breaks this peace). 

When two men wish to make peace, they either cut a bow-string 
and say : 'Ngo-a-ngem tilion-ni, kw-am-a inon-ni (If I break this 
peace, may this bow-string eat me); or they cut their fore-arms 
slightly and, touching the other man's blood, say : 'Ngo-a-ngem tilion- 
ni, kw-am-a koroti-cku (If I break this peace, may this blood eat me). 

When women make peace after a quarrel, they step over a belt 
which has been placed on the ground, and say: 'Ngo-a-ngem kii-nguiig, 
kw-am-a legetidn-ni (If I spoil thy thing, may this belt eat me). 

Blood-brotherhood. A ceremony of blood-brotherhood was formerly 
unknown to the Nandi, but when the Coast traders obtained access to 
the country, they induced the Nandi to enter into blood-brotherhood 
with them. A Swahili and a Nandi would sit opposite to each other, 
and, after each had cut the back of his hand, the wound was sucked by 
the other. The Nandi, however, never considered this ceremony binding. 

During the last eight or ten years a ceremony common amongst the 
Masai has been introduced into Nandi. It is called Patureshin, or 
the ceremony of the red bead. When two friends wish to regard one 


another as brothers or sisters they exchange a red bead, and ever 
afterwards call one another Patureshi, instead of by their proper names. 

Form of oath. If a Nandi is accused of telling a falsehood, he will 
pluck a few blades of grass or pick up a little earth and say : Kw- 
am-a susuondon-ni or Kw-am-a ngungunye-chu (May this grass [or 
this earth] eat me). One cannot, however, depend on this oath. The 
form of oath which is binding on all Nandi men is to strike a spear 
with a club or to step over a spear (preferably one which has killed a 
man) and to say : Kw-am-a melei (May the blade eat me). Nandi 
women are bound to speak the truth if they step over a woman's belt, as 
when making peace, and say : Kw-am-a legetion-ni (May this belt eat me). 

Curses. The worst thing that can be said to a Nandi man is : 
Am-in meld (May a blade eat thee, i. e. may est thou die after perjuring 
thyself), and nothing can be said which is more hateful to a Nandi 
woman than Am-in k&pkwony (Mayestthou die of impossible labour). 

Other curses are given in the following list : — 

Am-in Ilatl May the thunder eat thee, or Mayest thou be struck 
by lightning ! 

Am-in chesirun ! Mayest thou die of small-pox ! 

Am-in eset / Mayest thou die of fever ! 

Am-in chelole ! Mayest thou die of dysentery ! 

Am-in motony ! Mayest thou be eaten by vultures ! 

Imelel ! Mayest thou get no oxen on a raid ! 

Isagit ! Become thin ! 

Pet-in honyit / Mayest thou lose all honour 1 

Ip-in goris ! May the cold seize thee ! 

Iyei-n hong I May thine eye be broken ! 

Ipanan ! Mayest thou become poor ! 

Par-in A sis! May God kill thee ! 

Ijoet/ Be lost! 

Perper-itu t Become a fool ! 

Fire. Fire is produced bymeans of fire-sticks (pionik), a hard pointed 
stick being rapidly drilled into a small hole in a flat piece of soft wood. 
The hard stick is called hirhit (the male), and the soft piece of wood kdket 
(the female) . Fire making is the exclusive privilege of the men of the tribe. 

Fire may be taken from one house to another once, or at the out- 
side twice, a day, but if there is a very sick person in the house, no 
fire may leave the premises. 

Fires, which might be termed sacred fires, are occasionally kindled 
at certain ceremonies, as for instance at marriage festivals before the 
tet'-ap-tumdo goat is slaughtered; when cattle are attacked by disease, 


or when raided cattle are brought to their new home, and at the 
kipsunde festivals at harvest time. 1 

Land Tenure. In Aldai, individual or family ownership of land is 
recognized. Land is inherited from generation to generation and can 
be bought or sold, together with the trees on it. 

Elsewhere in Nandi no proprietary rights are acknowledged, and 
when a person wishes to settle on waste land, it is only necessary to 
obtain permission from the nearest neighbours. 

If, however, the great forests, which form natural fastnesses, were 
to be cut down, the maotik or chief medicine man's representatives 
would probably interfere, and the kiruogik or people's representatives 
would call upon the offenders to desist. Land may not be alienated, 
but strangers may be given permission to squat, and in course of time 
they acquire squatters' rights. 

Trees. Certain trees are owned by families and private individuals. 
The mopet 2 tree, for instance, the timber of which is much sought 
after for building purposes, is inherited from generation to generation. 
Trees which are situated in good positions, and are well shaped for the 
hanging of honey barrels, may be appropriated and marked as belong- 
ing to a family or person. Trees so marked are called kuketuet. 

Next to the mopet tree, the tepengioet 8 is mostly used for building 
huts and cattle-kraals. The timber which is most appreciated for 
burning is cut from the following trees : Emdit,* cheptuiyet, martit, 
tenduet, masomboriet, osenuit, and kimeliet. 

There are a few superstitious customs with regard to various trees. 
Some trees may not be used either for building huts or as firewood. 5 
Such are kipuimetyet, chepkererlong, chemusariot* kakoluet, irokwet, and 
teldet. 7 The last mentioned, a fine shady tree, is always left standing 
for the kdpkiruog or old men's council place. No Nandi may strike 
anybody with a stick of the chesagit tree, and no cattle may be struck 
with a stick if the bark has been taken off it. A stick of the legetetuet 8 
tree is generally fixed in the roof of huts as a charm against snakes, 
a branch of the chemusariot 9 tree is planted in the eleusine fields to 
keep away the locusts, and a few bunches of the pek-ap-tarit 10 tree are 
tied on to the hedges to drive off the birds. 

1 Tide pp. 63 and 45 sqq. a Dolichandrone platycalyx. 

3 Emilia integrifolia. * Olea chrysophiUa. 

8 A tree that has been struck by lightning may also not be cut up for 
building purposes or for firewood. e Lippia sp. 

1 Ficus sp. 8 Carissa edvMs. ° Lippia sp. 10 Lantana salvifolia. 

Plate XXX 

Nandi •woman and child. The ornament which the child is wearing on its 
forehead shows that its next elder brother or sister is dead (Stordy). 

Warriors' thigh bell. Calves' bell. 

Cows' bell. 

To face p. 87 


The bamboo, which is called tekat, 1 and a parasite called simotuet 2 
are regarded almost as sacred. The former may only be used at the 
kambakta or warriors' dances, when a stick is planted in the ground, 
and for making the old men's divining boxes ; from the latter, cord 
only may be made, with which the warriors bind their pigtails. Wood 
from both the tekat and simotuet are at times thrown on sacred fires. 

If a tree is lopped, the central branch must always be left standing. 
Though the Nandi dislike felling trees, 3 they have no objection to 
cutting off the branches. 

Amulets and Charms, Rings, S(c. The orkoiyot, or chief medicine 
man, gives amulets called pusaruk to barren women to make them 
fruitful. They are made of wood ash and are wrapped in pieces of 
skin and worn on the breast. He also gives warriors a concoction, 
called setanik, when they go to the wars, to protect them against the 
weapons of their enemies. 

Eings made of pieces of bullock, sheep, or goat's hide are worn 
as amulets at certain times, e.g. at the saket-ap-eito ceremony, at 
marriages, and when cattle sicken. 4 

A. small piece of the ikomiot tree is worn by travellers to guard 
against snake bites, and a strip of lion-skin is attached by warriors 
to their belts to ward off the attacks of wild beasts. Charms to keep 
locusts and birds out of the cornfields, and snakes out of houses, are 
made from the chemusariot, pek-ap-tarlt, and legetetuet trees respec- 
tively B ; and a porcupine quill is frequently stuck into the roofs of 
houses to drive away vermin. 

When a person's next elder brother or sister dies, it is customary 
to wear a certain ornament to prevent the disease from attacking the 
next member of the family ; and a necklace of lapuonih berries is at 
times worn by children and calves to protect them from the power of 
the evil eye. 6 

Bells. The Nandi have four kinds of bells, two of which (one large 
and one small) are worn by warriors on their legs. They are oblong 
in shape and made of iron, and the clappers are round like bullets. 
The other bells are worn by oxen, calves, and goats. They are nearly 
round in shape and closely resemble those seen in Switzerland. The 
case is called kdket (the female) ; the clapper, which is attached to the 
top of the bell, is known as kirkit (the male). 

1 Arundinaria alpina. ' Ficus sp. near F. elegans. 

3 Vide also pp. 19 and 80. * Vide pp. 12, 63, and 46. « Vide p. 86. 

6 For further particulars see pp. 29 and 90. 


The large warriors' bells are worn by girls during the circumcision 
festivities : calves' bells are worn by young women after the rikset 
ceremony at circumcisions, and at weddings. 

Arithmetic. The Nandi formerly only counted up to fifty, any 
number above this figure being styled pohol. Of late, however, they 
have introduced numbers for sixty, seventy, &c, which they express 
by saying six tens, seven tens, and so on, and pohol is now generally 
used for one hundred. Large numbers which cannot be counted are 
rendered by pohol-pohol, poholaiih che-chang (many hundreds) or pohol 
che-mo-M-rar-e (hundred which cannot be counted). Eleven is styled 
ten and one, twelve is ten and two, and so on up to twenty ; twenty- 
one is twenty and one. 

Counting is done on the fingers, beginning with the little finger on 
the left hand and working up to the thumb, then continuing in the same 
order on the right hand. 1 There are various signs to denote the numerals, 
which are similar to those used by the Masai. They are as follows : — 

1 (akenge). The first finger of the right hand is held up and the 
rest of the fist closed. The hand must be kept still. 

2 (aerig or oieng). The outstretched first and second fingers are 
rubbed rapidly one against the other. 

3 (somoh). The first finger is rested on the thumb and the first 
joint of the middle finger is placed against the side of the middle joint 
of the first finger, the other two fingers remaining closed. 

4 (angwari). The fingers are outstretched, the first and middle 
ones being crossed. 

5 (mut). The fist is closed, with the thumb placed between the 
first and second fingers. 

6 (illo or kulh). The nail of one of the fingers — generally the ring 
finger — is clicked three or four times by the thumb nail. 

7 (tisap). The tip of the thumb is rubbed rapidly against the tip of one 
of the fingers — generally the middle finger — the hand remaining open. 

8 (sisiit). The hand is opened and the fingers are either all pressed 
together or all kept apart. A rapid movement with the hand in this 
position is then performed, first in a downward and then in an upward 
direction. This movement is made by the hand only, the wrist acting 
as lever. 

9 (sokol). The first finger is bent so that the tip touches the tip 
of the thumb, the other fingers being at the same time opened. 

1 The Lumbwa continue to count on their toes, but this method of counting 
is unknown in Nandi. 

Plate XXXI 

^^ d^k 4j^ 

1 2lN. 

Parparek. Stones used by medicine men for divining purposes. 

Soiyet and Ketet. Divining boxes. 

To face p. 


10 (tamari). The closed fist is thrown out and opened, the nail of the 
middle finger being at the same timeclicked against the tip of thethumb. 

20 (tiptem). The open fist is closed and opened two or three times. 

30 (sosom or tomonuagik somok). The fingers are placed in the 
same position as when representing 1, i.e. the first finger is held up 
while the rest of the hand is closed. When in this position the hand 
is shaken slightly from the wrist. 

40 (artam or tomonuagik angwan). The hand is opened, and the 
first and middle fingers are pressed together, as are also the ring and 
little fingers, a gap thus existing between the middle and ring fingers. 
When in this position the hand is shaken. 

50 (konom or tomonuagik mut). The tip of the thumb is placed 
between the ends of the first and middle fingers. The other fingers 
can be opened or closed at the same time. 

60. For pokol, that is to say anything above fifty, the closed fist is 
jerked out from the body, the fingers being at the same time opened. 

People may not be counted as it is supposed that they will die, but 
there is no harm in counting cattle. 

If it is desired to keep a record of days, or of anything else, knots 
are tied in a piece of cord, or a stick is notched. 

The medicine men divine by counting pebbles. Lucky numbers are 
2, 3, 5, 8, and 10, 3 and 5 particularly so; unlucky numbers are 1, 
4, 6, 7, and 9. 1 is the most unlucky number and 4 the least so. 
The counting is generally commenced at 20, i. e. after four groups of 
five stones each have been arranged on the ground. 

Knots. There are a few superstitions about the making and loosing 
of knots. When warriors depart on an expedition their mothers tie 
four knots in their belts, and every day when their fathers meet 
together to drink beer they pray to Grod to tie knots for their children 
(i. e. to guard them). 

If a person borrows a cow or a goat, he plucks four blades of grass 
and hands them to the owner, who ties them in a knot in his garment 
to ensure the loan being returned. On the arrival of the goats from 
the grazing ground the knot in the garment is untied and the blades 
of grass placed on the ground so that the goats can tread on them. 

Should a relation of a sick person proceed to a medicine man to 
procure medicine, he plucks four blades of grass and ties them in 
a knot in his garment. When he loosens the knot, the medicine man 
is able to divine what sickness he has to treat. 

A traveller, when starting on a journey, ties a knot in some grass 


by the way-side, as he believes that by so doing he will prevent the 
people he is going to visit from having their meal until he arrives, or 
at any rate he will ensure there being sufficient food left over for him. 
"When a woman or a cow is about to bear, everybody near at hand 
ties a half-bow knot in his or her garment and pulls it rapidly undone 
when the labour pains commence. This is said to facilitate delivery. 

Tlie Evil Eye. The Nandi believe that certain persons have the 
power of causing children and calves to fall ill, and pregnant women 
and cows to abort, when they regard them. Such persons are called 
sakutik, and whenever a man or woman has the reputation of being 
possessed of the evil eye, he or she must spit if they see a person or 
animal approaching them who might be harmed by contact with them. 
Children and calves who are supposed to be particularly susceptible 
to the powers of the sakutik wear a necklace of seeds called lapuonik. 

Young people may never look their elders in the face. This has 
nothing to do with the evil eye, but is considered disrespectful. 
Old people say that they can always tell when a person has committed 
a crime by the look in his eyes. 

Snakes. Under ordinary circumstances a snake is killed at sight. 
A snake is also killed if it enters a house, and a hole has to be made 
in the wall in order to eject the body, as it may not be thrown out of 
the door. But if a snake goes on to the woman's bed, it may not be 
killed, as it is believed that it personifies the spirit of a deceased 
ancestor or relation, and that it has been sent to intimate to the 
woman that her next child will be born safely. Milk is put on the 
ground for it to drink, and the man or his wife says : Ingi-moch-e 
kurat, i-wyo ki-kur-in (If thou wantest the call, come, thou art being 
called). It is then allowed to leave the house. 

If a snake enters the houses of old people they give it milk, and 
say : Ingi-moch-e kurat, i-we karik-ap-lakok (If thou wantest the call, 
go to the huts of the children), and they drive it away. 

Salutations. When two men meet, the elder says, Sopai, and the 
younger replies, Epa: when two women meet, the elder s&ys,Takwenya, 
and the other replies, Igo. 1 Old men greet warriors by saying, Sopai, 
muren-ju (Sopai, O warriors), and they greet women by saying, 
Takwenya, chepioso-chu, or Takwenya, kwanyi-chu (Takwenya, 
women, or Takwenya, wives). After the usual reply, the old men 

1 These expressions are meaningless in Nandi, but Takwenia is equivalent 
to ' Laugh' (imp.) in Masai, and Igo to ' Go away' (imp.) in Bari. 





*\ i. 





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CD 3 

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shake warriors by the hand, and say to women, Cham-he sapon, cham- 
ke lakok, cham-ke tuka, cham-ke ka (May your health be good, and 
may the children, cattle, and all at home be well). 

When old women meet warriors they say, Takwenya, muren-ju 
(Takwenya, warriors), and the warriors reply, Igo. Women and 
big girls say Sopai to small boys, and warriors and big boys say 
Takwenya to small girls. Brothers and sisters greet one another with 
Takwenya. Old men and warriors say Sopai to quite small children, 
and if they are too young to reply themselves, the mother replies for 
them. Young children embrace adults by hugging their legs, and old 
people take children by the hand and kiss them several times on the face. 

If a man may have sexual intercourse with a woman, he may not 
say anything to her when he meets her. Thus a husband does not 
salute his wife, nor does he even ask after her health or after any- 
thing else when he returns from a journey, and warriors take girls 
by the hand when they meet, but they do not speak. 

The parting salutation is, A-'kot-in (I salute thee), or Saiseri (Good- 
bye). The reply is, A-'kot-in ok inye (I salute also thee), or Saiseri. 
An old man having said Saiseri frequently adds, A-'kot-ok tuka ak 
piik (I salute you, cattle and people). 

Ceremonial uncleanness or tabu. Ceremonial uncleanness or tabu, 
which has been frequently alluded to above, may be said to resemble 
our idea of pollution, though at times it might be defined as being 
equivalent to sacredness, e.g. the prohibition to touch the chief 
medicine man's head and to fell certain trees. 

There are three names for persons who are regarded as cere- 
monially unclean, ngwonik, kerek, and simwek. To the first belong the 
mothers of twins and the murderers of their own clansmen. These 
people are ngwonin, i. e. bitter or unclean for the rest of their lives. 
Others who come temporarily in this category are the tarusiek, or boys 
and girls recently circumcised, when they do anything they should 
not do, such as talking loudly, falling down, spitting on the ground, 
&C., 1 or when an earthquake occurs, or their menjet huts catch fire ; 
a child who imitates a hyena's cry; a person who defaecates in 
a house ; a girl whose sweetheart dies ; a bride who stumbles when 
on the way to her future husband's house ; and people who fall when 
carrying a corpse. The mode of lustration employed in these cases 
is to kill a goat and to rub some of the offal on the person's face and legs. 

To the kerek belong all tarusiek {i. e. people circumcised a short 
1 Vide pp. 56 and 60. 



while before), until the nyorkit garb and the kimaranguchet or soiyuot 
head-dresses have been discarded, and all women after the birth of 
a child until the child is weaned. When boys are circumcised they 
may not eat with their hands until the lapat-ap-lun ceremony has 
been held, after which they may use their hands provided they wash 
before eating. Girls must first of all eat with the help of a half- 
calabash, and, after the lapat-ap-evm, ceremony, with a spoon. No 
tarusiot may be shaved, and, as already stated, they must be retiring 
in their behaviour, they must not talk loudly or approach people, 
cattle, grain, or fire, and they may not do various other things which 
are enumerated on pages 56 and 60. 

For one month after the birth of a child, a woman may not touch 
food with her hands, and her house must be washed out daily with 
water and cow-dung. At the end of this period until her child is 
weaned she must proceed to a river every morning and wash her 
hands and arms. During this time, too, she may not touch any part 
of her body with her hands except at night-time, and even if she wishes 
to scratch herself she must do so with a stick. 

People are said to be dirty (simwek) when they have had sexual 
intercourse, during menstruation, and after involuntary seminal 
emission ; when they have killed an enemy ; when they have made 
poison, or eaten the flesh of an animal killed by a poisoned arrow, 
or by lightning ; when they have eaten an animal that has died of 
disease ; after eating locusts ; when they have touched a corpse ; and 
when they have been defeated in war. They must purify themselves 
by bathing in a river, and in some cases by taking a purge. 

The principal terms of relationship are given in the following 

list :— 

When spoken of 

When addressed directly. 


kwanda or kwanit 

(boy) papa, (man) apoiyo, 
(girl or woman) pakwa. 


kamet or kametit 

(boy, girl or woman) eiyo, 
(man) korket. 


tupchet or nget-ap- 

(boy or man) by name, (girl 


or woman) tete or by name. 


tupchet or chep- 

(boy or man) tete or lakwdn-ni, 


(girl or woman) by name. 


manongotiot J 
kipkondiit j 

manongotiondon-ni, murenon- 

2nd husband 1 

ni or poiyondon-ni. 

1 /. e. husband's brother after husband's decease (vide p. 72). 



When spoken of 

When addressed directly. 


kwando 1 







lakwdn-ni, weir-i or apoiyo. 




Father's father 


agwi or kuko. 

Father's mother 



Mother's father 


agwi or kuko. 

Mother's mother 



Father's brother 

ne-tupche-ap-papa ] 

(boy) papa, (man) apoiyo, 

Father's elder brother 

kwanda ne-oo y 

Father's younger brother 

kwanda ne-mining) 

(girl or woman) pakwa. 

Father's sister 



Mother's brother 



Mother's sister 

kamet or kamelit 

(boy, girl or woman) eiyo, 
(man) korket. 

Father's brother's wife 

kamet or kametit 

(boy, girl or woman) eiyo, 
(man) korket. 

Father's sister's husband 



Mother's brother's wife 



Mother's sister's husband 

kwanda or kwanit 

(boy) papa, (man) apoiyo, 
(girl or woman) pakwa. 

Father's brother's son 


(boy or man) ar-'t-'apa or by 
name, (girl or woman) tete 
or by name. 

Father's brother's daughter 


(boy or man) tete, (girl or 
woman) by name. 

Father's sister's son 



Father's sister's daughter 

lakwet-ap-chepto or 


Mother's brother's son 



Mother's brother's daughter 

kamet or kametit 

(boy, girl or woman) eiyo, 
(man) korket. 

Mother's sister's son 


(boy or man) by name, (girl 
or woman) tete. 

Mother's sister's daughter 


(boy or man) tete, (girl or 
woman) by name. 

Grandson ) 
Granddaughter ) 



Wife's father 



Wife's mother 



Wife's brother 



Wife's sister 



Wife's sister's husband 



Husband's father 



Husband's mother 



Husband's brother 



Husband's sister 



Husband's brother's wife 



Son's wife 


(man) lakwdn-ni, (woman) 

Daughter's husband 



Sister's husband 



Brother's wife 



Sister's son 


lakwdn-ni or mama. 

Sister's daughter 


lakwdn-ni or mama. 

Brother's son or daughter 



Senior wife is called kwando ne-oo, junior wife kwando ne-mining. 


The eldest child of a family is known to the members of the family 
as kiporetit or taeta, the youngest as toet, and all the intervening ones 
as chep-kwen. 

There are no special terms for step-mother, step-son, half-brother, 
half-sister, &c, and such persons are called by the same appellation 
as mother, son, brother, sister, &c. Second-cousins, like cousins, are 
called brothers ; more distant cousins are styled piik-ap-oret (people 
of the family). 

The maternal uncle plays an important part in the existence of 
every Nandi. An understanding exists between a boy and his 
maternal uncle which is not met with between other relations, and 
the maternal uncle is appealed to for intervention when a boy is in 
disgrace. No circumcision ceremony can be performed until a 
maternal uncle or his representative has given his sanction, and 
the maternal uncle is consulted before a boy's teeth are extracted 
or the lobes of his ears are pierced. It is always usual for warriors 
to give their maternal uncles a cow after a raid in return for the 
kindness shown them as children. The most terrible thing that can 
happen to a Nandi is to displease his maternal uncle. If such an 
event occurs, the uncle formally curses his nephew. He does this 
by scratching his shin till the blood flows, when he rubs in ashes, 
and says : Lakwet-ap-lakwen-nyo ! Am-in koroti-chu, amu M-M-sich 
homit si ho-sicli-vn, (The child of our child ! May this blood eat thee, 
for we gave life to thy mother that she might bear thee). It is 
believed that the nephew will surely die in a few days if he has been 
thus cursed, unless he can persuade his uncle to remove the curse by 
giving him some cattle. 


The year (kenyit) is divided into two seasons (olio, pi. oltosiek), 
and twelve months or moons (arawet, pi. arawek). The seasons are 
from March to August and from September to February. The former, 
the wet season, is called oU-ap-iwot or iwotet ; the latter, the dry 
season, oU'-ap-keme or kemeut. The names of the months are as 
follows : — 

1st month. Kiptamo, meaning ' hot in the fields' (February). 

2nd month. Iwat-kut, meaning ' rain in showers ' (March). 

3rd month. Wake, meaning unknown (April). 










4th month. Ngei, meaning ' heart pushed on one side by hunger ' 

5th month. Rob-tui, meaning ' black rain or black clouds ' (June). 

6th month. Puret, meaning ' mist ' (July). 

7th month. Epeso, meaning unknown (August). 

8th month. Eipsunde, meaning ' offering to God in the corn 
fields' (September). 

9th month. Kipsunde oieng, meaning ' second offering to God ' 

10th month. Mulkid, meaning ' strong wind ' (November). 

11th month. Mulkulik oieng, meaning 'second strong wind' 

12th month. Ngotioto, meaning ' the Brunsvigia KirTcii or pin- 
cushion plant ' (January). 

There are no special names for the days of the week or for the 
weeks, but the following days and periods are described by the phases 
of the moon : — 

1st day. Ee-'ro kutik arawet, the tanners have seen the moon. 

2nd day. Eo-lel arawet, the moon is white or new. 

3rd and 4th days. Ke-'kweny arawet, the moon has cast a light. 

5th and 6th days. Ea-lalangit arawet, the moon has become warm. 

7th and 8th days. Ka-pardit arawet, the moon has leisure. 

9th and 10th days. Eo-tien-e mistoek arawet, the herdsmen play 
in the light of the moon. 

llth and 12th days. Eo-imen-ji parak arawet, the moon is high 
in the evening. 

13th day. Eo-wek arawet, the moon turns. 

14th day. Ee-'omis-chi neko ka arawet, the moon has accompanied 
the goats to the kraal. 

15th day. Ee-'omis-chi tuka ka arawet, the moon has accompanied 
the cattle to the kraal. 

16th day (full moon). Ke-chut-ke arawet, the moon has passed 
along (the heavens). 

17th day (morning). Ea-och tarltik arawet, the birds have driven 
away the moon. 

„ (evening). Ke-'lingan arawet, the moon has disappeared 

for a short while. 

18th day. Ea-koi-ek-chi arawet, the moon has commenced to rise 


19th to 21st days. Eoi-ek-chi arawet, the moon is late. 


22nd day. Ka-tohos arawet, the moon has climbed up. 
23rd to 25th days. Koi-ek-chi parak arawet, the moon is late up 

26th and 27th days. Ka-ivek aravjet, the moon has turned, i. e, goes 
towards the west. 

28th day. Ka-rik-ta vnyat arawet, the moon is nearing death. 
29th day. Ok tii-yo arawet, and they discuss the moon (whether 
she is dead) ; Ka-par Asista arawet, the sun has murdered the 

30th day. Ra-me arawet, the moon is dead ; Mesundeit'-ap-arawet, 
the moon's darkness. 

The day is divided as follows : — 

Kaeeh, from 5 a.m. to 6 a.m. 
Korirun, from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. 
Pet, from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. 
Koskoling, from 2 p.m. to 6 p.m. 
Karap or koimen, from 6 p.m. to 7 p.m. 
Kerriboi or lakat, night. 
The different hours of the day and night also have special terms to 
describe them. 

2 a.m. Ka-pa pele' pei, the elephants have gone to the waters. 

3 a.m. Ke-'soi-yo pei, the waters roar. 

4 a.m. Ke-'rir Met, the land (sky) has become light. 

5 a.m. Ka-ki-yat-at korik, the houses are opened. 

5.30 a.m. Ka-pa tick limo, the oxen have gone to the grazing 

6 a.m. Ka-ki-yat kechir, the sheep have been unfastened. 
6.30 a.m. Ka-chor ads, the sun has grown. 

7 a.m. Ka-lalang-it, it has become warm. 

7.30 a.m. Ka-pa neko limo, the goats have gone to the grazing 

9 a.m. Ka-rot neko eng-Umo, the goats have returned from the 
grazing ground. 

9.30 a.m. Ru-itos neko ka, the goats sleep in the kraal. 
[Ko-nget-io neko, the goats have arisen. 
'{Ka-rot tuka, the oxen have returned. 
10.30 a.m. Ru-itos tuka, the oxen sleep. 

• O-'tiok-chi tuka, untie the cattle, i. e. let the calves get 
11 a.m.- their food. 

.Ake-tos nbko, the goats feed. 


11.30 a.m. Eo-nget-io tuka, the oxen have arisen. 

IKa-tonun asis or ka-telel asis, the sun has stood upright. 
Ea-ru-iot neko efig-dim-in, the goats sleep in the (or that) 
12.30 p.m. Ea-'e neko pek, the goats have drunk water. 

(Ea-wek asis, the sun turns, i. e. goes towards the west. 
y Ea-'e tuka pek, the cattle have drunk water. 
1.30 p.m. Ee-'te-io ehepkopiren, the drones hum. 

fEa-sen-ge asis, the sun continues to go towards the west. 
\Ake-tos tuka, the oxen feed. 

3 p.m. Ea-ision neko, the goats have been collected. 

( Ea-nyil tuka pek, the oxen drink water for the second time. 

4 p.m. i "~ 
(Ea-rot neko, the goats have returned. 

4.30 p.m. Rvritos neko, the goats sleep. 

Ea-ki-iun-ech pak, the eleusine grain has been cleaned for us. 

5 p.m.- O-kwe neko, take the goats home. 
. O-ker moiek, shut up the calves. 

5.30 p.m. Ee-'kesi-ke neko ka, the goats have entered the kraal. 
(Ea-rarok-te asis, the sun is finished. 
' [Ea-rot tuka, the cattle have returned. 
6.15 p.m. O-ke cheko, milk (the cows). 

'Ma-ki-'nyit chii ak ket, neither man nor tree is recog- 
A-ki-ker ormarichok, the cattle-fold doors have been, 

7 p.m. Ea-rat-arat, the heavens are fastened. 

8 p.m. A-ki-tar-at kimoi, the porridge is finished. 

9 p.m. Ru amba-che, those who have drunk milk are asleep. 

10 p.m. A-ki-ker-at korin, the houses have been closed. 

1 1 p.m. A-ki-'o-chi, those who went to sleep early wake up. 

12 p.m. Eemboi kiven, the middle of the night. 

Sky and Earth, Sim and Moon. In the Nandi natural philosophy- 
all things are supposed to have been created by the union of the sky 
and earth. When the sun, who married the moon, proceeded to the 
earth one day to arrange about the creation, or to prepare the present 
condition of things, he found there the thunder, a Dorobo, 1 and an 
elephant, all living together. The thunder became afraid of the Dorobo- 

1 Vide p. 2. 


6.45 p.m. 


because he was able to turn over in his sleep without waking or getting 
up, so he decided to leave the earth and go and live in the sky. The 
elephant refused to accompany him, and was shot by the Dorobo, 
who thus became lord of the earth. 1 

The sun is said to enter his scabbard at night-time, and to return 
to his home in the east by a different route to that which he traverses 
during the day. The moon is supposed to fall when she disappears 
and also to return home by a different road. "When there is no moon 
people say that the sun has killed his wife, but the old men know that 
he has only beaten her, and that she has gone to hide by the river for 
a couple of days, at the end of which time he will go and fetch her home. 

The origin of man. Amongst the Moi clan there is a tradition 
that the first Dorobo gave birth to a boy and a girl. His leg swelled 
up one day and became pregnant. At length it burst and a boy 
issued from the inner side of his calf, whilst a girl issued from the 
outer side. Tbese two in course of time had children, who were the 
ancestors of all the people upon earth. 

The origin of death. When the first people lived upon the earth 
a dog came to them one day and said : ' All people will die like the 
moon, but unlike the moon you will not return to life again unless 
you give me some milk to drink out of your gourd and beer to drink 
through your straw. If you do this, I will arrange for you to go to 
the river when you die and to come to life again on the third day.' 
The people, however, laughed at the dog, and gave him some milk 
and beer to drink off a stool. 2 The dog was angry at not being served 
in the same vessels as a human being, and although he drank the 
milk and beer he went away saying : ' All people will die, and the 
moon alone will return to life.' This is how it is that when people 
die they remain away, whilst when the moon dies she reappears after 
three days' absence. 

The origin of cattle, goats, and sheep. Cattle, goats, and sheep are 
said to have come out of a great lake. There lived in olden days 
a person of importance who on one occasion went to the lake and 
struck the water eight times with a long stick. Cattle, goats, and 
sheep issued from the water in large numbers, and everybody was able 
to take away as many as he required and put them in cattle-kraals. 

1 For a fuller account vide pp. 111-13. 

2 Milk and water mixed with salt are poured on a stool and used during 
the boys' circumcision festival (vide p. 53). 

Plate XXXIV 

Nandi elder with his goats and sheep (Meinertzhagen) 

To face p. 98 


The origin of circumcision. The first man who practised circum- 
cision in Nandi is said to have been one Kipkenyo, who came from a 
country called Do, and who, after staying on the hills called Tuluet- 
ap-Seike and Tuluet-ap-Eir, passed through the Angata nanyokie, and 
settled in the Kakipoch division of Nandi. In those days Nandi was 
known as Chemngal, a name which is still used by the Elgeyo and 
other allied tribes when referring to the Nandi country and people. 

The story goes that Kipkenyo had a number of brothers and 
sisters who all died when they reached puberty, so Kipkenyo decided 
when he had a number of children of his own to ' change ' them all at 
this age. He therefore circumcised them, and as none of his children 
died, the Nandi followed his example, with the result that circum- 
cision became general. 

Thunder and lightning. There is a good and a bad thunder-god 
{Tlet ne-mie and Ilet ne-ya). The crashing of thunder near at hand 
is said to be the bad Ilet trying to come to earth to kill people, whilst 
the distant rumbling is the good Ilet, who is protecting them and 
driving away his namesake. Forked and sheet lightning are said to 
be the swords of the bad and good Ilet respectively. Whenever 
forked lightning is seen, all Nandi women look on the ground, as it 
is considered wrong that they should witness the work of devastation 
which the sun or God (Asista) is allowing to take place. During a 
thunderstorm it is usual to throw some tobacco on the fire, and the 
youngest child of a family has to put a sosiot, or stick used for cleaning 
gourds, in the ashes of the fire, and then throw it outside the hut. 
The members of the Toiyoi clan throw out of doors an axe which has 
been rubbed in the ashes, and exclaim at the same time : Toiyoi, sis 
kain-nyo (Toiyoi, or thunder, be silent in our kraal). If cattle have 
been struck by lightning, some of the Toiyoi clan are called to turn 
them over on the other side to which they have fallen, after which 
any grown-up man or woman may go to the place, cut off a piece of 
meat, and roast and eat it on the spot. They may not converse, and 
after the meal the bones must be put in a heap so that they can be 
burnt. They must then proceed to the nearest river and bathe before 
returning home. The ceremony of burning the bones is performed 
by people from Kamasia. The spot must afterwards be covered with 
thorns and stones, so that it cannot be trodden on by man or beast. 
When a hut has been struck by lightning a person of the Toiyoi clan 
is called in to burn it down. 



Earthquake. When an earthquake is felt, it is said that spirits 
or devils (piik) are moving from one place to another underground. 
Ka-u oi (Spirits are moving their abode), the Nandi say, and no work 
may be performed for a whole day afterwards. 

Waterfall, steam jets, and hornets' nests. The spray of a waterfall 
and steam jets (mat-ap-oiik) are supposed to be the smoke of the 
spirits' fires. Hornets' nests when built in the ground are called 
konyek-ap-oiik, and are believed to be the spirits' peep-holes. 

The Hill Chepeloi. There is a sacred hill on the borders of western 
Nandi near Kapwaren which is called Che-pel-oi (The hill which the 
spirits set fire to). It is believed that the spirits of the deceased set 
fire to the grass on this hill once every year, and no Nandi will go 
near the place. 

Halo round the swn or moon. A halo round the sun or moon 
(ormarichet) is said to represent a cattle-stockade. A break in the 
halo is supposed to be a road. If the break is on the east side it is 
unlucky ; if on the west side it is lucky. 

Eclipse of the sun or moon. When there is an eclipse of the sun 
or moon it is said that the sun or moon has died (Ka-me Asista or 
Ka-me Arawet). An eclipse is looked upon as an ill omen. 

Comet. A comet (cheptapisiet or kipsaruriet) is regarded as the 
precursor of great misfortune. When one is seen, war, drought, 
famine, disease, and ruin may be expected as a result. 

Rainbow. When a rainbow is seen, people know that the rain 
will soon stop. The outer circle is called kwapaliet, the inner circle 
chemngisiriet. A rainbow is said to be the thunder-god's discarded 

Stars. The milky way is called the sea of stars (Poit'-ap-kechei). 
It is supposed to be a great lake in which children are bathing and 
playing. The Evening Star is known as the Dorobo's star (Kipokiot), 
as the wives of the Dorobo are aware, when it becomes visible, that 
their husbands will shortly return from the chase. The Morning 
Star is called Tapoiyot ; the Midnight Star, Kokeliet ; and Orion's 
belt and sword, Kakipsomok. The Pleiades are known as Koremerik, 
and it is by the appearance or non-appearance of these stars that the 
Nandi know whether they may expect a good or a bad harvest. 

Dew. Dew is said to be the stars which have fallen on the earth. 

Plate XXXV 

Waterfall in Nandi (Meinertzhagen). 

To face p. 100 



A hare and an elephant were once great friends and always went 
for walks together. One day they saw a hull and a cow that had 
wandered away from the rest of the herd, so they took possession of 
them, the hare taking the hull and the elephant the cow. After 
a time the cow had a calf. When the hare saw this he said : ' Why 
should the elephant have two animals, whilst I have only one ? I will 
take the calf.' He did so, and the elephant pretended not to notice 
what had happened. In the course of time the cow gave hirth to 
twins. ' This is too bad,' said the hare, ' the elephant's animal has 
had three calves whilst mine has had none. I must take these two 
calves as well.' Whilst he was driving off the calves, the elephant 
saw him and said : ' Hi, friend, what are you doing with my calves ? 
You took the first one, and I said nothing, but I cannot let you take 
these too/ The hare replied : ' It is all right, I am only going to 
drive them down to the cave, where we can go and discuss the matter. 
You bring your cow and I will slaughter my bull so that we can have 
some food, and I will take the first calf with me as well.' The elephant 
brought his cow which, together with the calves, was driven into the 
cave. The bull was then slaughtered and the meat passed down, after 
which the hare entered. When, however, the elephant tried to follow, 
he found he was too big. The hare laughed at him, and said : ' Go 
some distance back and run against the stone with your head, so as to 
break open the entrance. The elephant did as he was bid, but he 
made no impression on the stone. The hare then called to him to go 
back farther, and so get a good run in order to enable him to strike 
the stone harder. The elephant again butted the stone, but instead of 
damaging it, he dashed out his brains. The hare then ate his meat 
alone, and became possessed of the cow and calves. 


A hare once went to a woman who had a small child, and said : ' I 
want to be engaged as nurse.' The woman had nobody to help her 


in her household duties, so agreed to engage the hare, and gave it her 
child to look after, whilst she went about her other work. 

The next day the woman's husband slaughtered a goat, and his wife 
took the meat in order to cook it. Having put the meat in a cooking- 
pot on the fire, she went out, leaving the hare in charge of the baby. 
As the baby slept, the hare soon became tired of sitting still, so he 
went to the cooking-pot and tasted the meat. Finding it very good 
he took it all and ate it. He then slept for a short while, and when 
he awoke he said to himself : ' What will the good woman say when 
she finds her meat gone 1 ' He was uncertain what to do for some 
time, but at last he decided to put the baby into the pot in the place of 
the meat. He took a knife and cut the baby into small pieces, as he 
had seen done with the goat, and dropped the pieces in the cooking pot. 
He then searched for a beetle, which he put into the mortar for 
crushing grain, and covered it with the goat's hide 

The woman returned home shortly afterwards, and, hearing the 
beetle buzzing in the mortar, called to the hare to take up the child, 
as it was crying. The hare took the cover off the mortar and went 
away. In due course the husband returned home, and was given his 
meat to eat, after which the wife also ate. The woman then looked 
for the hare and the baby, but found they were gone, and they have 
not been seen since. 


There once lived an old woman all by herself, and one day a hare 
went to her and said : ' Since you have no child, I want you to adopt 
me. You are old, and cannot go to the fields to dig. I will do this 
work for you, and you in return will give me my food.' The old 
woman was very glad to accept the hare's proposal, as she found 
digging a very laborious task. She therefore gave the hare a hoe, 
with which to till the soil, and some seed to sow, whilst she remained 
at home and prepared the daily meal. 

Early each morning the hare left the old woman's hut and went to 
a place near to which some people were making a plantation, but 
he did no work and only slept all day. In the evening he rubbed 
a little wet mud on his hoe and returned to the old woman's hut, 
where he was given his food. 

The old woman went once or twice with the hare to look at her 


plantation, and the hare showed her the cultivation near to which he 
went every day. When the crops had ripened, he took her to the 
field, and she commenced to gather some grain, whereupon the owner 
appeared and asked her what she was doing. ' I am cutting the crops 
which my child the hare has cultivated,' said the old woman. At this 
the owner laughed and told her that the hare had done no work at all, 
but had slept in the sun all day with his hoe beside him. The old woman 
then saw that the hare had deceived her, and decided to flog him 
when he returned home, but he had witnessed the scene between the 
old woman and the owner of the plantation, and he never went back 
to the house. 


Once upon a time a woman was about to bear, but as she suffered 
a great deal her husband went to seek the advice of a medicine man. 
While he was gone two hyenas arrived at the door of the hut and 
looked in. They then went away and on the road met another hyena, 
whom they informed that they had witnessed a woman giving birth to 
twins, one a boy and the other a girl. The third hyena said : ' Poor 
things, one will be killed by a buffalo and the other will die in 
childbirth.' The husband passed at this moment and heard what the 
hyenas were saying. He went on his way and when he reached his 
house he found that his wife was the mother of twins, one a boy and 
the other a girl. He guessed therefore that the hyenas had talked 
about his wife and children. 

Some years passed and the children grew up and were circumcised, 
after which the girl was married. Not long afterwards, however, she 
died in childbirth. The father remembered what the hyenas had said, 
and took great care of his son. 

One day when the two men were herding their cattle on the grazing 
grounds a buffalo suddenly appeared in their midst. The warrior 
wished to go and kill it, but his father, remembering the prophecy, 
forced him to remain behind, whilst he himself with a few friends 
went and slew the animal. The old man was very pleased when 
he saw the dead beast at his feet, and cried out: 'What now, O 
hyenas, I have defeated you.' But when his son went to look at the 
dead buffalo he tripped over a stone, and fell on the upturned horn, 
which pierced his body, and he died. 



A lion once had two cubs, who, when out one day, saw some 
warriors in their war paint. ' Let us make ourselves beautiful like 
those men,' said one of the cubs, ' we will get some paint and decorate 
our bodies.' They procured some paint, and one of the cubs marked 
the other one by painting a number of black spots on his coat. "When 
he had finished, the spotted cub began to paint his fellow, but at that 
moment they heard a cry of, 'A goat has been lost,' so the spotted 
cub threw the paint pot at his friend, and ran off to see if he could 
find the goat. The spotted cub became a leopard and the other one, 
whose coat was only partially painted, became a hyena. 



Once upon a time the hyenas all met together and decided to 
appoint a chief medicine man, who would be able to advise them in 
all matters concerning the welfare of their country, and who would 
divine future events and interpret omens and dreams. There was 
some discussion as to who should be invited to take up these impor- 
tant duties, and the choice eventually fell on the ground-hornbill. 1 
A deputation was sent to him, and when he was informed what was 
required of him, he accepted. He thought it would be well to 
prophesy something at once, so he told the hyenas that there would 
be no more day, and that if they required light other than that 
afforded by the moon they would obtain it from his red gills. The 
hyenas rejoiced at this good news, and immediately set off to raid 
their enemy, man, who possessed a number of donkeys not very far 
off. They attacked the kraal in the middle of the night and killed 
several donkeys, which they proceeded to eat. Before they had satis- 
fied their hunger, however, they were horrified to find that the sun 
was rising, just as it used to do before their medicine man told them 
there would be no more day. They at once saw that there was 
nothing left for them to do but to abandon their feast and make off as 
fast as they could. But there was one old hyena with them who had 

1 The ground-hornbill (Bucorax caper) is a large black bird with red gills 
and white markings on its wings. 


difficulty in walking, so they buried him under a mound of donkeys' 
dung and then fled to the woods. 

They had scarcely left before the owner of the donkeys appeared 
on the scene, and when he saw what had happened he called together 
his friends, and decided to avenge himself on the raiders. Just as 
he was leaving he put his spear into the mound of donkeys' dung and 
stabbed the old hyena. He knew by this that it was the hyenas that 
had killed his donkeys during the night, so he followed their tracks 
to their lair in the woods, where he slew a large number of them. 
Those that escaped met together the same evening and decided to 
depose their chief medicine man and to elect someone else in his 
place. The choice this time fell on the francolin, who was duly 
elected, and who has ruled so wisely ever since that he has remained 
in power to the present day. If you listen in the fields in the evening 
you will hear him calling to the hyenas to come out and feed, and 
again in the morning, long before the other birds are up, he is there 
warning them that it is time to go home. The ground-hornbill, 
however, has never been forgiven, and whenever a hyena sees him he 
gives chase and drives him away. 


Once upon a time a girl, who was in the fields weeding, was 
accosted by a tapkos bird, who said to her ; ' Why do you do so much 
hard work i If you want food, I will give you whatever you require. 
Follow me.' The girl followed the bird, who showed her a granary 
full of eleusine grain, and told her to take as much as she wanted. 
The girl did so, and returned the next day, but she found the granary 
had disappeared. The bird, however, was there, and whistling ' Follow 
me ' he flew away. For many weary miles the girl followed him, 
until she found herself in a great plain, where she lost him. She 
looked round to see where she was and found a very handsome young 
man standing beside her. ' I am the tapkos bird,' he said, ' I want 
to marry you.' But the girl disbelieved him, and laughed, whereupon 
he changed again into the tapkos bird. ' I cannot marry you now,' 
he said, ' because you disbelieved me. Follow me.' And he flew 
away again and led her back to her home, where he left her. 




At the time when the Masai occupied some of the Nandi grazing 
grounds there lived near the Masai kraals a Nandi woman with her 
two sons. One day this woman took off her clothes, tied grass round 
her body, and fastened bells to her arms and legs. She then went to 
the Masai kraals and danced like a mad woman. Everybody in the 
kraals laughed at her, and the warriors on the grazing grounds hear- 
ing the bells went to see what was the cause of the commotion. As 
soon as the cattle were left unprotected, the woman's sons dashed out 
of their hiding place and drove the animals off into the hills, where 
they were joined by friends and where the Masai warriors dared not 
pursue them. The woman at the same time slipped off the bells and 
made good her escape. This was the first check the Masai received 
at the hands of the Nandi, who eventually succeeded in driving them 
out of their lands. 


An old man once had two warrior sons who asked him to give them 
a bullock, as they wished to go to the woods to slaughter it. The 
father, however, refused, so the two men stole an animal and went to 
a neighbouring river where they killed it. 

As the younger warrior went to draw water he saw a devil who said 
to him : ' If you draw water and find it is blood, pour it away ; if you 
find it is water, take it, but do not look behind.' The warrior drew 
some water and found it was blood, so he poured it away. He then 
drew some more, and as it was water this time he took it. When he 
ran back to his brother, however, he forgot the words of the devil and 
looked behind him. 

That night the devil came to where the brothers were sleeping and 
put out their fire, but as his mouth shone like a fire the warriors 
noticed no difference. Presently it became cold, and the elder brother 

1 This story, and the story entitled, The demon who ate people, and the child, 
are somewhat similar to the Masai stories given in The Masai, pp. 108 and 
215. Other stories which are related by both the Nandi and the Masai 
are Konyek and his fatUr and The Dorobo and the giraffe {The Masai, pp. 13S 
and 230). 


awoke the younger one and told him to make up the fire. The latter 
took a stick and pushed it into the mouth of the devil, who seized and 
ate him and then went away. When the elder warrior found his 
brother had been eaten he followed up the devil and found him asleep. 
He promptly killed the devil and cut off his big toe, out of which the 
younger warrior emerged, as well as various kinds of animals. 


There was once upon a time a demon who lived on people and 
cattle, and so rapacious was he that he ate all the inhabitants of one 
district, except one woman who hid herself in a pit with her baby boy. 

The child was brought up in the pit, and when he was old enough 
to understand, his mother told him the story of the demon, and 
advised him not to go far from home. The boy made a bow and some 
arrows and went out daily to shoot birds and animals which he 
brought back to the pit. On each occasion he asked his mother 
whether he had shot the demon. 

One day the boy lit a large fire and put some stones in the fire 
which became red hot. When the demon saw the fire he said to him- 
self : ' How is this ? I thought I had eaten everybody, yet there 
must be people living over yonder.' So he went to the spot to investi- 
gate. On his arrival, the boy said : ' Ah ! you have come to eat us. 
Wait a little and I will give you the food I am cooking.' He then 
took the stones out of the fire and told the demon to open his mouth. 
He thrust the stones down the demon's throat and killed him. As the 
demon was dying he said : ' Cut off my little finger with grass and 
your cattle will be given back to you, cut off my thumb and you will 
get back your people.' The boy did as he was told, and all the people 
and cattle that had been eaten were restored to life. 

The people returned with their cattle to their former homes, and 
after a consultation appointed the boy their chief. 


There once lived a poor Dorobo woman, who, with her children, 
lived on the fruits of trees. When out searching for food one day she 


saw several dead birds under the keliot tree, 1 so she took them home, 
together with some of the fruit of the tree, and gave them to her 
children to eat. As all the children fell ill after their meal, the woman 
took a stick of the tree and rubbed some of the juice on an arrow, 
which she gave to a boy and told him to go and shoot an animal. The 
boy returned almost immediately with a duiker, which, although only 
slightly wounded, had died at once. The woman then tried putting 
some of the juice of the tree by a salt-lick, and had the satisfaction 
the next day of finding a dead buffalo near at hand. She at once told 
her friends of her discovery and became rich and greatly honoured 
amongst her people. 


There was once upon a time a Dorobo who was a great hunter, and 
this Dorobo lived for many days happily with his wife and children. 
One day, however, he saw a very beautiful girl, and immediately fell 
in love with her. ' My wife is now becoming an old woman,' he said, 
' I must try and marry this young girl.' But the girl would have 
nothing to say to the Dorobo, who became so love-sick that he gave 
up hunting and could only sit at home moping. His wife frequently 
asked him what ailed him, and prepared such delicacies as she was 
able to obtain for him, but he would take no notice of her, nor would 
he eat or drink. At last his wife advised him to go and see a medicine 
man, so he set forth, but on the way he said to himself : ' I will tell 
my wife that the medicine man advises me to make love to this 
beautiful girl, and that unless I do so I shall not recover.' He there- 
fore waited a short while in the wood, and then returned home and 
told his wife the story he had invented. His wife not suspecting 
anything at once took all her ornaments and went to the girl and 
said to her : ' My husband is very sick, and the medicine man has 
advised him to see you, as you alone are able to cure him. Take these 
ornaments and go to our house, whilst I go elsewhere.' But the girl 
only laughed at her. So the woman returned home and brought 
her household utensils. ' Take these also,' she said, ' only cure my 
husband.' 'No,' replied the girl, 'I want your skins and your 
honey-pots and your husband's spear and bows and arrows. If you 
bring these and leave them with the other things, I will go and 

1 Acocanthera schimperi. 


spend the night in your house.' The poor woman fetched all her own 
and her husband's possessions and gave them to the girl, after which 
she escorted the girl to her own house, showed her in, and went to 
sleep elsewhere. The husband, notwithstanding the great sacrifice 
which he and his wife had made, was overjoyed and made love to the 
girl. But the next morning, when he arose and went outside, he 
realized what a fool he had been. Kerke, kerke (They are all alike, 
they are all alike), he cried ; kororon alake ko-yaach alake, ta tun 
ko-kerke (Some are beautiful and others are ugly, but presently they 
are all alike). And he became a wiser man and again took to hunting. 
In course of time, too, he was able to buy new utensils for the house 
and new ornaments for his wife, with whom he lived happily till the 
end of his life. 


Many animals and birds and a few insects are supposed to talk like 
human beings, when they emit sounds or call to one another. Some 
instances are given below. 

When the lion growls he is supposed to be saying : Sapon chit 
tin'der ko-oi mukulel (The owner of a cooking-pot is lucky, he can 
cook his meat). 1 

The hyena howls : Rip-u-a ngo kot a-ker-to oret-i ? (Who will guard 
my house for me in order to enable me to take to the road ?). 

The hare says : Tak a-lal Met ki-inyit chii tukul kereng (I hope 
the country will be set on fire so that everybody's footprints will be 

The wild cat mews : A-oo, a-oo (I am big, I am big). 

The rat squeaks : 'Nge-pche kesuek (Let us divide the grain), but 
when he is caught in a trap he cries : Ip tukul (Take it all). 

The dog when beaten whines : Nyil, nyil ! (Do it again, do it 
again !), and a Nandi consequently always strikes him a second time. 

The dove and the green pigeon coo respectively : Ile-chi Kiphut 
am-e lakwet teget, ile-chi ko-nyo tun (Tell Kipkut 2 the child's breast 
is paining him, tell him to come soon) ; and Weirit ak kwan nunanun, 
chepto ak kamet sakuren (The boy and his father will rot, the girl and 
her mother will fly away). 

The cock owl hoots : Ttp-chu, o-piva o-ngephe sukus tukul ( Venite, 

1 The translations are not quite literal. 
2 Or, more commonly, Chepkutkut, the African pheasant. 


puellae, eamus omnes ut mingamus). When the hen bird hears him, 
she hoots back : Ke-'le ne ? Kip-te-pirit tingwa {Quid aiebas ? Mem- 
brum tuum simile fimi est). The cock bird then replies : Ke-'le ne 1 
cliep-te-kuset ipero {Quid aiebas ? Pudendum tuum simile congeriei 
foliorum nicotianae). 

There is a small bird that lives near the rivers, called Kiphamoiyet. 
This bird's great delight is to make fun of the herdsmen, and when 
the cows are driven to water, he starts whistling to them, after which 
he cries out : Chaluogin mistoanddn-ni. 'Ngo-'hochi tuka pinyiny 
mwo-chi ngd chii chepo ? (This herdsman is a bad man. Who will 
tell the owner that he has given the cattle some leeches ?). At other 
times^he says : 0-char kechiriet ne-sero ak o-haikai Cherob, chaluogin 
Cheserem (Bleed the many-coloured sheep and give plenty of blood to 
Cherob, 1 for Cheserem 2 is bad). And then he sings as follows : Lakwa 
ake tukul ko-nyoput pitorin Cheserem (Let each child put his gourd to 
his mouth, for Cheserem is a person who eats meat and drinks milk 
at the same time). When a sheep is about to be slaughtered the 
Kipkamoiyet bird laughs and says : Ghati-'p-kechir M> ne ? meti- 
'p-pirech I (What is the use of a leg of mutton ? It is not so good as 
the head of a soldier ant). 

There is a small bird, called Kokopkonyinyit, that builds its nest on 
the ground. If you go near its nest, it cries out : A-me-tiech metit 
(Don't tread on my head), and then, when you go away, it laughs at 
you, and says : Ka-a-chombil-in (I have told thee a lie). 

Another small bird, called Chepkoropitiet, asks when he sees you to 
be allowed to feed out of your hand : Rubei, rubei (Palm of the hand, 
palm of the hand), he chirps, and if you give him nothing he adds : 
Suruch ko-roroch totegin a-ip-eki Chemeitoi. Tuch a-ma-pir-in gon 
(Pick up and let drop a few white ants, that I may take them to 
Chemeitoi. Cover them up, and thy father will not beat thee). 

The guinea-fowl goes into the fields in February, and cries : 0-kol, 
o-kol, mi-i tokoch (Plant, plant, there is luck in it). The Nandi know 
by this that the time has come when their planting operations should 
commence. 3 

The francolin calls to the hyenas in the evening : Chur-u kiportot 
(Come out, ye who defaecate), and in the morning he says to them : 
Timdo sokor (Hide in the woods). 4 

1 Person's name, meaning Born during the rains. 

2 Person's name, meaning Born in front of the house. 

3 Vide p. 19. * Vide a l 30 P- 105. 

Plate XXXVI 

Group of Nandi warriors (Hart). 

To face p. Ill 

Drinking-place for cattle (Meinertzhagen). 


A small kind of partridge, known by the name of Kokoptitiliat, cries 
plaintively: Chor-u koru ak tiomb'-a'-tororot 1 (All women and birds 

When the ground-hornbills are out foraging, the hen bird is 
continually calling to her mate : lit, iit kuu choto (Peep, peep, into 
those holes), whereupon the cock bird reassuringly replies : Ka-a-'it, 
ka-a-'it, ma-mi-i kii (I have looked, I have looked, there is nothing 

A small lark, called Chepkelembut, always flies on ahead of his mate 
when they are looking for food, and if he sees some insects he sings to 
her : Iro chu alak, Tapkello ! (Here are some more, Tapkello !). 

A kind of sparrow, known as Cherneremere, who hops about in front 
of the houses when the grain is drying in the sun, chirps : Chafig, 
miach, kororon (Here is plenty of food. It is good and looks nice). 

The honey-bird calls out to the Nandi when they follow him to the 
bee-hives : A-wech-e Terik (I hate Nyangori). 

Other small birds are the Segeriewendet, the Chepololet, and the 
Kipwarere, and their cries are respectively as follows : O-wei-ke, o-ai 
etiet (Return and make a bridge), 2 A-sop-e koi engumesio (1 shall get 
well presently when I have had sexual intercourse), and Tak ki-oi tak 
ki-rirwn-ji (I hope for something to cook, and I hope to put it forcibly 
into the cooking-pot). 

Locusts chirp : Te muren geny (Our warriors are still there) ; and 
the tree lizard, who is supposed to attract lightning, sings after the 
sun has set : Tak a-rot, ke-ke (I hope I shall be able to drive the 
cattle home, so that we can milk them). 


Ki-ang-nya-nyo Asista kw-ai-ta emet, 

When-he-came the-Sun) and-he-prepares the-earth, 


ko-'ro tukuk somok, ko-'ro Ilet ak 

and-he-sees the-things three, and-he-sees the-thunder and 

peliot ak Okiot. 3 Ko-tepi tukul eng-olt' 
the-elephant and the-Dorobo. And-they-stay all in-the-place 


1 For tiond'-ap-tororot, the animal of the heavens. 

2 If the people of Nyangori hear this bird when on the war-path, they 
return home. 3 Vide V- 2. 





Ingo'ngo-we-chi-ke ine 

If-he-turns-over-himself he 

petunak : 
one-day : 



' Ne chii-chi 1 

What the-man-this 1 




peliot : 
the-elephant : 


' Akut ane, 
'Even I, 


' M-a-kony-e 
: Not-I- venture 



chii-chi ; 
the-man-this ; 

' I-mwe 

ine ; ingo'ngo-a-moch-e 
he ; if-I-wish 




Ko-'le Ilet : 

And-he-says the-thunder : 

a-mwe a- we parak.' 

I-run-away and-I-go above.' 

Ko-rori peliot, ko-'le : 

And-he-laughs the-elephant, and-he-says : 

ne 1 Mining chii-chi.' 

what 1 He-is-small the-man-this.' 

Ko-'le ilet : ' Ya chii-chi. Ang-nya-ru-e, 

And-he-says the-thunder: ' He-is-bad the-man-this. When-he-sleeps 
and-he-turns-over-himself. ' 

Kwa Ilet parak, ko-tepi 

And-he-goes the-thunder above, and-he-stays 

Ko-'le chiito : ' Ka-kwa 

And-he-says the-man : ' He-has-gone-away 

ni-ki-a-'yue-i ; m-a-'yue-i peliot.' 

whom-I-was-fearing ; not-I-fear the-elephant.' 

Kwa timdo ip-kw-ai-ta 

And-he-goes the-wood go-and-he-makes) 

and-he-afterwards-makes ) 
kotet, kw-ai-ta 

the-arrow, and-he-makes 

ko-riich, ko-wek ka, 

and-he-bends-it, and-he-returns kraal, 

Ko-rir peliot, 










And-he-cries the-elephant, and-he-causes-to-carry 



the-thunder : 


' Nam-a.' 
: Take-me.' 


Ko-'le-chi Ilet : 'M-a-nom-in aniu 

And-he-says-to-him the-thunder : ' Not-I-take-thee for 
ki-ka-mwa-un ole : " Ya chii-chi," 

I-already-told-thee thus: " He-is-bad the-mac-tbis," 

i-rori, ile : " Mining." ' 

and-thou-laughest, and-thou-sayest : " He-is-small." ' 

Ko-'le peliot: 'Nam-a amu ka-a-me.' 

And-he-says the-elephant : 'Take-me for I-have-died.' 

Ko-'le-chi ilet: 'Me i-te-ke.' 

And-he-says-to-him the-thunder: 'Die alone.' 


Koi-ek chiito ne-oo eEg-emotinuek tukul. 

And-he-becomes the-man who-is-great in-the-countries all. 


When God came to the earth to prepare the present order of things, 
he found three beings there, the thunder, an elephant, and a Dorobo, 
all living together. 

One day the thunder remarked : ' What sort of a creature is this 
man ? If he wishes to turn over from one side to the other when he 
is asleep, he is able to do so. If I wish to turn over, I have first of 
all to get up.' 

The elephant said : ' It is the same with me ; before I can turn 
over from one side to the other, I have to stand up.' 

The thunder declared that he was afraid of the man and said he 
would run away and go to the heavens. At this the elephant laughed 
and inquired why he was running away, for the man after all was 
only a small creature. ' But he is bad,' the thunder replied, ' he can 
turn over when asleep'; and with that he fled and went to the 
heavens, where he has remained ever since. 

The man seeing the thunder go away was pleased, and said : ' The 
person I was afraid of has fled. I do not mind the elephant.' He 
then went to the woods and made some poison into which he dipped 
an arrow, and having cut a bow, he returned to the kraal, and shot 
the elephant. 

The elephant wept and lifted his trunk to the heavens, crying out 
to the thunder to take him up. 



The thunder refused, however, and said : ' I shall not take you, for 
when I warned you that the man was bad, you laughed and said he 
was small.' 

The elephant cried out again and begged to be taken to heaven, as 
he was on the point of death. 

But the thunder only replied : ' Die by yourself.' 

And the elephant died, and the man became great in all the 


Ki-mi ole-kinye sesenik, ko-'tun-i 

They-were-there formerly the-dogs, and-they-used-to-marry 

korusiek piik, 1 ko-tepi kain-nywa, 

the-women the-men, and-they-stayed the-town-their, 

ko-tinye tuka, ko-uu piik. 

and-they-had the-cattle, and-they-were-like the-people. 

Ang dun petunak ko-mi lukosiek 

Now afterwards one-day and-they-are-there the-wars 

chepo punik, ko-nam punik 

of the-enemies, and-they-take the-enemies 


Kw-awen-ji sesenik tuka, ko-'sup 

And-they-run-after the-dogs the-cattle, and-they-follow 


Afig-nya-kas-an 2 punik sesenik, ko-mukut 

"WTien-they-hear-hither the-enemies the-dogs, and-they-take-up 

figungunyek, ko-lany ketik parak. 

the-sands, and-they-climb the-trees above. 

Ang-nya-pwa sesenik, ko-'nyal ketik parak, 

When-they-come the-dogs, and-they-look-up the-trees above, 

ki-ser-chi figungunyek konyek. 

and-it-is-thrown-to-them the-sands the-eyes. 

Ko-chilil sesenik, ko-pa ka. 

And-they-escape the-dogs, and-they-go town. 

1 For korusiek-ap-piik. 2 Vide p. 222 , 



Ip-ko-wek sesenik, 

Go-and-tkey-return | the-dogs, 











ketik parak, 

the-trees above, 


And-they-run -away 



Go-and-they-become i 

And-they-afterwards-become J 





In olden times dogs were just like men ; they lived in kraals, they 
kept cattle, and they married like men and women. 

On one occasion they engaged in war with their enemy man, and 
were beaten. Their cattle were taken from them and driven to a far- 
off country. They at once made an attempt to re-capture their cattle 
and pursued their enemies, but when the latter heard the dogs 
approaching they took some sand and climbed up into some high trees. 
The dogs being unable to follow them stood at the bottom of the trees 
looking up, and their enemies threw the sand down into their eyes. 
They were thus defeated and retired to their kraals ; but as soon as 
they had collected their forces together again, they returned to the 
attack. The men pursued the same tactics as before and took a lot of 
sand with them into some high trees. When the dogs approached 
them, they poured the sand down into their eyes, and so effectually 
prevented them from seeing that the dogs lost themselves and have 
never since been able to find their kraals. Thus the dog became the 
slave of man. 

i 2 





the- cattle 

the -hoofs-of-the-cattle 











all and 

and-he- arises 

piik, ki-mo-ko-tinye 
the-men, not-they-had 

rani, ki-uu 

now, they-were-like 




lakwet ak 
the-child and 

ko-tepi ak 

and-he-stays and ) 
chii-chi koi-eny 

the-man-this and-he-slaughters 





ko-'le : 
and-he-says : 

' O-lio-chi 


'nga-a-eny 1 ' 
if-I-slaughter-it ? ' 

lakwen-nyi : 
the-child-his : 










' Mian.' 
' Sicken.' 

teta : 
the-cow : 

the-man : 

teta : ' Mion-i 

the-cow : ' He-is-sick 

' Ara, moch-e 

' Well, he- wants what ? 



' Moch-e 
: He- wants 


the-cow : 




' Nyo, ke-a, 

' Come, milk-me, 

asis eheko, 

sun the-milks, 


mwaita, si ikochi 

the-fat, so-that and-thou-givest-it 









ko-'pir-chi asis 

and-it-causes-to-strike-on sun 








the-fat, ) 
butter, J 




ake : 
other : 

: Sicken 









teta : 
the-cow : 

chiito : 
the-man : 

the-cow : 


the-cow : 

' Ara, 
' Well, 

' Moch-e 
' He- wants 

' Mion-i 
: He-is-sick 


he- wants 

what 1 ' 

' Come. 



strangle) -me, 

bind J 







And-he-strangles| -her, 
















ake : 
other : 

' Sicken 






Ko-'le teta : 

And-she-says the-cow 

Ko-'le chiito : 

And-he-says the-man : 

the-cow : 

' Mian-i 
< He-is-ill 


' Ara, 
' Well, 

' Hoch-e 


what 1 ' 



the-cow : 

<Ang? Ne-kinye?' 

What-sort-of 1 "Which-is-formerly ? ' 

teta : 
the-cow : 

Ko-'le chiito : ' Ma-moch-e 

And-he-says the-man : ' Not-he-wants 

moch-e amset.' 

he- wants the-marrow.' 


ka-o-eny-a, ip-u rotuet, 

have-you-slaughtered-me, bring-hither the-knife, 


Ko-ip chiito rotuet, 

And-he-takes the-man the-knife, 

kimutit, ko-me. 

the-nape-of-the-neck, and-she-dies. 

go-and-they-change ) 

and-they-afterwards-change ) 

ko-wek keliek, ko-sich 

and-they-change the-legs, and-they-get 

ko-ma-ta-ko-much ko-mwa ak 

and-not-again-they-have-been-able and-they-talk with 





' Ka-a-ko-rok, 

nyo, tor-a 
come, stab-me 








go-and-they-know ) 

and-they-afterwards-know I 

the-fat ) -of-the-milks, 



go-and-they-bleed } 

and-they-afterwards-bleed j 

a-koi-eny tdk'-chwak. 

and-they-slaughter the-cattle-their. 


Group of Nandi boys and warriors. Reading from left to right — Nos. 1, 2 and 3 
are warriors, and Nos. 4, 5 and 6, boys (Meinertzhagen). 

Group of Nandi women and children (Meinertzhagen). 

To face p. 119 


Inyo ip-ko-'le piik: 'Tuka 

And-it-comes go-and-they-say ) the-men : ' The-cattle 


ko kametuagik-chok.' 

and-they-are the-mothers-our.' 


In olden days cattle were like human beings ; they had men's feet 
— not hoofs as they have at present — they lived together with men, 
and they could talk their language. 

In course of time a man who lived with his son and a cow made 
up his mind to kill the cow, but he was afraid to do so openly. He 
therefore told his son to pretend to be ill, and he went to the cow 
and said, ' My child is ill, he wants some fat to cure him.' 

The cow told him to milk her, and after putting the milk in the 
sun, to shake it, and he would get what he required. The man did 
as he was bid, and his boy recovered. 

He then told the child to pretend to be ill again, and he went to 
the cow, and said he wanted some blood to cure him. The cow told 
him to tie a ligature round her neck, and to shoot an arrow into her 
jugular vein. This the man did, and obtained some blood which 
he gave to the child who, as on the former occasion, recovered. 

Later on, the man told bis son to feign sickness again, and he went 
to the cow and said he wanted some more fat. The cow asked him 
if the same kind of fat as he had had on the former occasion would 
do, but the man replied that he wanted marrow-fat. The cow then 
knew that she must be slaughtered, and she told the man to bring 
a knife, and to pierce her in the nape of the neck. This was done, 
and the cow died. 

The legs of the cattle then changed, they developed hoofs, and 
they were unable any more to converse with men. This is how men 
learnt to obtain milk and make butter, to draw blood from the living 
animals, and to butcher their cattle ; and it is for this reason that 
men say that the cattle are their mothers. 






the- wild-animals, 

Ki-ki-kas ole-kinye, 
We -heard formerly, 

Nandi, ki-mwog-e 

Nandi, they-hunt-used-to 


Tun ko-set murenik petunak 

Presently and-they-go the-warriors one-day 

ko-nyor piek-ap-peliot, 

and-they-get ) the-excrements-of-the-elephant, 

see J 

p'ak che-ko-rur 

the-eleusine-grains which-have-ripened 

ko-kes, ko-ip ka. 

and-they-gather-them, and-they-take-them kraal. 

Go-and-they-oultivate ) 

And-they-afterwards-cultivate ) 

ko-kol, ko-rur 

and-they-plant-them, and-they-ripen 

Ko-mwo-chi-ke kule : 

And-they-say-to-themselves thus : 

Ko-esi-o chii tukul. 

And-they-refuse man all. 

Ko-mi korko ka 

And-there-is-there woman kraal 











the- warrior, 







Ko-mwo-chi-ke piik-ap-ka 

And-they-say-to-themselves the-people-of-kraal 

' Ingen Bg5 ingo-pokoch-i piich 

' He-knows who if-they-kill people 

Onge-'kochi korket si ingo-pokoch-i 

Let-us-give-them the-woman so-that if-they-kill 

ko-me, ki-nam lakwet.' 

and-she-dies, and-we-take the-child.' 


ingi-am ? 
if-we-eat-them ? 






p£k, kw-am. 

the-waters, and-she-eats-theni. 

Mutai ko-'le : ' O-kon-o 

Morrow and-she-says : ' Ye-give-me 

Ko-'le piik ; 

And-they-say the-people : 


ko-korkoren-j i-ne 


' Ingo-ma-me, 
' If-she-not-dies, 





Mutai ko-'le : 

Morrow and-she-says : 




kw-am tukul. 

and-they-eat all. 

Kw-am otkote kuni. 

And-they-eat until now. 

mat si 

the-fire so-that 


alak, ko-pel, 

others, and-she-roasts-them, 


' O-kon-o 




alak, kw-am, 

others, and-she-eats-them, 



Our fathers have told us that in olden days the Nandi lived by 
hunting, and did not know how to cultivate the soil. 

One day some warriors went on a raiding expedition, and on the 
path saw some elephant excrement, out of which some eleusine plants 
were growing. They gathered the ripe grain, which they took home 
with them and planted. In course of time it grew and ripened. 


Nobody would eat it, however, for fear of it being poisonous, and 
each man attempted to persuade his neighbour to try a little, but 
without success. 

There lived a woman in the kraal who had no husband, but she 
had a beautiful child. The inhabitants of the kraal decided to give 
some of the grain to this woman, to see whether it was good to eat 
or poisonous. ' If it kills her/ they said, ' it will not matter, for 
we can then take the child.' 

The woman took the grain, and ground it with a stone, after which 
she stirred it in water, and ate it. 

The next day she asked for more, and the people, seeing that 
nothing happened to her, suggested putting the grain near the fire 
to see if it was good when roasted. The woman ate the roasted 
grain, and again asked for more. "When she had eaten a third time, 
the people noticed that she was getting fat, and they all partook of 
the grain. And they have eaten it ever since. 

Arawet ne-ko-lel. 

The-moon which-is-new. 

Ingo-'ro lakok-ap-Nandi arawet ko-ko-lel, 

If-they-see the-children-of-Nandi the-moon and;it-is-new, 

ko-ngut-yi, ko-'le-chi : 

and-they-spit-at-it, and-they-say-to-it : 

' Pelepele, arawa ! 
' "Welcome, moon ! 

Ingi-am kii, ko-'ket-in ; 

If-thou-eatest anything, may-it-choke-thee ; 

Inga-am kii, ko-'is-a.' 

If-I-eat anything, may-it-do-me-good.' 

Ingo-'ro poiisiek arawet, ko-'le-chi: 

If-they-see the-old-men the-moon, and-they-say-to-it: 

'Ptu, tuk-u-a lakok ak 

' (noise resembling spitting), cover-for-me the-children and 


Nyo, arawan-ni ne-mie, 

Come, O-moon who-art-good, 







Tuk-u-a lakok ak 

Cover-for-rae the-children and 

Tuk-u-a koi 

Cover(them)-for-me afterwards 


until | 



When Nandi children see the new moon, they spit at it, and say : — 
' Welcome, moon ! 
May anything that thou eatest choke thee, 
Whilst anything that I eat, may it do me good.' 
Old men also spit at the new moon, and sing : — 
* O kindly moon, thine influence benign 
Withhold not from our children and our kine, 
And through thy life's short span of thirty days, 
May nought but blessings issue from thy rays.' 


Wirua ng6 soroiyo 1 
Iliochi soroiyo 1 
Awirchi tororot. 
Iliochi tororot 1 
Kosoiua tupa pei. 
Iliochi tupa pei ? 
Kopite iwasto. 
Iliochi iwasto 2 
Kwamua osen-nyo. 
Iliochi osen-ngung ? 
Oienyji oroki-chun. 
Iliochi oroki-chun 1 
Kometua tareyuo. 
Iliochi tareyuo 1 
Atare k6ten-nyo. 
Iliochi k6ten-nguiig ? 
Amwoge tuk'-ap-pun. 
Iliochi tuk'-ap-pun ? 
A'tune kaitan-nyo. 
Iliochi kaitan-ngung ? 
Kosichua lakwen-nyo. 
Iliochi lakwen-ngung ? 
KocheSgwa iseria. 
Iliochi iseria 1 
Awe ko'lilot. 

Who will cast goats' dung at me 1 
What will you do with goats' dung ? 
I will throw it at the heavens. 
What do you want with the heavens 1 
That they drop a little water on me. 
Why do you want a little water ? 
That the burnt grass may grow. 
Why do you want young grass ? 
That my old cow may eat. 
What will you do with your old cow ? 
I will slaughter it for those eagles. 
What do you want with those eagles ? 
That they drop their feathers for me. 
Why do you want feathers ? 
That I may fasten them on my arrow. 
Why do' you want your arrow ? 
That I may hunt the enemies' oxen. 
Why do you want the enemies' oxen 1 
That I may obtain my wife. 
Why do you want your wife 1 
That she may bear me a child. 
Why do you want your child ? 
That he may look for my lice. 
Why do you want lice 1 
That I may go and die (with them) as 
an old man. 


No. 1. Chii ne-ki-kw-am-e soet ko-'ngo-'ro tany 

Man who-is-eaten-by the-buffalo and-if-he-sees ox 

dui ko-'le ka-it. 

black and-he-says it-lias-arrived. 

If a man has been once tossed by a buffalo he thinks when he sees 
a black ox coming towards him that it is another buffalo. 
[' Once bit, twice shy.'] 

Wo. 2. Ii-e ngetuny lei. 

He-bears lion hyena. 

The lion bears a hyena. 
[Said when a son is unworthy of his father.] 

Mo. 3. I-much-i-ke cheposta; 'ngo-iam-in 

Try-thyself the-arm-clamp ; if-it-suits-thee 

in-de-ke, 'ngo-ma-iam-in i-met-te. 

and-thou-wearest-it, if-it-not-suits-thee and-thou-throwest-it-away. 

Try this arm clamp ; if it fits you, wear it, if it does not fit you, 
throw it away. 

[Don't wear an ornament if it inconveniences you, and don't do 
anything for show unless you derive some benefit from your action.] 

No. 4. Inga-i ngom, i-ker-i-ke kimut-i? 

(Even)-if-thou-art clever, dost-thou-see-thyself nape-of-the-neck ? 

However clever you may be, can you see the back of your neck i 
[Said to a boaster.] 

No. 5. Inge-ngor-a ke-ngor Kipkeny. 

If-I-am-divined and-he-is-divined Kipkeny. 

[Kipkeny is the name of a well-known wizard who was never found 
out. This saying is much used by a person who boasts of having done 
wrong and is equivalent to : ' They might as well expect to catch 
Kipkeny as me.'] 

No. 6. IngM-i kimereng ininde. 

It-causes-to-arise blue-duiker red-duiker. 
The small gazelle (blue duiker) causes the big gazelle (red duiker) 
to get up. 


[The blue duiker and the red duiker feed together. If danger 
approaches, the former warns the latter and sets him running off. 
Similarly, if a rumour of small importance gets abroad, it is soon 
magnified and exaggerated.] 

No. 7. Iok-toi kiplengoi pelio. 

They-send hares elephant. 

Send hares to the elephant, not elephants to the hare. 
[It is the duty of children to wait on elders, not elders on 
children. ' Seniores priores.'] 

No. 8. Iput-i tany aku pa-kelek aiigwan. 

It-falls ox but of-the-legs four. 

The ox falls in spite of its four legs. 

[A man often makes a mistake, notwithstanding the fact that he is 
an intelligent being. ' Accidents happen even in the best-regulated 

No. 9. Ka-al-ke makata ak sot. 

They-have-bought-themselves goat's-hide and gourd. 

A goat's hide buys a goat's hide and a gourd a gourd. 
[' An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.'] 

No. 10. Ke-girgir te pirtit ap toot 'nge-kir-chin plk ko-Sget-e. 

Festinavit veluti mentula viatoris quae superba fit cum coniux 
amici in cuius domum intravit manus eius aqua lavat. 

[' Haste, haste, has no blessing.'] 

No. 11. Ke-'pwat-e che logot. 

He-has-been-remembering milks hunt. 

He thought of milk during the hunt. 

[When driven by adversity to obtain his living by hunting, a man 
during an arduous stalk is apt to think of the days of plenty when he 
could quench his thirst by copious draughts of milk. ' O fortunatos 
nimium, sua si bona norint.'] 

No. 12. Kerichek-ap-erenet ak chepo-lakwet kw-akenge. 
The-medicines-of-the-snake and of-the-child and-they-are-one. 

It is all one whether one is bitten by an old snake or by its off- 
spring : both are poisonous. 

[A crime is none the less a crime because the person who commits 
it is a minor.] 


No. 13. Kerke ki-inutio ak ki-mlsing. 

They-are-alike slow-person and very) -person. 

fast J 

[There is no difference between the slow speaker (or the person who 
speaks little) and the fast speaker (or the person who talks a great 
deal). It is quality not quantity that tells.] 

No. 14. Kerke kipset ak kiptep. 

They-are-alike raider and home-stayer. 

[There is no difference in the long run between a man who raids 
and one who stays at home. Both run somewhat similar risks. The 
one may be killed in the enemy's country, the other may be killed by 
the enemy in his own home ; and cattle diseases, drought, &c, affect 
both in much the same way.] 

No. 15. Ki-am-doi Asis a-mo-ki-am-doi 

He-is-owned-in-partnership Sun and-it-is-not-owned-in-partnership 


The Sun is owned by everybody, but a man's body is owned by 
himself alone. 

[' Each for himself and God for us all.'] 

No. 16. Ki-'en-i tany kofig si ki-char-e. 

It-is-closed ox eye in-order-that it-may-be-bled. 

Cover the eyes of the ox you wish to bleed, or he will see the 
preparations you are making and fidget or run away. 

[' Surely in vain the net is spread in the sight of any bird.' Pro- 
verbs i. 17.] 

No. 17. Ki-mwa Asista : ' Ki-a-we inyalil-o 

It-said the-Sun: 'I-went they-bully-me 


The Sun said, ' Whatever I do, the farmers curse me. If there is no 
rain, they say I burn their crops ; if there is much rain, they com- 
plain that I do not shine.' 

[Said of discontented people.] 

No. 18. Ma-am-e Ilat ket oieng. 

It-does-not-eat thunder tree twice. 

A tree is not twice struck by lightning. 

[If you have to punish a person or a tribe, do it so thoroughly that 

it will not require to be done a second time.] 


No. 19. Ma-cliut-e ngwanet ye-ina-ini-i 

It-enters-not the-poison where-they-are-not-there 


The poison (of a poisoned arrow) does no harm if it does not enter 
the blood. 

[' Hard words break no bones.'] 

No. 20. Ma-ki-eny-jin kaniet moita met. 

It-is-not-slaughtered-to the-mother the-calf head. 

One does not slaughter a calf before its mother's eyes. 

[' Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk.' Deut. xiv. 21.] 

No. 21. Ma-ki-'ep-chin-iit chii rir-e. 

It-is-not-cut-to-ear| man he-cries, 

A man who is always crying is not listened to. 
[Credence is not given to a man who is always crying ' wolf '.] 

No. 22. Ma-ki-'lok-toi 'ngor cheput. 

It-is-not-worn-thither garment caterpillar. 

A person does not put on a garment if there, is a caterpillar in it, as 
its spikes will irritate him. 

[' Cut off your nose to spite your face.'] 

Ho. 23. Ma-ki-lol-e ma pei. 

It-is-not-lit fire waters. 

You cannot light a fire in water. 
[Said to a liar.] 

No. 24. Ma-ki-met-toi mokoiyo 

It-is-not-thrown-away the-fruit-of-the-wild-fig-tree 

ne-mi-i 'ngoiny a-ki-sor ne-mi-i 

which-are-there below aud-they-may-be-run-after which-are-there 


Don't throw away the figs which grow at the bottom of the tree 
and hasten to pick those which grow at the top. 

[' A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.'] 

No. 25. Ma-ki-mon-doi karna ma. 
It-is-not-despised iron fire. 

Do not despise a piece of iron in the fire, for it will not be burnt, 
but when red hot it will be beaten into shape and may possibly 
become a formidable weapon. 

[Despise not your enemies when they are in straitened circum- 


No. 26. Ma-ki-mus-chin gai-pa-muren. 1 

It-is-not-gone-in-the-morning-to house } -of-warriors. 

It is not usual to pay a visit to the warriors' hut in the early 
morning, as the visitor may be mistaken for a thief and killed. 
[' Look before you leap.'] 

Wo. 27. Ma-ki-mwo-e kii kut. 

It-is-not-said thing mouth. 

Do not say the first thing that comes into your head. 
[' Think twice before you speak.'] 

No. 28. Ma-ki-'por-chin kimaket susnt. 

It-is-not-shown-to hyena bite. 

Don't show a hyena how well you can bite, for his jaws are more 
powerful than yours. 

[' Pride comes before a fall.'] 

No. 29. Ma-ki-rip-e pai puch 

They-are-not-guarded eleusine-grains for-nothing 
a-ma-am toroi. 

and-they-eat-not pigs. 

Don't guard your plantations until the pigs begin to enter. 
[Don't wear yourself out by needless work, for the time will come 
when you will require all your strength.] 

No. 30. Ma-ki-sar-u-ne chii ma. 

It-is-not-caused-to-rescue man fire. 

A man cannot be saved if he wishes to throw himself in the fire, 
and a quarrelsome person is sure to come to harm in course of time. 

No. 31. Ma-ki-sos-e kap 

It-is-not-disliked the-house-of 

kip-kas-an a-ma-ki-ru kaita. 

the-person-one-hears-is-coming-hither and-it-is-not-slept the-house. 

One cannot say that one dislikes the house of somebody one has 
heard about if one has not had an opportunity of sleeping in his house. 
[Do not condemn a person on hearsay.] 

No. 32. Ma-ki-tar-e ndara. 

It-is-not-finished remorse. 

After a foolish action comes the remorse. 

No. 33. Ma-ki-'un-jin e korko. 

It-is-not-washed-to hand woman. 

A man does not wash a woman's hand. 

1 For kait'-am-murenik. 







Also : Ma-ki-ot-e korko. 

It-is-not-worked-for woman. 
A man does not slave for a woman. 

[It is a woman's duty to wait on her husband and on her husband's 

Mo. 34. Ma-me-i chii nepo chii. 

He-does-not-die man of man. 

A man may strike a man, but death is sent to him by God. 

Mo. 35. Ma-mi-i konyit kimosak kuu rotua. 

It-is-not-there shame one-sided'l like knife. 

Shame is not one-edged like a knife ; it cuts in every direction 
and goes deep into one's heart ; or it affects the relations as well as the 
guilty person. 

Mo. 36. Ma-mi-i myat ake ne-rom-chin 

It-is-not-there death the-one who-draws-for 

ake pei. 

the-other waters. 

One death does not draw water for another death. 

[Death fights his own battles unassisted, and always wins in the end.] 

Mo. 37. Ma-mi-i ngolio ne-ma-tinye aino. 

It-is-not-there saying which-has-not river. ) 

proverb, f 
There is no saying without a double meaning. 
[Look for a hidden meaning in every word that is spoken.] 

Mo. 38. Ma-nom-e riria kap-ingui. 

It-takes-not ox-pecker-bird) land-of-vegetables.) 

beefeater-bird J plantations. j 

The ox-pecker bird does not steal grain. 

[The ox-pecker birds 1 live on the ticks and insects which are to be 
found on every ox, donkey, or other animal, and as many as ten or 
even twenty are sometimes to be seen on a single cow's back. If a 
man wanted to protect his crops from the birds, the ox-pecker bird 
would be amongst the last he would attempt to destroy. In like 
manner, if a man quarrelled with a neighbour he would not wage war 
on a third party.] 

Mo. 39. Ma-oi-tos ma pei. 

It-crosses-not fire- waters. 

A grass fire is stopped by a river, and an enemy or beast of prey 
is in a like manner hindered by a good zariba or hedge. 
1 Buphaga erythrorhyncha, Stanl. 
nandz k 


No. 40. Ma-tinye chorin doondon. 1 

He-has-not thief the-stranger. 

A born thief will respect nothing, not even hospitality, and will as 
soon steal from his host as from anybody else. 

No. 41. Ma-tinye oliot chep-kam. 

It-has-not the-trade sister. 

If a man wishes to make a bargain, he will cheat his own sister. 

No. 42. Mai-'os-e kimaket puch pamb-a'-pet. 2 

It-refuses-not hyena for-nothing the-journey-of-morning. 

A hyena does not remain out during the hot hours of the day unless 
there is some reason for it. 

[If one notices a change in the habits of a man or in the tactics of 
a foe, there is always some cause for it, and it is as well to be on 
one's guard.] 

No. 43. Me-men-e che-ki-men-e Cheptol. 

Do-not-be-puffed-up who-are-puffed-up Cheptol. 

Do not be puffed up like the people of Cheptol. 

[On one occasion when a great raid was projected the people of 
Cheptol, one of the geographical divisions, are said to have slaughtered 
and eaten all their oxen, so certain were they that they would capture 
large herds of cattle. They were, however, beaten, and had to return 
empty-handed to empty kraals. ' Pride comes before a fall.'] 

No. 44. Me-pun kamasanet, pun kibongboBgit. 

Do-not-take the-by-path, take the-broad-road. 

[A favourite saying when bidding a person farewell. Thieves and 
wild animals are supposed to frequent the by-paths ; honest people 
and cattle use the broad roads.] 

Another proverb of a like nature is the following : — 

Me-torok-te, tek-u. 

Do-not-go-to-meet-it, take-shelter. 

If you see danger ahead, do not take any risk and go to meet it ; 
hide by the roadside till the danger has passed. 

No. 45. Me-'ut-e kiruk korosiek s oieng. 

He-bellows-not bull the-countries two. 

A bull cannot bellow in two places at once. 

No. 46. Mur kimaket a-ki-sll-e. 

It-is-brown hyena but-it-is-clawed. 

1 For toondet. 2 For pand'-ap-pet. s For korotinuek. 





Although the hyena is brown in colour it has the marks of people's 
nails on its body (stripes). 

[Whenever a striped hyena is seen in the neighbourhood of a house, 
people point at it, and everybody claims to have made a mark on it 
at some former time in order to recognize again the thief. ' Give 
a dog a bad name and hang him.'] 

No. 47. 'Nga-ngom choiin, ko-tamne 

(Even)-if-he-is-clever thief, and-he-is-mo're-so 


However clever a rogue may be, when he is found out he must 
admit that there is somebody cleverer than he. 

No. 48. 'Nga-00 pelio ko-ma-ii-e 

(Even)-if-it-is-big elephant and-it-does-not-bear 

moiek oieng. 

the-calves two. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the elephant is a big animal, it does 
not give birth to more than one at a time. 

[However generous a rich man may be, there is a limit to every- 
body's generosity.] 

No. 49. 'Ngi-'om-e-chi poton kel-ok. 

Let-us-put-together-in tremble leg-one. 

Let us put our trembling legs together in one place, and we shall 
obtain support one from the other. 

[The necessity of joint action or ' Union is strength '.] 

Mo. 50. 'Ngi-rep-e lakwa rotua ke-ken-ji ket. 

If-thou-seizest child knife and-thou-coaxest-him tree. 

If you take a knife away from a child, give him a piece of wood 

[If you have to perform an unpleasant duty and hurt a person's 
feelings, do it as gently as possible.] 

Mo. 51. 'Ngo-lul ket ne-yamat ko-ti-to 

If-it-falls tree which-is-dry and-it-takes-with-it 


If a dead tree falls, it carries with it a live one. 

[If a criminal is punished, bis innocent relations suffer as well.] 

k 2 


No. 52. 'Ngo-pan jii kwe, ko-me-pan-e 

If-he-bewitches mau he-goat, and-thou-bewitchest-not 

Because a man has injured your goat, do not injure his bull. 
[Do not seek revenge.] 

No. 53. 'Ngo-'put-yi kororia ma a-ko-long tukul-i 1 

If-it-falls-into feather fire and-it-crosses all 1 
If a feather falls into the fire, can it be wholly Eaved 1 

Also: 'Ngo-'put-yi tany kering ko-mo-loiig-u 

If-it-falls-into ox pit and-it-does-not-cross-hither 

If an ox falls into a pit, it will at least leave some of its hairs at 
the bottom. 

[If a foe attacks you, you will suffer some damage, even if you are 
in a position to beat him off.] 

No. 54. 'Ngo-samis-it muria kwa ko. 

If-it-stinks rat and-it-goes home. 

If a rat stinks, it goes home ; and if a man is ill, he goes to his 
relations to be attended to and cared for. 

[' Blood is thicker than water.'] 

No. 55. Somnyo mesundei. 

Uncircumcised-girl darkness.! 

no-moon. J 

Darkness is like an uncircumcised girl. 

[Just as an uncircumcised girl, who only wears a small apron of 
strips of leather, feels no shame, so a woman does not mind being 
naked in the dark.] 

No. 56. Tandus ko po-tiony ngwan ko 

Pleasant it-may-be of-animal bitter it-may-be 


What is pleasant to an animal may be bitter to a man. 
[' One man's meat is another man's poison.'] 

No. 57. Tapen ! kbran-ni ki-'pat ilat. 

Look ! land- this it-cultivated thunder. 

Look ! This land has been struck by lightning. 

[Said of a plot made ready for planting where the soil has been 
well turned over. It is supposed that the earth has been torn to 
pieces like a tree struck by lightning.] 


Riddles or enigmas are the sport of children and young people. 
They are only asked after dark. 

The propounder says : Tongoch. The others reply : Cho. 

No. 1. A-koi ak a po-minan. 

Enigma. I-am-tall and I-am of-red-earth-in-my-hair. 

Reply. Mosongiot. 


I am tall and my hair has red earth in it. What am 1 1 
The millet plant. 

[The millet plant is tall, and the flower at the top is coloured much 
like hair dyed red.] 

No. 2. Alak-u yu a-alok yu 

Enigma. Go-round here and-I-go-round here 

te-'p-ki-tui-ye ko-pirir-ech eun. 

again-afterwards-we-nieetl and-they-are-red-to-us hands, 

when-we-meet-again j 

Reply. Kopchopinek. 


If you go round there and I go round here, why will our hands be 
red when we meet again ? 

Because we shall have eaten kopchopinek fruit. 

[Cf. the Masai riddle, ' What will your hands be like if we meet 
after you have gone round that part of the mountain 1 The fruit of 
the Ximenia americana, which stains everything blood-red.'] 

No. 3. Anyiny ingua tere'-'p-oiin. 

Enigma. It-is-sweet vegetable cooking-pot-of-spirits. 

Reply. Kongaiyat. 


What is the sweet vegetable that comes out of the cooking-pot of 
the spirits of the deceased ? The white ant. 

[The white ant is considered a great delicacy, especially during the 
flying stage. As it lives in the ground, it is supposed to come from 
the cooking-pot of the spirits of the deceased.] 

Plate XLI 


' ,':r* 





KLT» '••'<, 

y^--"' Jfl 


Nandi lioney barrel (Hart). 

To face p. 135 

A Nandi bridge (Meinertzhagen). 


I have a friend, and if I send him anywhere he runs with me. 
What am I ? The belly. 

[If a person feels the pangs of hunger, his legs will move quickly in 
order to bring him to a place where food can be obtained.] 

No. 9. A-tinye choruen-nyo ne-ki-mo-koto-me 

Enigma. I-have the-friend-my who-did-not-yet-die 

ko-re mo kut ko-me. 

and-it-brings-him belly until he-may-die. 

Reply. Motonda. 

The vulture. 

I have a friend who would not die were it not for his belly's sake. 
"What is my friend 1 A vulture. 

[A hungry vulture will run any risk to obtain food, and can be 
easily killed when settled on the ground feeding. Were it not for 
this he might remain flying about in the heavens and never be 

Wo. 10. A-tinye lakwen-nyo ne-ki-ko-nai ko-chor-e. 

Enigma. I-have the-child-my who-is-known and-it-steals. 

The rat. 

I have a child who is known to steal. What is my child ? A rat. 

Ho. 11. A-tinye lakwet ne-miban. 

Enigma. I-have the- child who-runs-fast. 

Reply. Segemyat. 


What is it which I possess that moves very rapidly ? A bee. 

No. 12. A-tinye lakwet ne-sil-u-o 

I-have the-child who-draws-hither-me 


Reply. Segemyat. 

I have a child that draws water for me from the rocks. What is 
my child? A bee. 

[A beehive made in the rocks is called Kepen, or cave.] 

No. 13. A-tinye lakok pokol aiig tukul 

Enigma. I-have the-children hundred and all 



Reply. Toloita ak kureyuek. 

The-central-pole-of-the-house and the-poles-of-the-roof. 

I have a hundred children and I support them all. What am I and 
what are they 1 

The central pole of the house and the poles of the roof. 

No. 14. A-tinye mukulen aku pa-papa. 

Enigma. I-have circular-things but of-Father. 

Reply. Chepwilpwilok. 

I have something which is round, but which really belongs to my 
father. What is it 1 My biceps. 

[A child's strength is always at his father's disposal.] 

No. 15. Chapoi-i litei. 

Enigma. It-slips whetstone. 

Reply. Koito. 


What slips in the hand like a knife on the whetstone ? Liver. 

Ho. 16. Char-chi-n asis kulua. 

Enigma. It-rises-out-of sun valley. 

Reply. Taet. 


What is the sun rising out of the valley like 1 Brass wire. 

[If the sun comes out when one is in the valley, the glare is like 
polished brass wire.] 

No. 17. I-ie tururik annan i-ie 

Enigma. Thou-drinkest the-dirty-waters or thou-drinkest 


Reply. Oi-'e tururik. 

I-drink the-dirty-waters. 

Which would you prefer, water made dirty by the feet of oxen or 
clean water ] 

I would rather have the dirty water, as I should then own cattle. 

No. 18. I-let-u annan i-'ndoi-i. 

Enigma. Thou-comest-after or thou-precedest. 

Reply. A-let-u. 


[This is equivalent to : ' Will you die after or before me 1 ' The 

reply is obvious.] 


No. 19. I-lu-e sotet ne-marlch-kut 

Enigma. Thou-drinkest-milk the-calabash wkich-is-wide-mouth 

annan ne-para-kut. 

or which-is-narrow-mouth. 

Reply. M-a-lu-e. 


Which would you prefer, to drink milk from a calabash which has 
a wide mouth or from one which has a narrow mouth ? 

I will drink from neither. 

[Calabashes with narrow mouths are said to be males ; those with 
wide mouths, females.] 

No. 20. Inga-'ang-anu chepo-mee 

Enigma. If-I-see-coming-towards-me of-agricultural-people 

a-rori kut a-siep patai. 

and-I-laugh very-much I-lie-on back. 

Reply. Iseriat. 


If I see a person coming towards me I only laugh and turn over on 
my back. What am 11 A louse. 

[Cf. the Masai proverb, ' One finger will not kill a louse.'] 

Also : Inga-'ang-anu ane a-tior-chi 

If-I-see-him-coming-towards-me I I-kick-at 

pures konyan. 

thing-of-no-value eyes. 

Reply. Kimitia. 

If I see a person coming towards me I kick dust into his eyes, i. e. 
I escape. What am I ? A flea. 

[A flea jumps and escapes if it sees a finger coming towards it.] 

No. 21. Inga-i koiitin iit marinwek-ap-Kony. 

Enigma. If-thou-art counter count the-nullahs-of-Mt.-Elgon. 

Reply. Pok. 


What is counting the nullahs on Mt. Elgon like 1 

Counting the cells in honey-comb. 

No. 22. Ingephe ain6n-ni inge-cheng gorko 

Enigma. Let-us-go the-river-this let-us-search woman 



Reply. Sasurik. 


There lives by the river a woman who has many garments. What 
is she 1 The wild banana plant. 

[The wild banana plant grows in great luxuriance in Western 

No. 23. Ingephe ainon-ni inge-cheng gorko 

Enigma. Let-us-go the-river-this let-us-search woman 


Reply. Sengwet. 


There lives by the river a black woman. What is she ? Obsidian. 

[Obsidian, which is generally black in colour, is a glass produced 
by volcanoes. It is found in large quantities in various parts of East 

No. 24. Ip-u tapet ki-am-e Ilet. 

Enigma. Bring the-cup and-we-eat-with the-thunder. 

Reply. Kumiat. 


What is in the cup from which both the thunder-god and ourselves 
obtain food 1 Honey. 

[The thunder-god is supposed to visit the honey-barrels from time 
to time and take his supply of honey from them.] 

No. 25. I-'u-i-e-ke cheptam annan 

Enigma. Thou-bindest-thyself-the-waist-with dry-thing or 

soft-piece-of-hide . 

Reply. Legetio ak eren. 

Belt and snake. 

Which would you rather bind round your waist, a dry stick or a 
soft cord ? A dry stick, because a soft cord is a snake. 

[There is some play on the words 'ingiriren' and 'eren '. 'Ingiriren' 
means a piece of dressed hide, 'ingi-iur eren,' May he prod (the) snake.] 

No. 26. Iro! Kechire-chun ko-mo tuiyot. ' 

Enigma. Look! The-sheep-those and-they-are-not the-crowd. 

Reply. Tindinyek. 

Plate XLII 

Nandi women crushing grain (Rayne). 

Nandi women going to market (Henderson). 


There is a flock of sheep grazing, and the animals are not crowded 
together. What do they remind you of? 

Turf cut ready for burning. 

[Manure is made from the ashes of turf which is cut into sods, 
turned over, and dried. Only portions of the turf are visible when 
it is being dried, and the patches of green amongst the black or red 
earth are said to resemble a flock of sheep scattered over a large field.] 

No. 27. I-ru-e kot-ap-tesiimik annan 

Enigma. Wilt-thou- sleep the-hut-of-the-castrated-goats or 

Reply. Leluek ak kimaketok. 

The-jackals and the-hyenas. 

Would you rather sleep in the goats' shed or in the sheep pen 1 

I will sleep in neither, for the goats are the jackals and the sheep 

the hyenas. 

[Goats and sheep are sometimes styled jackals and hyenas, for 

when they enter a plantation they eat up everything.] 

No. 28. Iut-yin-dos a-ma-par-i-ke. 

Enigma. They-bellow-at-one-another and-they-do-not-kill-one-another. 

Reply. Aiyuet. 

What are the things which make a noise at one another, like bulls 
bellowing before a fight, but which do not hurt one another 1 Axes. 

[It is usual in Nandi, when women cut firewood, for two to chop at 
the same tree, like blacksmiths in England hammering on an anvil. 
Each axe in turn is said to challenge the other to fight, but no harm 
is done.] 

No. 29. Ka-a-'chut rike kwe Lem. 

Enigma. I-have-pulled thong and-it-goes Kavirondo. 

Reply. Luket. 


What is like a thong which when stretched reaches from Nandi to 
Kavirondo 1 A war-party. 

[When on the war-path the Nandi always march in single file.] 

No. 30. Ka-a-nyor-u koko 

Enigma. I-have-met-with grandmother 



Reply. Iseriat. 


What does an old woman carry on her back 1 Lice. 

[An old woman is unable to carry a load of any description.] 

Wo. 31. Ka-a-nyor-u komit ko-pun-u pukaa kut. 

Enigma. I-have-met-witli thy-mother and-it-issues froth mouth. 

Reply. Teret-ap-kimoi. 


I saw your mother, and there was froth coming from her mouth. 
What is she 1 The pot of porridge bubbling over at the fire. 

[After a child has been weaned the porridge-pot is said to be his 

No. 32. Ka-a-tui-ye kamet ko-ip-e 

Enigma. I-have-met-together-with the-mother she-was-carrying 


Reply. Chepololet. 


I met a woman carrying something which resembled a man's head. 
What was it ? A pumpkin. 

Wo. 33. Ka-a-tui-ye kSnut 

Enigma. I-have-met-together-with thy-father 

ko-'lak-anu sambu. 

and-he-wore-and-came-hither fur-cloak. 

Reply. Cheputiet. 


I have met your father wearing his fur cloak. What does he re- 
semble t A caterpillar. 

[An old man wrapped up in a fur cloak and walking slowly is said 
to look like a caterpillar.] 

Wo. 34, Karap i-nyo kotn-nyo i-iro 

Enigma. Evening and-thou-comest the-house-my and-thou-seest 

lakok-chok inga-a-'uriet. 

the-cbildren-my if-I-diive-them-away. 

Reply. Cherengis. 


If you come to my house in the evening you will see me drive away 
my children. What am I ? The house lizard. 

[When the house lizard falls from the roof or ceiling of a hut on to 

1 For metit-op-chii. 


the floor — a frequent occurrence when there is a big fire in the house — 
everybody present gets up and goes outside.] 

No. 85. Ki-a-ai imbaret 

nette yu ok 


Enigma. I-niade the-field 

from here and) 






Reply. Kutund'-ap-artet. 


I had a large plantation, but it went out of cultivation in the middle. 
What did it remind one of 1 ! 

A goat's leg, the knee of which had worn bare. 

No. 36. Ki-a-eny giplelyo ak kipsitye 

Enigma. I-slaughtered white-ox and red-ox 

kw-'oiechin muiuek. 

and-they-resembled-each-other the-hides. 

Reply. Parak ak ingoiny. 

Above and beneath. 

I slaughtered two oxen, one red and the other white, and their 
hides were alike. What were they 1 The earth and the sky. 

[Cf. the Masai riddle, ' I have two skins, one to lie on and the other 
to cover myself with. What are they ? The bare ground and the sky.'] 

No. 37. Ki-a-ep-e korok piton-i ak a-ep-e 

Enigma. I-was-chopping stick the-bank-this and I-chop 

pit6n-in te-'p-a-tui-3 r e 

the-bank-that again-afterwards-I-place -theni -together 


Reply. Osotik. 


I cut one stick on this side of the river and another one on the far 
side, and when I placed them together, I found they were alike. 
What were my sticks ? Two women. 

[It makes no difference which clan or family one selects one's wife 
from, they are all women.] 

No. 88. Ki-a-mwok-te koten-nyo ko-ma-tar-at, 

Enigma. I-shot-thither the-arrow-my and-it-is-not-feathered, 

tun te-'p-a-ip-u ko-tar-at. 

presently again-afterwards-I-bring-it and-it-is-feathered. 


Reply. Paiyuat. 


I shot off my arrow and it was not feathered, but when I. went to 
fetch it, it was feathered. What was my arrow ? The eleusine plant. 

[The head of the eleusine plant resembles somewhat the feathered 
end of an arrow. When sown, the grain has no feathers, but when 
reaped the head has formed.] 

No. 39. Ki-a-'ok-te kiruog ko-pa . ingoiny. 

Enigma. I-sent advisers and-they-went below. 

Reply. Lumeyuek. 


I dispatched the advisers, and they entered the earth. What were 
they ? The poles of a house. . . . 

[Here the word adviser, counsellor, or spokesman — the prop or 
mainstay of the Nandi system of government — is used as synonymous 
with the outside poles (i. e. the principal support) of a house.] 

No. 40. Ki-a-'pat imbaren-nyo nette yu ok 

Enigma. I-cultivated the-plantation-my from here and) 

to J 

yun ko-tar siiya. 

there and-it-has-finished-it nail. 

Reply. Chepkeswet. 

Fig. 52 (scale \). Chepkesioet, small knife. 

I have a large plantation, and I finished the work on it with my 
nail. What is my nail 1 A small knife. 

[The last part of the work on a millet plantation, viz. the harvest, 
is performed with the help of a small knife, scarcely bigger or sharper 
than one's nail.] 

No. 41. Ki-a-wir chepkemis ko-put-ye 

Enigma. I-threw chepkemis-bird and-it-fell-thither 


Reply. Ngariet. 


Plate XLIII 

A salt-lick (Meinertzhagen). 

• ... ■;„ __r„_ E .ri„_: _- ""Wte'^ae*^ 

Eiver in Nandi (Meinertzhagen) 

To face p. 143 


I threw a club at the chepkemis bird, and it fell by a mesuot tree. 
What was the bird % Eed clay. 

[The chepkemis bird — a small bird with a red breast — is said to 
live where the red clay is found with which the warriors paint their 
faces and bodies. If one of these birds were seen, it would be almost 
certain that some of the red clay would not be far away.] 

No. 42. Ki-a-tarngang-e a-tar are. 

Enigma. I-lay-on-my-back I-may-finish kids. 

Reply. Koiit'-ap-pai. 


I lay on by my back, in order that I might finish (eating) the 
kids. What am I ? A grindstone. 

[A grindstone when not in use is placed on its side against the 
wall of the hut. When laid on its back, it is for the purpose of 
crushing grain. Are, though originally the equivalent of kids, is also 
used for the young of any animal, and is here employed for the young 
or seed of corn.] 

No. 43. Ki-a-u, 'ngo-a-u-e ko somok 

Enigma. I-moved, when-I-moved and-they-are three 

neko, te-'p-a-ket-u-ke ko 

the-goats, again-afterwards-I-return-hither-myself and-they-are 

somok ko-keny. 
three still. 

Reply, Koiik-am-ma. 


I moved my abode and left three goats behind ; when I returned 
there were still three goats. What were the goats ? The fire stones. 

[Cooking-pots are always rested on three stones, which are left 
behind when a person moves.] 

No. 44. Ki-a-u kut a-meny or-tapan. 

Enigma. I-moved until I-may-stay road-side. 

Reply. Kosomek. 


What is the thing that continually changes its abode until it finally 
settles by the way-side 1 The small fly which follows the bee into 
its hive, where it dies. 

No. 45. Ki-a-u kut ko-put terget-ap-lakwet. 

Enigma. I-moved until it-may-drop the-calabash-of-the-child. 

Reply. Talusiet. 


What does it remind one of if a journey is so long that a child at 
length drops the gourd it is carrying from sheer weariness 1 

A tick which, having gorged itself on an ox, is unable to keep its 
hold any more and falls off. 

No. 46. Ki-a-u, tun 'nga-it-u 

Enigma. I-moved, afterwards if-I-arrive-hither 

ki-tien-e kot sondoiyo. 

it-is-being-danced the-house old-men's-dance. 

Reply. Kimitek. 

What should I find dancing the sondoiyot dance in my house were 
I to leave it for a time and then return ? Fleas. 

[Vermin of all kinds are common in Nandi, especially in deserted 

huts or kraals.] 

Mo. 47. Ki-a-u, tun 'nga-it-u kwa 

Enigma. I-moved, afterwards if-I-arrive-hither and 

ki-'tur-e kot sigilgil. 

they-lean-against the-house women's-walking-sticks. 

Reply. Susuek. 

Fig. 53 (scale 1 V). Woman's walking-stick. 

If I were to move and then to return to my house I should find 
women's walking-sticks standing up against the walls. What are the 
walking-sticks 1 Blades of grass. 

[Women use thin walking-sticks like reeds. When weeds have 
sprung up around and in a deserted hut, they are said to be leaning 
up against the walls like walking-sticks.] 

No. 48. Ki-a-we koi-in afig-nya-it-ite 

Enigma. I-went the-house-that when-I-arrived-thither 

ke-me, a-me akine. 

they-have-died, and-I-die myself. 

Reply. Ruondo. 

When I arrived at a certain house and found the occupants dead, 
I died myself. What was the death 1 Sleep. 



No. 49. Ki-a-wir-te mukurio 

Enigma. I-threw-thither women's-iron-wire-bracelet 

kwa Soiin. 

and-it-goes Soiin. 

Reply. Mukunget-ap-peliot. 


If I throw down a woman's iron-wire bracelet, what does the 
mark made in the ground remind one of ? 

The spoor of an elephant. 

[Nandi women wear a bracelet made of iron wire wound round the 
arm from the wrist to the elbow. Soiin is the southern county of 
Nandi. It is a barren country, but herds of elephants occasionally 
visit it.] 

No. 50. Ki-ip rokchet a-mo-ip-u. 

Enigma. He-took the-potsherd and-he-did-not-bring-it-(back). 

Reply. Sakot. 


A man took away a potsherd, but did not return it. What was the 
potsherd 1 A grass basket. 

[A piece of broken pot and a basket made of a few wisps of straw 
plaited together are equally valueless, and would be thrown away as 
soon as they had done what was required of them.] 

No. 51. Ki-ki-ngot kaita, kut ki-ngot-e 

Enigma. It-was-made the-house) even and-it-was-being-made 

kraal j 

Reply. Konda. 


A hut has been made and the thorn enclosure is in course of con- 
struction. What are they 1 The eye and the eyebrow. 

No. 52. Ki-lul ket eng-Gipsikis, ko-it 

Enigma. It-fell tree in-Lumbwa, and-it-arrived 

oli simamik. 

here the-twigs. 

Reply. Wakat. 

A tree fell in Lumbwa and its branches reached Nandi. What was 
the tree 1 A great noise. 

»«DI L 


No. 53. Kipkeleny tulua. 

Enigma. The-lifter mountain. 
Reply. Popat. 


"What lifts up a mountain 1 A mushroom. 

[A mushroom in sprouting frequently pushes aside a clod of earth 
which, owing to its size, might well have prevented it from growing 
at all.] 

Wo. 54. Kipkurkur ki-wo to. 

Enigma. Warrior's-bell it-went hiding-place. 
Reply. Pungungwet. 

What does a warrior's bell which is hidden away (i. e. muffled) re- 
mind you of? A mole. 

[A mole in its hole makes much the same noise as a muffled bell.] 

No. 55. Kororon tarlt 

Enigma. They-are-beautiful birds 

a-m-oon-e takipos. 

and-they-do-not-chase-away \ wagtail, 

surpass ) 
Reply. Koroiityet. 


There are many beautiful birds, but they do not surpass the wag- 
tail. What does this bird remind you of ? The Colobus monkey, 

[The colour of both the wagtail of Nandi and the Colobus monkey 
is black and white, and although there are other handsome birds and 
monkeys it would be difficult to find anything to surpass either in 
beauty. The wagtail is one of the few songsters in East Africa, its 
song often reminding one of a canary bird.] 

No. 56. Mwaib'-a'-pelio 1 ki-'le kor. 

Enigma. The-fat-of-elephant it-said it-is-dry. 

Reply. Ngenda. 


The fat of the elephant said : ' What is the use of me 1 I am dry.' 
What is the fat 1 The salt-lick. 

[The Nandi prize the fat of elephants, which they use to anoint 
their bodies with, and even when it becomes dry and hard, it is as 
good as when liquid and moist, just as the salt of the salt-licks, which 
though mixed with mud and sand, is as good as pure salt.] 
1 For mwait'-ap-peliot. 


No. 57. Kot-ap-koko ikongen tukul. 

Enigma. The-hut-of-grandmother small-baskets all. 

Reply. Keringonik. 

Why is the floor of grandmother's hut like small baskets ? 
Because the goats and sheep have stamped or made holes in it. 
[After a house haB been erected for some time the floor of the 
goats' compartment becomes full of holes.] 

No. 58. Lamaiyua ka-'ngat-an. 

Enigma. Ximenia- Americana it-has-grown-hither. 

Reply. Saruriet-am-mengit. 


What grows rapidly like a lamaiyuet tree ? 
The tail of a (fat-tailed) sheep. 

No. 59. Mi-i-te ket Soiin ne-mo-tinye soko. 

Enigma. It-is-there tree Soiin which-not-has leaves. 

Reply. Koiita. 


There are trees in Soiin which have no leaves. What are they 1 

Also : Mi-i ket Soiin ne-mo-tinye tikltio. 

There-is tree Soiin which-not-has root. 


There are trees in Soiin which have no roots. What are they 1 

[Soiin, the southern county of Nandi, is a mountainous and barren 
land, in which there are but few trees.] 

No. 60. Neget ko-'p-chep-komit a-me-i-it-e. 

Enigma. It-is-near house-of-thy-sister and-thou-dost-not-arrive. 

Reply. Oret-ap-patai. 

The-road-of-back. 1 
The-back-bone. J 

Thy sister's house is near, yet thou canst not reach it. What is thy 
sister's house ? The back-bone. 

Mo. 61. 'Nga-a-we koi-in a-pan, 

Enigma. If-I-go the-house-that and-I-leave-magic, 

ta-a-we koi-in a-pan. 

again-I-go the-house-that and-I-leave-magic. 

l 2 


Reply. Ngulek. 


No matter where I go I am sure to leave something behind by 
which a wizard or a witch can make me ill. What do I leave behind ? 


[The Nandi spit freely, not only to avert ill-luck but to relieve the 
excessive amount of saliva that collects in their motiths. If a wizard 
or a witch; were to collect any of this saliva, it is believed, the 
person from whom it emanated could be bewitched.] 

No. 62. Ngiri, ngiri. 

Enigma. That-yonder, that-yonder. 

Reply. Tomirimir. 


[All Nandi, but more particularly children, are very afraid of a 
shadow, as it is believed that a man's shadow lives after his death. 
Riddles, as already stated, are only asked after dark, and this one 
might be turned as follows : 'What can I see in the dark t Ghosts.'] 

No. 63. Ngurur-in a-ma-am-in. 

Enigma. It-looks-down-at-thee but-it-does-not-eat-thee. 

Reply. Serut. 


What is the thing which looks down at you but which does not 

eat you 1 

The nose. 

No. 64. 

Nir 1 






Ainet annan 


The-river oi- 



ls it that does not break though you may 

draw it out as far 

as you like 1 A river or a road. 

No. 65. 






hither people 






What are the long-legged people who have made me fly back home % 
The drops of rain. 

1 This word is generally used for drawing the entrails out of a slaughtered 


No. 66. Oswa-ap-llat ko-kwer ingoiny. 

Enigma. The-old-things-of-Thunder and-they-arrive ground. 
Reply. Chemngisir ak kwapal. 

Inner-rainbow and outer-rainbow. 
What are the thunder-god's discarded garments which fall on the 
earth 1 The inner and outer rings of the rainbow. 1 

No. 67. Samo koko samo 

Enigma. Many-coloured grandmother many-coloured 

Reply. Kimnyet ak kirokoret. 

The-porridge and the-basket. 

If you see a child resembling in appearance its grandmother, what 
does it remind you of? 

Porridge which has been put in a basket, and which on being taken 
out again has assumed the shape and taken the markings of the 

[' Like master, like man.'] 

Wo. 68. Siisi ! 

Enigma. An exclamation of despair. 

Reply. Toiek. 


When does one say : ' What shall I do 1 ' 
When strangers arrive and there is no food in the house. 
[The Nandi are most hospitable to people of their own mat, 2 but, if 
some strangers were to arrive after the evening meal, the host might 
be at his wits' end to know how to procure food for them, and might 
unwittingly have to ran the risk of being considered stingy.] 

No. 69. Sot'-ap-kok 

Enigma. Gourd-of-warriors'-assembly-place 

ma-nye che. 

it-has-not-become-full milks. 
Reply. Ngototek. 


The milk calabashes taken to the warriors' assembly place are never 
full. What does the milk resemble in this respect ? Cow-dung. 

[The warriors' assembly places are generally in or near the cattle 
kraals, and just as these places are never allowed to fill with cattle 
dung, so the warriors never leave their milk calabashes full of milk.] 
1 Vide p. 100. ' Vide p. 77. 


No. 70. Tapalia-kuk. 

Enigma. Thing-against-which-one-has-struck-one's-foot. 

Reply. Kanokut. 

If I strike my foot against something, what does it signify 1 
It is an omen for good or evil. 1 

No. 71. Tapen ! Toton-nin ki-tet 

Enigma. Look ! The-wall-that-(inside-the-house) it-arranged-(it) 


Reply. Kelek. 


What is the wall inside a man's house (body) which was made by 
the spirits (of his ancestors) 1 His teeth. 

No. 72. Tapen tu-chun ! Iok-i 

Enigma. Look-at the-oxen-those ! It-is-herding-them 


Reply. Sombet. 


What is the thing which, though so weak that it is blown about 
by the wind, is able to herd oxen 1 

The ostrich-feather head-dress. 

[In Nandi the grass is frequently so high that only a warrior's 
head-dress can be seen above it, and at first sight it often appears as 
if a herd of oxen were being guarded by the ostrich feathers, which 
are the plaything of every gust of wind.] 

No. 73. Tapen tu-chun ! Iok-i 

Enigma. Look-at the-oxen-those ! It-is-herding-them 

red-brown-thing . 

Reply. Kwanget. 

What is the red-brown thing that is herding the cattle 1 

The bow. 

[As in the last riddle, when the grass is long a person herding 
cattle is often quite concealed from view, and it appears as if his bow, 
which is red-brown in colour, is doing the work of herdsman.] 

1 Vide p. 79. 


Ho. 74. Telel koiech. 
Enigma. Stand all-night. 

Reply. Arawet ak kuinet-ap-teta. 

The-moon and the-horn-of-the-ox. 

What remains erect all night 1 

The moon and the horn of an ox. 

No. 75. Tos ! I-lany 
Enigma. I-don't-know ! Thou-climbest 


met-i t 

Reply. Ngotit. 


What would climbing on to your father's head be like ? 

Climbing a spear. 

[A Nandi paterfamilias would resent his son climbing on to his 
head, and the son's appearance, were he bold enough to attempt this, 
would be much the same as if he were to try and climb a spear.] 

No. 76. Tui a-ma-po ke-rar 

Enigma. Black and-they-do-not-make-it it-is-cut 


Reply. Ghepkwogit. 

What is it that is not made by hand, that is black, and is fashioned 
like a warrior's garment {i. e. with hairs on it) 1 A crow. 





» '> 


jj y 


y> y 


3) J 

>? > 

n 5 


>J '3 




)J J 



A represents the English a in father. 
a in fate. 
e in benefit. 
a in dare. 
i in hit. 
t in ravine. 
o in not. 
o in mote. 
m in bull. 
u in flute, 
at in aisle. 

Ae is a diphthong similar to az, but formed by a unison of the 
vowels a and e. 

Au represents the English ow in how. 
Oi „ „ oi in oil. 

Ei. These two letters are usually pronounced separately, but they 
are sometimes slurred over and are scarcely distinguishable from ei in 
eight or ey in they. 

Whenever ai or oi are not pronounced as diphthongs, the i is 
marked by a diaeresis, thus ai. 

Vowels are only doubled when there is a distinct repetition of 
a single sound. 

A is used to express a prolonged short a not amounting to aa, or 
a contracted aa. 

E is used to express a prolonged short e not amounting to ee. 

6 represents the English aw in paw. 

There is a dull vowel sound (i) at the commencement of a few words 


like the Kussian h, or the unaccentuated i in some English words, e.g. 
Charity, This sound reminds one of the dull vowel sound which 
precedes substantives commencing with m in Swahili. Examples : illo, 
six ; ipche, to divide ; imrok, to cross a road. 


B, d, k as in English. 

G is hard as in the English word go. 

H is not used as a separate letter. 

J nearly resembles the English j. 

Ch as in church. 

Sh, I, m, n as in English. 

Ng has two separate sounds, the one hard as in the English word 
finger, the other as in singer. The latter sound is written ng. 

Ny. This sound is similar to ni in the English word minion, or n 
in Spanish. 

P as in English. This letter is often exchangeable with v. 

Ph is a p followed by an h. 

R is always well pronounced or rolled on the tongue. 

S, t, w as in English. 

Y is a consonant, as in yard. 

Z as in English. 

Consonants are only doubled when there is a distinct repetition of 
a single sound. 


A and o are frequently interchangeable ; e. g. ang ? or ong 1, what 
sort of ? ; ak or ok, and. 

A usually changes to o in the formation of the plural : 

Kararan, pi. kororon, beautiful. 
Pananet, pi. pononik, the poor person. 

When a is the vowel of the verbal root, it generally becomes o in 
the present tense. Thus : 

Itany, to forge ; a-'tony-i, I forge. 

Wal, to alter ; a-wol-e t I alter. 

is also sometimes used for a as the personal prefix in the first 
person singular : 

Ai, to do ; o-oi-e, I do. 

liny, to squeeze; o-'iny-i, I squeeze. 


E sometimes changes to i in the formation of tlie plural of 
adjectives : 

Wesis, pi. wisisin, gentle. 
Sames, pi. somis, rotten. 

When a substantive commences with i, that letter is at times not 
pronounced in conversation ; e. g. 

'Ngotiot for Ingotiot, the giraffe. 
Verbs commencing with i frequently drop that letter. For parti- 
culars see pp. 189-90; it will be sufficient to give here one or two 
examples : 

iput, to drop ; a-'put-i, I drop (it) ; 

o-'put-i, you drop (it) ; ke-'put, he or she has dropped (it). 

K, t, and ch change to g, d, andj respectively after n, ng, or ny. 
Examples : 

Ka-a-'un-ge {for ka-a-'un-ke), I have bathed. 
A-un-doi-i (for a-un-toi-i), I am letting (him) go. 
Sesen-ju (for sesen-chu), these dogs. 
Ang gitonga (for ang kitonga) % "What sort of a basket ? 
Afig duluo (for ang tuluo) ? What sort of a mountain 1 
Ang jorua (for ang chorua) ? What sort of a friend 1 
Ka-a-uny-ge (for ka-a-uny-ke), I have hidden myself. 
Tany dui (for tany tui), black ox. 
Kwany-ji (for kwany-chi), they approach it. 

T becomes d after m and I, 1 and s becomes z after n : 

Sirimdo (for sirimto), the chain. 

A-'ul-dos-i (for a-'ul-tos-i), I cause (him) to squabble with 

Iun-ze (for iun-se), to wash. 

T becomes n and other changes of spelling occur when a singular 
substantive joined to the article is followed by a demonstrative or 
possessive pronoun. For particulars see pp. 160-3. 

In conversation, the t of the singular article is often slurred over or 
changed to n if the word which follows commences with n. If, how- 
ever, the speaker is not understood, and the sentence has to be 
repeated, care is taken to pi'onounce the t ; e. g. 

Sesen ne-oo for seset ne-oo, the big dog. 

When ch is the terminal letter of simple verbs, it changes to k in 
the formation of derivatives : 

' The only exception to this rule appears to be the word olto, the place. 


Tuoh, to cover ; tuk-u, to cover hither. 

Iwech, to return (act.) ; wek-e, to return (neut.). 

Iroch, to dip ; irok-te, to dip thither. 

Ch changes to y after t : 

Met-yi (for met-chi), to throw at. 
lo or yo change to cho after p : 

Mopcho (for mopio or mopyo), sugar cane. 
The p of the masculine and feminine prefixes, hip and chep (see 
p. 158), becomes m before n, ng, or ny : 

Kim-naria, a bull with white marks round its eyes. 
Chem-naria, a cow with white marks round its eyes. 
Kim-ngosos, a shy bull. 
Chem-ngosos, a shy cow. 
Kim-nyokorio, a cowardly man. 
Chem-nyokorio, a cowardly woman. 

P~ usually changes to tn when followed by m : 

Kond'-am-moita (for kond'-ap-moita), the calf s eye. 
But when the masculine and feminine prefixes are followed by m 
the p is omitted : 

Ki-makong, a one-eyed bull. 
Che-makong, a one-eyed cow. 

The p of the masculine and feminine prefixes is also omitted when 
followed by another p : ' 

Ki-porus, a grey bull. 
Che-porus, a grey cow. 

The p of the feminine prefix is omitted when followed by a word 
beginning with sa or so. When followed by a word commencing with 
er, the ep of the feminine prefix falls out : 

Che-samo, a dapple grey cow. 

Che-soleyua, colour. 
(But Chep-seta, a cow with a crumpled horn. 

Kip-samo, a dapple grey bull.) 

Ch-eringis, lizard. 

Ch-erengen, locust. 
(Bui Kip-erengen, a cloud of locusts.) 

K sometimes changes to ng when followed by worti: 

Chept' afig murenet (for chept' ak murenet), the girl and the 

Kipsiklsiek ang Nandiek (for Kipsikisiek ak Nandiek), the 

Lumbwa and the Nandi. 


Ng changes to m before p and k. The h at the same time changes 
to g: 

Em-peliot (for eng-peliot), on the elephant. 
Em-gwen ( for eng-kwen), the central county of Nandi. 
Nd frequently changes to nib when followed by a genitive : 
Pamb'-a'-pet (for pand'-ap-pet), the morning's journey. 
Kwamba-anum (for kwand'-ap-anum), so-and-so's father. 
T likewise sometimes changes to b when followed by a genitive : 

Mwaib'-a'-peliot (for mwait'-ap-peliot), the elephant's fat. 
/ and y are often interchangeable, as are also u and w when 
followed by a, e, or o : 

Poiisio or poiisyo, work. 
Poiisiet or poiisyet, the work. 
Tilia or tilya, peace. 
Kesua or keswa, seed. 
Kesuot or keswot, the seed. 
Kesuek or keswek, the seeds. 


The general rule is that all syllables are accentuated alike, a slight 
stress being perhaps laid on the penultimate. 
There are, however, exceptions to this rule : 

1. If the penultimate syllable of a substantive (not joined to the 
singular article or other part of speech) is i or w followed by a, e, or 
o, the accent generally rests on the antepenultimate syllable : 

Poiisio, work. 
Kesua, seed. 
Kepenosiek, the caves. 
Lolotinuek, the bags. 

2. When the singular substantive joined to the article ends in t, the 
two words are spoken as one, and the article is usually lightly accen- 
tuated. All syllables are, however, frequently accentuated alike : 

S6se, dog ; seset, the dog. 

Nianja, lake ; nianjet, the lake. 

Poiisio, work ; poiisiet, the work. 

Muren, warrior ; muren^t, the warrior. 

Mistoa, herdsman ; mistoat, the herdsman. 

Segeniya, bee ; segemyat, the bee. 

Kongonyo, crested crane ; kongonyot, the crested crane. 

Nandiin, Nandi ; Nandiind6t, the Nandi (man). 

Oheptibi, ground-hornbill ; cheptlbit, the ground-hornbill, 

Tarit, bird ; tarityet, the bird. 

Rungu, club ; rungut, the club. 


But when the substantive joined to the article ends in ta, to, da, or 
do, the accent rests on the penultimate : 

Ngelyep, tongue ; ngelyepta, the tongue. 

K6ris, air ; kon'sto, the air. 

Kofig, eye ; konda, the eye. 

Sirim, chain ; sirimdo, the chain. 

3. When the plural substantive (without the article) is the same as 
the singular substantive, or when a difference is made by only length- 
ening the last vowel, the accent rests on the last syllable : 

Muren, warrior ; muren, warriors. 

Tarit, bird ; tarit, birds. 

4. When the plural substantive joined to the article is an abbrevia- 
ted form of the true word, the article is lightly accentuated : 

IVIurenik (for murenalik), the warriors. 
Kiptiltilok (for kiptiltilank), the woodpeckers. 
Eotok (for rotonaiik), the swords. 
Nianjok (for nianjasiek), the lakes. 
Sirimwek (for sirimwagik), the chains. 

5. In interrogative sentences, an accentuated i is generally affixed 
to the last word if that word is a noun or verb ending in a conso- 
nant. The voice is at the same time raised to a higher pitch than 
in European languages : 

Ka-ko-rok, it is ready. Ka-ko-rok-i 1 Is it ready ? 

Ka-ko-rok pek-f ? Is the water ready 1 
Ka-ko-pa korusiek, the women have gone. 
Ka-ko-pa korusiek-i 1 Have the women gone 'i 
Ka-a-'sup, I have followed (him). 
Ka-a-'sup-f 1 Have I followed (him) 1 1 

6. Whenever a word of two or more syllables is followed by a mono- 
syllabic word the two words are spoken as one, and the last syllable 
of the longer word is distinctly accentuated : a 

1 No change takes place in the spelling of words ending in a vowel. In 
siicti cases the voice only is raised ; e. g. 

A-'sup-i, I follow (him), or Am I following (him) ? 
Ka-ko-rok cheko, the milk is ready, or Is the milk ready ? 

2 This is also the case in Masai, though not quite so marked. Examples : 
01-ch<5re, the friend ; ol-chorfi lai {pronounced ol-chorelai), my friend. 
Angata (or ongota), the plain ; aSgata pus {pronounced aSgatapus or 

ongotapus), the blue plain. 
Metlu, it is not like ; metiu ae ( pronounced metiuae) , it is not like any- 
thing, or it does not matter. 


A-wend-i, I go. 

A-wend-i ko (pronounced awendiko), I go to the house. 

I-moch-e, thou wantest. 

I-moch-e ne (pronounced imochene) 1 What dost thou want ? 

Imbaran-ni (pronounced imbaranni), this plantation. 

Kerichond6n-ni (pronounced kerichondonni), this medicine. 

Kutundan-nyo (pronounced kutundannyo), my knee. 

Orianden-nyo | oriandennyo' 

or !• (2>ronounced or ■ my ash. 

Orian-nyo J oriannyo) 

7. Whenever a word of two or more syllables is preceded by a mono- 
syllabic word, the two words are spoken as one. If the second word 
is of two syllables, the accent rests on the first syllable. Examples : 

Am omdit pronounced amomdit), eat the food. 
(But Am omituagik (pronounced amomituagik), eat the foods.) 
Pir seset (pronounced pirseset), beat the dog. 
Kur ake (pronounced kurake), call the other one. 

8. If two or three monosyllabic words follow one another they are 
spoken as one, and the accent rests on the penultimate syllable. 
Example : 

Pelc-am-ma (pronounced pekamrna), hot water (lit. the waters of fire). 


The Nandi language distinguishes by the particles kip and chep 1 
two genders or classes answering approximately to masculine and 
feminine. The former signifies big, strong, or masculine ; the latter 
something of a small, weak, or feminine nature. 

These particles are prefixed to certain substantives and often form 
a part of the word, which would be unintelligible without them ; e. g. 

Kipsiklsiek, the Lumbwa people. 
Kipsirichet, the rhinoceros. 
Kipsoiyuet, the cock. 
Cheptirgichet, the gazelle. 
Chepkeswet, the small knife. 
Chepkildet, the little finger. 

At other times the particles are used to draw a distinction between 
the sexes, or between something great or small, and can be omitted ; 

Sirue, a white ox, bull, bullock, or cow. 

Kip-sirue, a white bull ; chep-sirue, a white cow. 

1 Certain changes take place in the spelling of the particles kip and chep 
when the word which follows commences with m, », ng, ny, and p, &c. For 
particulars vide p. 155. 


Kofigak, one-eyed. 

Kip-koiigak, one-eyed (man) ; chep-koKgak, one-eyed (woman). 

Ch-erefigen, locust. 

Kip-erengen, cloud of locusts. 

Morin, fingers. 

Ki-morin, centipede. 

The particles kip and cliep are occasionally also used in compound 
words without any substantive, in much the same way as the article 
is used in Masai. 1 Examples : 

Kip-uny-i-ke, the (person) who hides himself. 

Chep-eiyo (the-of-mother), my sister. 

Kip-set-met, the (person) whose head goes to the wars (a name 

given to the chief medicine man : videp. 50, n. 1, and p. 83). 
Kip-kas-an, the (person) one hears is coming hither (Proverb 

No. 31). 
Kerke ki-mutio ak ki-mising, the slow (speaker) and the fast 

(speaker) are alike (Proverb No. 13). 
Kerke kip-set ak kip-tep, the raider and the home-stayer are 

alike (Proverb No. 14). 

The particles akut and angut, which are prefixed to a few substan- 
tives and to one or two classes of pronouns to form the plural, appear 
to have in former times also marked the gender, akut being used for 
the masculine and angut for the feminine ; but the distinction has 
now been nearly lost sight of, and akut or angut are used somewhat 
indiscriminately by the present generation. Old people, however, 
still generally use ' akut-kwanda ' for the fathers, ' angut-kamet ' for the 
mothers ; ' akut-ngo ' (m.) and ' angut-ngo ' (f.) for Who ? The Kipsi- 
klsiek or Lumbwa are said to use ingut for both genders : they, 
however, also at times use akut for the masculine. 

One word, olto (the place), might perhaps be classed by itself, as the 
demonstrative pronoun and some other parts of speech assume special 
forms when agreeing with it. 

There are two numbers, singular and plural, which are marked by 
variations in the termination of nouns. Except for the interrogative 
pronoun Whol* there are no indications of reduplication being used 
to mark the plural of any part of speech. Nouns are not susceptible 
to any inflexions to mark the cases or the gender. 

1 The Masai, pp. 18-14. * Vide pp. 188-9. 




The article, which is affixed to the noun, is generally t in the 
singular and h in the plural. The singular article is also at times ta, 
to, da, or do, 1 and in a few instances the plural article is ha or ho 
(e.g. tuka, the oxen; cheko, the milk). The article is, as a rule, 
joined to the noun by one or more letters, and the last one or two 
letters of the noun are frequently changed when the article is 
employed. Examples : 

















































The article is separable from the substantive, and in certain cases 
is not employed ; but whenever it is joined to its noun the two words 
are spoken as one, and were it to be omitted, the speaker would not 
be understood. The place of the article can be taken by the indefinite 
pronoun, tuhul, each, &c., 2 by the interrogative pronouns, ngd, &c, 
which t, and ang ? what sort of ?, and by the numeral akenge, one, 
Examples : 

Sese tukul, each dog. 
Sese' figo ? Which dog 1 
Ang s6se ? What sort of a dog t 
Sese akenge, 8 one dog. 

The article and the termination of substantives undergo certain 
changes when the noun is accompanied by a demonstrative pronoun. 
When the singular substantive joined to the article ends in ut, the t is 
changed to n ; when it ends in et, the t is changed to n, and the e to a 
or o ; when it ends in at or ot, the t is changed to ndan or ndon ; and 
when it ends in it, that termination is usually dropped as well as the 

1 When this form of the article is employed, the vowel is usually dropped 
when followed by a word commencing with a or o. 

2 When tukul is used to translate all, the article is retained, e. g. sesenik 
tukul, all dogs, or all the dogs. 

3 Seset akenge may also be used. 



■ji of the demonstrative. Sometimes, however, words ending in it 
change the t to n, or the it to on, and omit the consonant of the 
demonstrative. When the singular substantive joined to the article 
ends in ta or to, these terminations are dropped if the demonstrative 
is used, as well as the n of the demonstrative. Similar changes take 
place in words ending in da or do, unless the letter which precedes 
the d is n, in which case the d is generally changed to g or y. 
Examples : 

Eut, the arm; 

Itokut, the bedstead ; 

Seset, the dog ; 

Teret, the cooking-pot ; 

Imbaret, the plantation ; 

Kalianget, the fly ; 

Oriat, the ash; 

Segemyat, the bee ; 

Kerichot, the medicine ; 

Ingotiot, the giraffe ; 

Iitlt, the ear ; 

Metit, the head ; 
{But Kutit, the mouth ; 

Pltit, the bank of a river ; 

Mwaita, the oil ; 

Eorta, the heifer ; 

Porto, the body ; 

Eito, the bullock ; 

Sirimdo, the chain ; 

Keldo, the leg; 

Kutunda, the elbow, knee ; 

Konda, the eye ; 

Tiondo, the animal ; 

Ngetundo, the lion ; 
{But Tiendo, the dance ; 

Miondo, the disease ; 

eun-ni, this arm. 

itokun-ni, this bedstead. 

ses6n-ni, this dog. 

teron-ni, this cooking-pot. 

imbaran-ni, this plantation. 

kaliangan-ni, this fly. 

oriandan-ni, this ash. 

segemyandan-ni, this bee. 

kerichondon-ni, this medicine. 

ingotiondon-ni, this giraffe. 

iit-i, this ear. 

met-i, this head. 

kutin-i, this mouth. 

plton-i, this bank of a river.) 

mwal-i, this oil. 

ror-i, this heifer. 

por-i, this body. 

ei-i, this bullock. 

sirim-i, this chain. 

kel-i, this leg. 

kutung-i, this elbow, knee. 

k6ng-i, this eye. 

tiony-i, this animal. 

figetuny-i, this lion. 

tien-i, this dance. 

mion-i, this disease.) 

When the plural substantive joined to the article is accompanied by 
a demonstrative pronoun, the h of the article is dropped. If the 
termination is enik or onik the i is likewise omitted, and the ch of 
the demonstrative pronoun becomes/ Examples : 

Eunek, the arms ," 
Iitik, the ears ; 
Kerichek, the medicines ; 
Mwanik, the oils; 
Tiongik, the animals ; 
Tienwagik, the dances ; 

eune-chu, these arms, 
iiti-chu, these ears, 
keriche-chu, these medicines, 
mwani-chu, these oils, 
tiongi-chu, these animals, 
tienwagi-chu, these dances- 



Lakok, the children ; lako-chu, these children. 

Sotonik, the gourds ; soton-ju, these gourds. 

Sesenik, the dogs ; sesen-ju, these dogs. 

If the demonstrative is used predicatively, the article and the 
termination of substantives undergo changes somewhat similar to 
those enumerated above. "When the singular substantive joined 
to the article ends in ut, no change is made ; when it ends in et, at, or 
ot, the t is changed to n ; and when it ends in it, the t is usually- 
omitted, though it is in some words changed to n. When the singular 
substantive joined to the article ends in ta, to, da, or do, n is added. 
Examples : 

Eut, the arm ; eut-ni, this is the arm. 

Seset, the dog ; sesen-ni, this is the dog. 

Imbaret, the plantation ; imbaren-ni, this is the plantation. 

Oriat, the ash ; orian-ni, this is the ash. 

Kerichot, the medicine ; kerichon-ni, this is the medicine. 

Iitlt, the ear ; iiti-ni^ this is the ear. 

{But Kutit, the mouth ; kutin-ni, this is the mouth). 

Mwaita, the oil ; mwaitan-ni, this is the oil. 

Porto, the body ; porton-ni, this is the body. 

Sirimdo, the chain ; sirimdon-ni, this is the chain. 

Kutunda, the elbow, knee ; kutundan-ni, this is the elbow. 

Ngetundo, the lion; ngetundon-ni, this is the lion. 

Tiendo, the dance ; tiendon-ni, this is the dance. 

In the plural no changes take place when the demonstrative is 
used predicatively : 

Eunek, the arms ; eunek-chu, these are the arms. 

Iitik, the ears ; iitik-chu, these are the ears. 

Mwanik, the oils ; mwanik-chu, these are the oils. 

Lakok, the children; lakok -chu, these are the children. 

Sesenik, the dogs ; sesenik-chu, these are the dogs. 

"When the singular substantive joined to the article is accompanied 
by a possessive pronoun, .certain changes also take place. No altera- 
tion, however, occurs in the plural. If the article ends in t, that letter 
changes to n unless it is preceded by a or o, in which case it usually 
changes to ndert. If the article ends in ta or da, n is added ; if in to 
or do, these terminations change to tan or dan. Examples : 

Seset, the dog ; ses6n-nyo, my dog. 

Sesenik, the dogs ; sesenik-chok, my dogs. 

Eut, the arm ; eun-nyo, my arm. 

•Eunek, the arms ; eunek-chok, my arms. 


Punyot, the enemy; 


my enemy. 


Oriat, the ash; or ■ my ash. 

Eorta, the heifer ; rortan-nyo, my heifer. 

Kutunda, the knee ; kutundan-nyo, my knee. 

Tiondo, the animal ; tiondan-nyo, my animal. 

Muito, the ox-hide ; muitan-nyo, my ox-hide. 

The article is omitted in the following cases : 

(1) When the substantive is used in a general sense or as an adverb. 
Examples : 

A-'onyi kii (not kiito), I see something. 

A-wend-i oii (not olto), I am going somewhere. 

Mi-i chii (not chiito), there is somebody there. 

A-nom-e tuka kwa muren (not murenet), when I am a warrior 

I shall seize cattle, 
©le-kinye ko-ki ngeta (not ngetet), formerly he was a boy. 

(2) When the meaning is motion to or from, or resting at, a kraal 
or hut (similar to our phrases to or from town or at home), no posses- 
sive case being used. Examples : 

A-wend-i ko (woman speaking), I go or am going to the hut or 

A-pun-u ka (man speaking), I come or am coming from the hut 

or kraal. 

~r~ m Y, , \ I am in the hut or kraal. 
A-mi-i ka J 

But A-wend-i kbin-nyo (woman speaking), I go or am going to my 

hut or kraal. 

A-pun-u ka'm-nyo (man speaking), I come or am coming from my 

hut or kraal. 

A-mf-i kot-ap-papa| j am {n Mh ^, s hut 

A-mi-i kap-papa J 

(3) When the time of day is expressed in such sentences as : 

When it becomes evening, Ang-nyep-koi-ek koskoling {not kosko- 

lingut), and 
He is going away in the morning, Wend-i korirun (not korirunet). 

(4) In a few compound words, e. g. 

P^k-ap-kong (not konda or konyek), the tears. 
Chek'-am-ma (not mat), hot milk (i. e. fresh from the cow). 
Sigiriet-ap-tim 1 (not timdo), the zebra. 
Nepo-tapan (not tapanda), the last (lit. of end). 

1 Sigiriet-ap-tim-in (the donkey of that wood) is perhaps more commonly 
used than Sigiriet-ap-tim. 

M 2 


A few substantives never take the article. Such are : 

Anum, so-and-so, such a one. 

Myat, death, and the death. 

Teget, breast, and the breast. 

Konyit, honour or shame, and the honour or the shame. 

Kapatut, field without crops, and the field without crops. 

Most names for cattle (see p. 280). 

The article is also frequently omitted with proper names, and one 
more often hears, for instance : 

Asis, than Asista (God, or the God). 
Nandi, than Nandiek (Nandi, or the Nandi). 


Nouns in Nandi are not susceptible of any inflexions to mark the 
cases ; but the article has special forms to denote the nominative and 
vocative. The accusative case is the same as the nominative. Special 
particles prefixed to the governed noun are used to denote the 

The Vocative Case. 

The form used for the vocative case is the same as when the sub- 
stantive is joined to the demonstrative pronoun ni or i (pi. chu) : 

Kork6n-ni ! O woman ! or this woman. 
Korusie-chu ! women ! or these women. 
Lakwan-ni ! child ! or this child. 
Lako-chu ! O children ! or these children. 
Orkoiyondon-ni ! O medicine man ! or this medicine man. 
Orkoii-chu ! O medicine men ! or these medicine men. 
Asfs-il O God ! or this God. 

The commonest way of addressing a young man or woman is by the 
use of the word weir-i J in the masculine and chep-i 1 in the feminine. 
Weiri-chu ! and tip-chu 1 are used in the plural. 

A superior is addressed by the words Poiyondbn-ni I (0 elder 1) or 
Murenon-ni I (O warrior !) if a man ; and by Chepiosdvrni I (0 old 
woman I) or Korktbvwni 1 (O woman !) if a woman. 

The vocative case is frequently expressed by the substantive used in 
a general sense, i. e. without the article. Examples ; 
Orkoiyo I O medicine man t 
Asis ! God ! 

CASES 165 

The Genitive. 
There are three methods of forming the genitive case in Nandi. In 
the most common form the governed word follows the governing 
substantive, being joined to it by the particle ap \ This particle 
does not as a rule vary in number. Examples : 

Rotuet-ap-papa, the sword of (my) father. 
Kot-ap-eiyo, the hut of (my) mother. 
Rotok-ap-orkoiik, the swords of the medicine men. 
Korik-ap-korusiek, the huts of the women. 
Ngalek-ap-keny, the news of formerly (i.e. of former times). 
Ngalek-ap-tun, the news of presently (i.e. of the future). 

In a few instances ap becomes ip in the plural. Example : 
Nget'-ap-eiyo (the boy of mother), my brother. 
Akut-nget'-ip-eiyo, my brothers. 

When ap is used in conjunction with ka (kaita), the house, kraal, 
or country, kdp is used : 

Kap-anum, the house of so-and-so. 
Kap-Tumo, Tumo's country. 

When ap is used in conjunction with kwanda, the father, and kamet, 
the mother, kwamba and kopot are used : 

Kwamba-anum, the father of so-and-so. 
Kopot-anum, the mother of so-and-so. 

After a man has been circumcised he takes his father's name, 
Ar-ap* meaning the son of, being prefixed to it, 3 e. g. 

Ar-ap-anum, the son of so-and-so. 
Ar-ap-Sirtoi, the son of Sirtoi. 

The second way of forming the genitive is in conjunction with the 
relative (which see, pp. 187-8), nepo being used for the singular, chepo 
for the plural. 4 These particles, like ap, join the governing substantive 
to the governed word. The particle agrees with the governing noun 
in number. Examples : 

Eotuet nepo metit (the knife of the head), the razor. 

Eotok chepo metit (the knives of the head), the razors. 

1 Ap becomes am before a word commencing with m ; e. g. kiit'-am-mu- 
renet, the thing of the man : £galek-am-Masaeek, the language of the Masai. 

Ap is occasionally changed to pa, e. g. chii-pa-ka (far chii-ap-ka), freeman 
(lit. man of house, i. e. independent person). 

2 Ar-ap is commonly written Arab by Europeans, e. g. Arab-Sirtoi for 
Ar-ap-Sirtoi. 3 Vide pp. 67-8. 

4 Nepo and chepo become kopa and chukopa when used with amt (yesterday), 

Kon-a ngoliot kopa amt ) yesterday's news. 

Kon-a ngalek chukopa amt \ ■ J J 


The third way of forming the possessive case is to place the particle 
pa or po before the governing substantive, the governed word following 
immediately after the latter. This form is used when it is wished to 
put special stress on the genitive, and is unchangeable : 

Po chii rotuet, this is somebody's knife. 

Pa anum rotok, these are such and such a person's knives. 

Mo po lakok Nandi, po lakok Kipsikls (not of the children 

Nandi, of the children Lumbwa), they are not Nandi 

children, they are Lumbwa children. 


The Plubal of Substantives. 
By far the most complicated part of the Nandi language is the 
formation of the plural of substantives, either with or without the 
article. Many substantives have two or even three forms for the plural, 
the longest form, which is probably the most correct, being often 
abbreviated in ordinary conversation and only used when the speaker 
has difficulty in making himself understood. Thus, a person might 
remark: A-'onyi rotok, or A-'onyi sirimwek, or A-'onyi tabuburik, 
I see some swords, or I see some chains, or I see some butterflies. If 
the person to whom the remark is addressed were to reply, I-ionyi 
ne ? ("What do you see ]), the answer would probably not be Eotok, or 
sirimwek, or tabuburik, but Rotonaiik, or sirimwagik, or tabuburaiik. 
In the following lists the most common form of the plural has been 

The plural of words denoting relationship is made by the prefixes 
dkut and angut. 1 Examples : 

Akut-papa, my fathers. Angut-eiyo, my mothers. 

Akut-kwanda, the fathers. Angut-kamet, the mothers. 

Akut-Kget-ip-eiyo, my brothers. Angut-chep-eiyo, my sisters. 

Akut-nget-ip-komituak, thy or Angut-chep-komituak, thy or jour 

your brothers. sisters. 

Akut-Sget-ip-kametuak, his or Angut-chep-kametuak,his<wtheir 

their brothers. sisters. 

Akut-agwi, my grandfathers. Angut-koko, my grandmothers. 

Class I. 
Perhaps the commonest way of forming the plural of nouns is by 
adding ox, or, less frequently, at, to the singular. When employed 

1 Aleut and angut are often interchangeable. 



with the article, the noun takes the affix, et, iet, or yet in the singular, 
and ok or aiik in the plural. Examples : 

Singular Singular Plural Plural 

without with without" with 

article. article. article. article. 

f Ngecheroi Ngecherok ) 

1 Ngecherai Ngecheraiik J 

( Tomirimiroi Tomirimirok ) 

1 Tomirimirai Tomiritniraiik J 

Kimaket pt (Kimaketoi Kimaketok \ 

y iKimaketai KimaketaiikJ 

Ormarlchet Ormarichoi Ormarichok 

Ngecher Ngecheret 
Tomirimir Tomirimiriet 



Person's " 
















Door of 





Nouns belonging to this class which end in a form the plural by 
adding i to the singular, or by changing a into oi. When the noun 
is employed with the article, the terminal a is changed to et in the 
singular and to ok or aiik in the plural. Examples : 




Makatok } 
Makataiik J 


goat's skin. 



J Kainoi 
{ Kainai 

Kainok ] 



















in wai, ia, i 



Those nouns which end 

o, o, e, ya, iya, iyua, ua, 

&c, and belong to this class, change the terminal letters of the sin- 

gular into ai or oi to form the plural. Examples : 




Chepkesok ) 
Chepkesaiik J 



Tisiet ' 























Nail, claw. 



















Kipisok . 





A certain number of words — generally those ending in ua, uo, or 
wa — which may be included in this class, change the final letters 
into oi, onai, or ondoi, to form the plural. The singular article is 
formed by changing a or o into et, and the plural article by changing 
oi, onai, or ondoi into ok, onok, onaiik or ondok. Such are : 























f Rotoi 
f Kiplengoi 










Rotok ) 


Kiplengok } 









Rokchonoi Rokchonok 


Sword or 





Class II. 

There are a large number of words which, as a rule, do not vary in 
the plural except for the change of the accent from the penultimate 
to the last syllable, or the changing or lengthening of a vowel. As 
many of these words, however, can form their plural by adding ai to 
the singular, they might perhaps have been properly considered as 
belonging to Class I ; but they are an important group, and it is 
more convenient to classify them separately. 

The article is formed by adding et, iet, yet, or rarely, det or it in the 
singular, and ik or aiik in the plural. 

Examples of words which usually do not change except for the 
accent : 

( Mororoch 
1 Mororochai 

f Kaliang Kaliafigik ) 
(Kaliangai Kaliangaiikj 
Muren Murenik 

Mor6roch Mororochet 

Mororochik ) -p 
Mororocha'iik J ro ^" 



Warrior, man. 





































3S of words which change or 

lengthen a vowel : 





Poor person. 
















In a few instances the 

plural article 

is formed by adding eh instead 

of ih. Examples : 
















The following words may be included in this class, 

but are slightly 

irregular : 










Field cleared 
ready for 










Old men's 


























Class III. 


Class III consists of nouns which usually form their plural by 

adding s, is, os, or us to the singular, or by changing a or o into s, os, 

or es. 1 The singular article is made by adding t, et, it, or ut to the 

1 The full form of the plural is sio, isio, osio, and usio, but thia form is not 
often used. In the word poiyo, ancestor or old man, however, the only form 
for the plural is poiisio (poiisiek). 



singular, or by changing a or o into et ; the plural article by adding iek 
to the plural (or by changing io into iek). Some of the words belong- 
ing to this class can also form the plural like nouns of Class I, i. e, 
by adding oi to the singular, or by changing a, &c, into oi. The 
plural article then becomes ok ; e. g. nianjoi, nianjok, for nianjas, 
nianjasiek (lakes). Examples : 










article . 






f Nianjas 1 





































Deformed person, 

In a few instances ua and uo are changed into os to form the plural : 

Chambolua Chamboluet Chambolos Chambolosiek Knife for 


Pireyuo Pireyuot Pireyuos Pireyuosiek Man's belt. 

Class IV. 

A large number of nouns make the plural by adding n, an, en, yen, 
in, on, or un to the singular. The singular article is formed by adding 
I, et, or det to the singular, or by changing o into et ; the plural article 
by adding ik to the plural. Examples : 








Kind of rat. 































"When un is added to the singular to form the plural, the plural 
article is sometimes made by adding eh. Examples : 
Singular Singular Plural Plural 

without with without with English, 

article. article. article. article. 

E Eut Eun Eunek Arm. 

Ser Serut Serun Serunek Nose. 


Nouns which belong to this class and end in ia, ya, io, iyo, or yo 
change these letters into en, in, or on to form the plural. The article 
is generally formed regularly by adding t in the singular and ih in the 
plural. Examples : — 



















Kweyo Kweyot Kweon 









Porcupine quill. 
Stalk of millet. 
Piece of hide. 
Old man's 
Sandal, broom. 

Sometimes the plural article is formed by changing in into Ik. 
This is, however, generally the case with words ending in other letters 
than ia, ya, io, or yo. Examples : 















Cooked locust. 















Arrow used for 
bleeding cattle. 







Nouns belonging to this class which end in ua, wa, iyua, or iyuo 
form the plural by changing these letters into on. Examples : 

Sororua Sororuet Sororon Sororonik 



Serengon Serengonik 
Kipsoon Kipsoonik 
Lamaon Lamaonik 

Flower of the ba- 

Wooden horn. 


Ximenia americana 



Class V. 


Some nouns add ua to the singular to form the plural, or change 
ia, to, or yo into ua. The singular article is made by adding t or it 
to the singular ; the plural article by changing ua into uek. Ex- 
amples : 












Old cow. 

















Nouns ending in uo or wo change the final o into a. Examples : 

Susuo Susuot Susua Susuek Grass. 

Sokwo Sokwot Sokwa Sokwek Notch in the butt of 

Tufigwo Tungwot Tungwa Tungwek Cough. 
Siwo Siwot Siwa Siwek Stinging-nettle. 


Some monosyllabic words which may be included in this class form 
the plural by adding tinua or otinua to the singular. The singular 
article is formed by adding et or iet ; the plural article by changing 
tinua into linuek. Examples : 

























Path, clan, 












In the following instances the plural of monosyllabic words is made 
by adding usua to the singular : 

Kut Eutit Kutusua Eutusuek Mouth. 

Eat Eatit Katusua Eatusuek Neck. 




In one instance o is changed to eyua to form the plural, and in 
another da is added : 

Singular Singular 

without with 

article. article. 

Siro Siret 

Met Metit 








Band, stripe. 

Class VI. 
A few words form the plural by adding nut to the singular, or by 
changing a into onut. The singular article is made by adding t 
to the singular; the plural article by adding ik to the plural. 
Examples : 



Suwet Suwenut 
Sombet Sombenut 

Tiliet Tilionut 




Peace, relation. 

In one 

instance ut only is added : 
Kiruoget Kiruogut 



Place of 



Kap- Kap- 
kiruoget kiruogut 


Class VIL 


Some words ending in a or o form the plural by changing the 

terminal letter into e or i. The singular article is formed by adding 

t or by changing a into ot ; the plural article by adding k or ek, or by 

changing i into ek. Examples : 


















Herb, vege- 


In this class may be included words ending in o which add i, or 
change o into ai, to form the plural. The plural article, instead of 
being ok or aiik, as in Class I, is ek or ik. Examples ; 
K6wo K6wet Kowoi K6wek Bone. 

Euto Rnteet Eutoi Eutoik Visitor. 

Akwo Akwot Akwai Akwek Bag. 



Class VIII. 
Most words which, when used with the article, take the affix ta 
or to, or da or do, if the last letter is I, m or n, 1 form the plural hy 
adding to the singular ua, uo, or wa (or, to give the full form, uag, 
uog, or wag). The plural article is made by changing ua, uo, or wa 
into ueh or weh, or into uagik, uogih, or wagik. 

The plural is also at times formed like nouns of the first class by 
adding ai. The plural article then becomes aiik. Examples : 












'Sirim wag 

Sirim wagik] 




Sirimwek {• 
Sirimaiik J 

Chain. - 



























Nouns belonging to this class which end in ng or ny drop the g or 
the y when joined to the singular article : 










Elbow, knee. 











Class IX. 
A few nouns, which when used with the article take ta, to, da, or do, 
form the plural by affixing i, n, in, or ien to the singular, or by changing 
i into n. The plural article is formed by adding ik or by changing i 
into ek, or n into k. Such are : 


'• Moita 








Stone, egg 
















' The following belong to the same class, but are slightly irregular : 
Kong Konda Kongin Kongik Hole. 

Kong Konda Konyan Konyek Eye. 

Tiony Tiondo Tiongin Tiofigik Animal. 

Ngetuny Ngetundo Ngetuny Ngetunyik Lion. 
* The only exception to this rule appears to be the word otto, the place. 



Class X. 

A large number of substantives, which were probably first known 
as collective nouns, form the singular from the plural by affixing 
o, o, ia, io, ya, or yo. The singular article is made by adding t to 
the singular, or by changing a, &c, into et ; the plural article by adding 
k, ek, or ik to the plural. Examples : 





















































Castor oil 






After p 

and k, ia, ya, 

io, or yo become eha or cho. 

















Nouns ending in a or e generally change that letter into ia or io 
to form the singular. Examples : 





















Indian corn, 


Eed bead. 




Nouns ending in o form the singular by changing that letter into a. 
Examples ; 

Pusia Pusiat Pusio Pusiek Flour. 

Maiya Maiyat Maiyo Maiyek Beer. 




In some words yua or yuo is added to the plural to form the singular. 
"When the singular article is used, t is added to the singular or a is 
changed into ot ; when the plural article is employed, yuik is added 
to the plural. Examples : 



















Stout pole. 
Feathers of 

an arrow. 

Kanameyuo Kanameyuot Kaname Kanameyuek Tongs. 


There are a few instances of words belonging to this class being 
formed in an irregular manner. Examples : — 










Bark of a 





Fire- wood. 













Class XI. 



The names of tribes of people, and of trades or callings, form the 
singular from the plural by adding in. The singular article is made 
by the affix det ; the plural article by the affix ik, eh, or iek. 







































The names of a few tribes of people are formed irregularly. This 
is doubtless due to the Masai form of the words having been adopted, 
e, g. il-Chumba, il-Kokoyo. 

Singular Singula) 



without with 




article. article. 



Chumbin Chumbindet Chumba 



Kokoyin Kokoyindet Kokoyo 



Ke y° (Seyondet 

| Keyu 



Asungio Asungiot 




Some nouns are only 

used in the singuli 

ir. Such are : 

Without article. 

With article. 




Fog, mist. 


















Old age. 










Others are only used 

in the plural. Examples : 





















Pa' m- wine. 



Curdled milk. 



Cattle pond. 




The words for water, pei (pek), and milk, che (cheko), are also gene- 
rally only used in the plural ; but peiyo {peiyot) can be employed for 
a pond, and cheiyo (cheiyot) is used in such expressions as a little 
milk (cheiyot totegin). 


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It occasionally happens that there are two forms for the singular 

when used with the article. Examples : 

Plural Plural 

without with English, 

article. article. 







(Sokot | 
ISokondet J 
(Toot ) 
(Toondet J 
fOkiot \ 
(Okiondet J 
(Keyot \ 
jKeyondet J 







There appear to be no true adjectives in Nandi, and all words used 
in an adjectival sense are in reality verbs, which can be either joined 
to the relative or used by themselves. They are generally joined to 
the relative. 

When used as an attribute, the adjective follows the substantive. 1 
The plural of adjectives is formed in two ways, firstly by adding 
en or in, or by changing i into en, or en into in ; and secondly by 
adding ach, or by changing e into ach. A few adjectives have the 
same form for both singular and plural, and two or three form the 
plural irregularly. The letters a and e are frequently changed in the 
plural to o and i respectively, when they occur in the body of the word. 
1. Examples of adjectives which form the plural by adding en or 
in, or by changing i into en, or en into in : 

Chiito korom or chiito ne-korom, the fierce man. 

Piik koromen or piik c.he-koromen, the fierce men. 

Itokut tepes or itokut ne-tepes, the broad bed. 

Itokusiek tepesen or itokusiek che-tepesen, the broad beds. 

Ketit koi or ketit ne-koi, the high tree. 

Ketik koiin or ketik che-koiin, the high trees. 

Korket tui or korket ne-tui, the black woman. 

Korusiek tuen or korusiek che-tuen, the black women. 

Kwendet ui or kwendet ne-ui, the hard firewood (sing.). 

Kwenik uen or kwenik che-uen, the hard firewood (pi.). 

Oret tenden or oret ne-tenden, the narrow road. 

Ortinuek tendin or ortinuek che-tendin, the narrow roads. 

1 In a few rare instances the adjective precedes the substantive. Example : 
I-lu-e sotet ne-marlch-kut annan ne-para-kut-i ? Wilt thou drink milk 
from a wide-mouthed or from a narrow-mouthed calabash ? Here ne-marich- 
kid and ne-para-kut are used for kutit ne-marlch and kutit ne-para. (Enigma 
No. 19, p. 137.) 


2. Examples of adjectives which form the plural by adding ach or 
by changing e into ach: 

Ngetet ya or ngetet ne-ya, the bad boy. 
Ngetik yaach or ngetik che-yaach, the bad boys. 
Ingoriet lei or ingoriet ne-lel, the new (or white) garment. 
Ingoraiik lelach or ingoraiik che-lelach, the new (or white) 

Murenet mie or murenet ne-mie, the good warrior. 
Murenik raiach or murenik che-miach, the good warriors. 

3. Examples of adjectives which have the same form for the 
singular and plural: 

Lakwet puch or lakwet ne-puch, the naked child. 
Lakok puch or lakok che-puch, the naked children. 

4. Examples of adjectives which form the plural irregularly : 

Lakwet mining or lakwet ne-mining, the small child. 

Lakok mingech or lakok che-mingech, the small children. 

Seset oo or seset ne-oo, the big dog. 

Sesenik echen or sesenik che-echen, the big dogs. 

Chiito mioni or chiito ne-mioni, the sick man. 

Piik miondos or piik che-miondos, the sick men. 

5. Examples of adjectives which form the plural by changing a into 
o and e into i, when these letters occur in the body of the word : 

Chepto kararan or chepto ne-kararan, the beautiful girl. 
Tipik kororou or tlplk che-kororon, the beautiful girls. 
Poiyot wesis or poiyot ne-wesis, the gentle old man. 
Poiisiek wisisin or poiisiek che-wisisin, the gentle old men. 

Many is translated by che-chang, few by che-ngering : 

Piik che-chang, many men, Piik che-ngering, few men. 

Male and female are rendered by kirkit and koket respectively : 
Ngetundo kirkit, the lion. Ngetundo koket, the lioness. 

"When the adjective is used predicatively, it precedes the substantive : 
Korom chiito, the man is fierce. Koromen piik, the men are fierce, 
Chang piik, the men are many. 

A few words, which are merely genitives, are used as attributes 
(similar to such expressions as days of old, homme de Men, &c). 
They follow the substantive they qualify : 

Eut-ap-tai, the right hand. Oret-ap-katam, the left hand. 
Tiongik-ap-timdo, the wild animals (lit. of the wood). 

Two or more adjectives can follow a substantive : 

Eito ne-oo ne-tui nepo-ole-kinye, the former big black bullock. 
When a noun is qualified by an adjective, and followed by a geni- 
tive, the genitive precedes the adjective. It is therefore sometimes 


difficult to tell whether the adjective qualifies the nominative or geni- 
tive; thus 

Chep-kametit am-murenet ne-mining, might mean, The sister of 
the small warrior, or The warrior's small sister. 

The Compaeison of Adjectives. 

There are not, properly speaking, any degrees of comparison in 

The comparative may be represented in four ways : 

1 . By the use of ko-sir, ' that it may pass ' : 

Ane ne-oo ko-sir (I who am greater that it may pass him), I am 

greater than he. 
Inendet ne-oo ko-sir-o (he who is greater that it may pass me) r 

he is greater than I. 
Kararan kii-i ko-sir nin (beautiful this thing that it may pass 

that), this thing is more beautiful than that. 

2. By the use of Idtit, the rest : 

Ka-a-'kochi rupiesiek pokol ak latit (I have given him Rs. 10O 

and the rest), I have given him more than Ks. 100. 
Tinye tuka taman ak latit, he has more than ten oxen. 

3. By the use of kitegin, a little more : 

Ip-u kiito ne-oo kitegin, bring something a little bigger. 

4. By the use of tamne or mirit, which may be translated by ' to be 
more so ' : 

A-korom, i-tamne (or i-mirit-e), I am fierce, (but) thou art more' 
so (i. e. thou art fiercer). 
More can be translated by ake, &c, other (which see p. 188), or by 
tes, to increase : 

Tes cheko, ip-u chek' alak, increase the milk, bring some more 
The superlative is generally rendered by the use of the adjective 
in its simple form : 

Ngo ne-mie ? Who is the best t 
It can also be translated by an adjective (verbal form joined to the 
relative) followed by the local case : 

Inendet ne-mining eng-murenik tukul (he who is small from the 
warriors all), he is the smallest of all the warriors. 
Like the comparative, the superlative can be expressed by ko-sir, 
' that it may pass ' : 

Mie chif-chi ko-sir tukul (good this man that it may pass all), 
thiB man is the best of all. 



The superlative may also be represented by other parts of the verb 
sir, to pass, followed by the local case : 

Mie nin, ako ni ne-sir-e efig-mienot (good that one, but this one 
who surpasses in goodness), that one is good, but this one 
is the best. 



Aeng or oieng 




pio or kullo 





Taman ak akenge 

Taman ok oieng 

Taman ok somok 

Taman ak angwan 

Taman ak mut * 

Taman ak illo 

Taman ak tisap 

Taman ok sisiit 

Taman ok sokol 


Tiptem ak akenge 

Sosom or tomonuagik somok 

Artam or tomonuagik angwan 

Konom or tomonuagik mut 

Tomonuagik illo 

Tomonuagik tisap 

Tomonuagik sisiit 

Tomonuagik sokol 


Pokol ak akenge 






















Sixty. 2 





Hundred and one. 

The numeral always follows the substantive, which, except when 
one is used, must be accompanied by the article. One can take the 
article or not, as the speaker wishes : 

Piik oieng, two men. 

Chii akenge or chiit' akenge, one man. 

1 Or taman ang mut. 

2 Often everything above fifty is simply styled pokol. If it is desired to 
express a very large number, pokol-pokol, pokolaiik ehe-chang, or pokol 
che-mo-ki-rar-e is used. 


The ordinal numbers are expressed by the use of the genitive 
particle : 

Chiit'-ap-angwan, the fourth man. 

Lak-te piik oieng, imut-u nepo somok (leave two men alone, 
bring the third), bring the third man. 

First and last are translated by Nepo (or chepo) met, and Nepo (or 
chepo) let, respectively. First can also be translated by Nepo tae or 
Ne-indo'i, and both first and last by Ole-poch. 

Once is translated by Kip-akenge, twice and the second time by 
Kip-oieng or Isakte oieng, How many times ? by Ke-'sakte ata 1, and 
often by Isakte che-chang. 

First of all is translated by Isi, which is generally followed by Ta-u, 
(to begin) : 

Isi a-ta-u poiisiet, si a-wa, I must first of all do the work, then 
I may go. 


The personal pronouns are: 

Singular. Plural. 

I Ane We Achek. 

Thou Inye You Okwek. 

He, she, or it Inendet or Ine They Icheket or Ichek. 

The objective cases me, thee, Mm, &c., can be expressed by the same 
forms as those given for the nominative. 

The possessive case of me, &c, is expressed by the possessive 
pronoun. 1 

The position of the personal pronoun with regard to the verb is 
given on p. 191. 

The personal pronouns, when combined with a verb as subject or 
object, are indicated by special prefixes and affixes. See pp. 190-1. 

Possessive Pronouns. 

The possessive pronouns are always placed after the substantive 
denoting the thing possessed and vary according to number. The 
singular article and the termination of the noun frequently undergo 
changes when a possessive pronoun is used. For particulars see 
pp. 162-3. 

1 Some of us, &c, ia translated by akut-adiek, angat-achek, &c. Example : 
Ki-mi piik-i ? Were any of the men there ? Wei, ki-mi akut-ichek. Yes, 
some of them were there. 


are : 









. Nyo 






sesenik-chok, my dogs. 
rot5k-kuk, thy swords, 
chepkesok-chik, his knives. 

The possessive pronouns are 



His, her, or its 




Sesen-nyo, my dog ; 
Rotu6n-ngung, thy sword; 
Chepkeswen-nyi, his knife ; 

The words mine, thine, &c., used predicatively or absolutely, take 
the prefix na or ne in the singular, and cha or che in the plural. The 
forms for mine, thine, and his also undergo slight changes in the plural : 

Mine Nanyo Chachoget. 

Thine Nefigung Chekuget. 

His, hers, or its Nenyi Chechiget. 

Ours Nenyo Chechok. 

Yours Nefigwang Chekwok. 

Theirs Nenywa Chechwak. 

Rotok chwak chu, ngocho chekuget, these are their swords, where 

are thine ? 
Kararan kii-nyi ko-sir nanyo, his thing is more beautiful than 

Ko-'le orkoiyot : ' Mo-o-par sigirok, chechok ', the medicine man 

said : ' Do not strike the donkeys, they are ours.' 

There is a short enclitic form of the possessive pronouns of the 
second and third persons which is used with the words father and 
mother : 

Kon, thy or your father ; 
Kwan, his, her, or their father; 
Komit, thy or your mother ; 
Kamet, his, her, or their mother; 

Akut-kon {or Akut-konuak), 1 thy 

or your fathers. 
Akut-kwan {or Akut-kwanuak), 

his, her, or their fathers. 
Angut-komit( or An gut-komituak) , 

thy or your mothers. 
Angut-kamet (or Angut-kamet- 
uak), his, her, or their mothers. 
The personal pronouns may be added to the possessive pronoun to 
give emphasis. The word porto, the body, is also sometimes used in 
this sense : 

Rotuen-nyo ane 

Rotuen-nyo nepo portan-nyo ■ My own knife. 


1 Akut and angut are often interchangeable. 


Demonstrative Pbonotjns. 

The demonstrative pronoun assumes four forms. The first denotes 
objects near at hand ; the second, objects at a distance ; and the third 
and fourth, objects previously mentioned. The word olto, the place, 
requires a special form to be used with it. 

Class I. 
This or these, of objects at no great distance : 

Usual form. 

Used with the word olto. 


Ni or I 



Chu 1 



Class II. 

That or those or yonder, referring to things at a distance : 

Nin or In Yun That. 

Chun Ulin Those. 

Class in. 
This or these, mentioned before : 

No or O Yo This. 

Cho Ulo These. 

Class IV. 
That or those or yonder, mentioned before : 

Non or On Yon That. 

Chon Ulon Those. 

The demonstrative pronoun always follows the substantive. "When 
the substantive joined to the article is accompanied by the demon- 
strative pronoun, certain changes of spelling take place in all three 
parts of speech. For particulars and examples see pp. 160-2. 

If it is desired to lay stress on the demonstrative pronoun, to (d 
after n) is affixed to it. Examples : 

Seson-nito, this dog here, this very dog. 
Sirim-ito, this chain here. 
Sesen-juto, these dogs here. 
Korkon-nindo, that woman there. 
Korusie-chundo, those women there. 
Yuto, just this place, just here. 
Iro, look, can also be prefixed to the pronoun to express emphasis : 
Iro-cho, maiyo ok die, look at these (things mentioned before), 
beer and milk (see p. 48). 

1 Ch changes to j after re. 


Reflexive Pbonouns. 
Most verbs have a special reflexive form which is made by the 
affix ke : 

A-til-i-ke, I am cutting myself. 
Ka-ki-til-ke, we have cut ourselves. 

Self is also occasionally translated by mukuleldo, the heart : 

Chom-e mukuleldan-nyi, (he loves his heart) he loves himself. 
"When self is added to a pronoun to express emphasis, it is rendered 
by the affix -ke or -e, or by the prefix ak. 

Chiito ineke, or chiito akine, the man himself. 
Piik icheke, or piik akichek, the men themselves. 
Aneke or akane, I myself; acheke or akachek, we ourselves. 
Inyeke or akinye, thou thyself ; okweke or akokwek, you 

By myself, by ourselves, &c, are rendered in the same way : 

Aneke or akane, by myself ; acheke or akachek, by ourselves. 
In place of aneke, &c, i-toi-i-ke (third person i-toi-ke) is often 
affixed to the present tense and i-te-ke to the past tense : 
A-me-i i-toi-i-ke, I will die by myself, or alone. 
Ka-me i-te-ke, he has died by himself, or alone. 

The word owner is rendered by chiito, the man, korket, the woman, 

&c, not by -ke, 1 &c. ; e. g. 

Chiit'-ap-kot ) , , ,,, , 

12- i i. i x r the owner of the house. 

Jvorket-ap-kot J 

T , f i , ., the owners of the house. 
Korusiek-ap-korik J 

Chiit'-ap-kepenet, the owner of the (lion's) den. 

Kopo may also be prefixed to the governed word to express owner : 

Chiit'-ap-kopo-kot, the owner of the house. 
Piik-ap-kopo-korik, the owners of the house. 
Chiit'-ap-kopo-kepenet, the owner of the (lion's) den. 

Relative Pronouns. 
The form for the relative pronoun is ne in the singular and che in 
the plural. There is a special form for the word oho, the place, which 
is ye in both numbers : 

Chiito ne-kararan, the man who is beautiful. 
Piik che-kororon, the men who are beautiful. 
Olto ye-kararan, the place which is beautiful. 
Oltosiek ye-kororon, the places which are beautiful. 

1 In Masai the word oicner is rendered by open, self. 


When the negative is combined with the relative, ne-ma is used in 
the singular, and che-ma in the plural. Ye-ma is employed with the 
word olto, the place : 

Chiito ne-ma-kararan, the man who is not beautiful. 
Piik che-ma-kororon, the men who are not beautiful. 
Olto ye-ma-kararan, the place which is not beautiful. 

Particulars with regard to certain changes which take place in the 
spelling of the relative are given on pp. 191-3. 

Indefinite Pkonouns. 

There are two indefinite pronouns. The first, ake (pi. alake or 
alak), is equivalent to other, another, the one . . . the other, and else ; 
the second, tuhul, to each, every, all, whosoever and whatsoever, and in 
compound words to all three, &c. : 

Chiit' ake, another man. 

Korket ake, another woman. 

Piik alak, other men. 

Korusiek alak, other women. 

Ki-nyo chiit' ake, somebody else came. 

Ki-a-we olt' ake, I went somewhere else. 

Ka-ai-te kiit' ake, I have done something else. 

Kororon alake ko-yaach alake, some are good and others bad. 

When tukul is used to translate each, every, whosoever, Sec., the 
article is omitted : 

Ki-nyo chii-tukul, each man came. 
Ki-pwa piich-tukul, every man came. 
Ki-pun-u eng-oii-tukul, they came from every place. 
Ingo-nyo chii-tukul, ile-chi kwa, whosoever comes, tell him to 
go away. 

When tukul is used to translate all, the article is retained : 

Ka-pwa piik-tukul, all the men have come. 
Both, all three, &c, are translated as follows : 

Towae, both. 

Tukul ko-somok, all three. 
Tukul kw-angwan, all four. 
Tukul ko-mut, all five. 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

There is one interrogative pronoun that is declinable, ng6, Who \ 
and three that are indeclinable, ngd, Which 1, ne, What ?, and ang, 
What sort of? 


Who ? is declined as follows : 

Singular. Plural. English. 

Masculine & Feminine. Masculine. Feminine. 

Ngo I ur ¥f .„, 1 Who? Whom? 

° I Akut-ngo Angut-ngo ) 

Po-ngo Pakut-iigo Pangut-ngo Whose ? 

i^o is also used in both numbers to express Which ? or What % ; ne 
is equivalent to What ? ; and ang to What sort of ?. 

If the interrogative pronoun is the subject, the verb requires 
a relative with it. When Which ?, What sort of?, &c, are joined to 
a substantive, the article is omitted. Who 1 precedes the verb, Whom ? 
and What ? follow ; Whose ? and What sort of ? precede the substantive, 
Which ? follows. 

When following ang, t becomes d, ch becomes j, and k becomes g. 
Before p and k, ang becomes am. 

Ngo ne-mi-i ko ? Who is at the house ? 

Ngo-iigo che-mi-i ko ? ] 

Akut-ngo che-mi-i ko ? I Who are at the house ? 

Angut-fig6 che-mi-i ko ? ) 

I-moch-e ngo ? Whom do you want 1 

Po-ngo rotuan-ni ? Whose sword is this ? 

Pakut-iigo roto-chu ? Whose swords are these 1 

Pangut-figo ingoraii-chu ? Whose garments are these ? 

Chii-ngo ne-mi-i ? Which man is there ? 

Korko-ngo ne-mi-i ? Which woman is there ? 

Piich-ngo che-mi-i ? Which men are there ? 

Mi-i ne 1 What is there 1 

Tinye ne chu ? What have these ? (i. e. what is the matter with 

them 1) 
I-moch-e ne ? What do you want ? 
Ang-sigiroi che-mi-i ? What sort of donkeys are there ? 
Ang-joruan-ni ? What sort of a friend is this ? 
Ang-dim ne-ke-i-'ro ? What sort of a wood hast thou seen ? 
Am-gorko ne-mi-i ? What sort of a woman is there ? 
Am-perut ne-mi-i ? What sort of a mark is there ? 


Verbs in Nandi fall into two classes : (1) roots beginning with," i, 
(2) all other roots. There are also numerous derivative forms which 
may be assumed by most Nandi verbs where in English either another 
verb or some compound expression must be used. 

The principal difference between verbs commencing with i and those 
commencing with any other letter is the omission of the i in certain 


cases. This omission is to be found in the first person singular and 
second person plural of all tenses of the active voice, 1 in the third 
persons singular and plural whenever the personal prefix is ko, and 
in the second person singular and third persons singular and plural 
of the active voice when the tense prefix ends in e or i. Examples : 

A-'sup-i, 2 1 follow (him). Ki-isup-i, we follow (him). 

A-pir-i, s I strike (him). Ki-pir-i, we strike (him). 

Isup, follow (him). O-'sup, follow ye (him). 

Pir, strike (him). O-pir, strike ye (him). 

Ke-i-'sup, thou hast followed Ko-'sup, that he, she, or they may 
(him). follow (bim). 

Ki-ki-isup, we followed (him). Ki-'sup, he, she, or they followed 


When conjugating the verb, special prefixes are used to mark the 
subject if of the first and second persons. There is also in some 
tenses a special prefix to mark the subject in the third persons. The 
following are the subjective or nominative forms. 

I, a, rarely o, ai, or oi. We, hi, rarely he. 

Thou, i, rarely e. You, o, rarely oi. 

He, she, or it, sometimes ho.* They, sometimes ho. 

A special affix is also employed when the object is the first or 
second person singular or plural. 6 When the subject is : 

I and the object thee, the affix is n or in. 







ah or ok. 







a or o. 








He, she, 








a or o. 

He, she, 








n or in. 

He, she, 









He, she, 








ah or ok. 







n or in. 







ah or oh. 







a or o. 














a or o. 







n or in. 














ak or ok 

1 There are a few exceptions to this rule, e. g. a-it-e, I arrive ; a-ipe-i, 
I seize (it). 2 From Isup, to follow, a verb beginning with i. 

3 From Pir, to strike, a verb beginning with another letter than i. 

* Ko becomes go after n and kw before a. 

5 When the verb takes a derivative form, the verbal affix is sometimes 
changed when the object is the first or second person singular or plural. 
Vide pp. 210, 212. 



The following examples from the verb imp, to follow, will illustrate 
the use of the affixes : 

I have followed 
I have followed 


Ka-a-'sup, I have 
him, &c. 



Ke-i-'sup, thou hast followed 
him, &c. 

Ke-i-'sup-o, thou hast followed 

Ke-i-'sup-ech, thou hast fol- 
lowed us. 

Ke-'sup, he or she has followed 
him, &c. 

Ke-'sup-o, he or she has fol- 
lowed me. 

Ke-'sup-in, he or she has fol- 
lowed thee. 

Ke-'sup-ech, he or she has fol- 
lowed us. 

Ke-'sup-ok, he or she has fol- 
lowed you. 

we have 



him, &c. 
Ka-ki-isup-in, we have followed 

Ka-ki-isup-ok, we have followed 

Ko-o-'sup, you have followed him, 

Ko-o-'sup-o, you have followed 

Ko-o-'sup-ech, you have followed 

Ke-'sup, they have followed him, 

Ke-'sup-o, they have followed me. 

Ke-'sup-in, they have followed 

Ke-'sup-ech, they have followed 

Ke-'sup-ok, they have followed 


The personal pronoun is only rarely added, and then to prevent 
ambiguity or for emphasis. It always follows the verb, and is more 
frequently used in the subjective than in the objective case. If both 
are used, the former precedes the latter: 

A-pir-ok ane okwek, I (shall) strike you. 
Ki-pir-o ane, I am struck. 
If the personal pronoun is used as the indirect object, it precedes 
the direct object. Example : 

Ka-a-kon-ok okwek rotok, I have given you the swords. 
The objective prefix is used when anything about the person or 
thing is about to be stated : 

Ka-til-a mornet, he has cut my finger. 
Ki-ki-rat-ak eunek, we bound your arms. 

The Kelative. 

The relative is inseparable from the verb, and in the present tense 
is generally used instead of the personal prefixes. Example : Inye 
ne-isup-i chiito, it is thou who followest the man. It may, however, 
be placed in front of these prefixes, e. g. Inye ne-i-isup-i chiito. 

The relative may be used with the present, past, and future, both 


active and passive. "When followed by a or o, the vowel of the 
relative changes to a or o. 

If the subject and object are expressed, the former precedes, and 
the latter follows, the relative and verb. Examples : 

Ane ne-isup-i chiito 1 ,., . . T , „ ,, ,, 

Ane na-a-'sup-i chiito \& 1S ) J who follow the *><">■ 

Ane na-a-' sup-in, (it is) I who follow thee. 

Ane ne-ki-a-'sup chiito, (it is) I who followed the man. 

Ane ne-kwo-a-'sup chiito, (it is) I who followed the man yesterday. 

Ane ne-ka-a-'sup chiito, (it is) I who have followed the man. 

Ane ne-ip-a-'sup-i chiito, (it is) I who will follow the man. 

Inendet ne-isup-i chiito, (it is) he or she who follows the man. 

Achek che-isup-i chiito ) ,., . , , „ „ „ 

Achek che-ki-imip-i chiito j^ ls ) we who follow the man - 

Okwek che-isup-i chiito ) ,.. . . , ... ,, 

Okwek cho-o-'sup-i chiito^ 1 * ls ) y ou who follow the man ' 

Icheket che-isup-i chiito, (it is) they who follow the man. 

Chiito ne-ki-isup-i, the man who is followed. 

Chiito ne-ki-ki-isup, the man who was followed. 

Chiito ne-ip-ki-isup-i, the man who will be followed. 

Piik che-ki-isup-i, the men who are followed. 

When the relative is the object of the verb, n or ch (ne or che 
before k) precede the personal or the tense prefixes. Examples : 

Chiito n-a-'sup-i, the man whom I follow. 
Chiito ne-ki-a-'sup, the man whom I followed. 
Chiito ne-ka-a-'sup, the man whom I have followed. 
Chiito ne-kwo-a-'sup, the man whom I followed yesterday. 
Piik ch-a-'sup-i, the men whom I follow. 

Adverbs of place and time are often treated as relative particles, 
die, ola, or olo being placed before the personal prefixes : x 

A-wend-i ole-i-wend-i, I go whither (or when) thou goest. 
A-wend-i olto ole-i-pun-u, I am going to the place whence thou 

I-wend-i olto ola-a-pun-u, thou art going to the place from 

whence I come. 
A-wend-i olto olo-o-pun-u, I am going to the place from whence 

you come. 

The relative is often employed in Nandi where it is not required in 
English. Examples : 

Ngd ne-wend-i ? Who is going ? 

Ang gorusio che-ka-pa 1 Which women have gone ? 

1 If an adverb of time is used the relative is frequently omitted. Thus : 
A-wend-i koi i-wend-i, I go (and) afterwards thou goest, is as intelligible 
as a-wend-i ole-koi-i-wend-i, or a-wend-i ole-i-wend-i, I go when thou goest. 

VERBS 193 

Piik ata che-ka-pa 1 How many men have gone 1 

Chii-tukul ne-nyo-ne, whoever may come. 

Tuluet ne-oo, the big mountain. 

A-tinye pek che-oi-'e, I have some drinking water. 

Ip-u ngecheret na-a-tep-e, bring me a chair to sit on. 

Somewhat similar changes to those enumerated above occur when 
the relative is used with the negative (ne-ma and che-ma). The 
particle ma, which is unchangeable, can however precede a pronoun : 

Ma ane ne-isup-i chiito ) ., . . T , . „ 

Ane ne-ma-a-'sup-i chiito j 1 * ls not X who follow the man - 

Ma inye ne-isup-i chiito ) ., . ... , . „ ^ . 

Inye ne-ma-i-isup-i chiito J 1 * ls not thou who follow est the man. 

Ma achek che-isup-i chiito ) ., . , „ „ ,, 

Achek che-ma-ki-isup-i chiito J 1 * ls not we who follow the man - 

Ma ane ne-kwo-a-'sup chiito) it was not I who followed the man 

Ane ne-kwo-ma-a-'sup chiito} yesterday. 

Olto ole-ma-mi-i, a place where there is nobody (a desert place). 


Active Voice. 
Indicative Tenses. 
There is only one present tense, 1 which is formed by affixing i or e 2 
to the root : 

A-'sup-i (ane inendet), I follow Ki-isup-i (achek inendet), we fol- 

or am following (him). low or are following (him). 

I-isup-i (inye inendet), thou fol- O-'sup-i (okwek inendet), you fol- 

lowest or art following (him). low or are following (him). 
Isup-i (inendet inendet), he or Isup-i (ichek inendet), they follow 
she follows or is following or are following (him), 

When the vowel of the verbal root is a, it is generally changed to 
o in the present tense : 

A-chom-e, s I love or am loving Ki-chom-e, we love (him). 


I-chom-e, thou lovest (him). O-chom-e, you love (him). 

Chom-e, he or she loves (him). Chom-e, they love (him). 

1 See also p. 194. 

2 This affix, it must be remembered, changes when the object of the verb 
is the first or second person singular or plural. See pp. 190-1. 

3 Verbal root cham. 



In a few verbs the present tense is formed without the affix i or e : 

A-rnwe, 1 I run away. Ki-mwe, we run away. 

I-mwe, thou runnest away. O-mwe, you run away. 

Mwe, he or she runs away. Mwe, they run away. 
When the verbal root ends in i or e, the present tense is sometimes 
formed by changing the i into e, or the e into i : 

A-tu-e, 2 I pound. Ki-tu-e, we pound. 

I-tu-e, thou poundest. O-tu-e, you pound. 

Tu-e, he or she pounds. Tu-e, they pound. 

A-pwan-i, s I swell. Ki-pwan-i, we swell. 

I-pwan-i, thou swellest. O-pwan-i, you swell. 

Pwan-i, he or she swells. Pwan-i, they swell. 

Still, yet, or again is indicated by ta placed before the personal 
prefixes. In the third persons the prefix changes to ho : 

Ta-a-'sup-i, I still follow or am Ta-ki-isup-i, we still follow (him). 

still following (him), or I am 

following (him) again. 
Ta-i-isup-i, thou still followest Ta-o-'sup-i, you still follow (him). 

Ta-ko-'sup-i, he or she still fol- Ta-ko-'sup-i, they still follow 

lows (him). (him). 

Present Perfect. 

The present perfect is made by placing h and a vowel before the per- 
sonal prefix. Ka is used in the first persons, 4 he in the second person 
singular and in the third persons if the verbal root commences with i. 
If the verb commences with any other letter, ha or ho is used in the 
third persons. Ko is used in the second person plural. This tense 
as a rule denotes an action complete at the time of speaking, and is 
equivalent to the English tense with have. It is. however, at times 
also used in place of the present imperfect and progressive (I am 
following) : 

Ka-a-'sup, I have followed Ka-ki-isup, we have followed 

(him). (him). 

Ke-i-'sup, thou hast followed Ko-o-'sup, you have followed 

(him). (him). 

Ke-'sup, he or she has followed Ke-'sup. they have followed (him). 


Ka-cham, he, she, or they have loved (him). 

1 Verbal root mwe, to run away. 2 Verbal root tu-i, to pound. 

3 Verbal root pwan-e, to swell. 

1 When the verbal root commences with a, ka- a is contracted into kd ; e. g. 
Ka-amny, I have folded, for ka-a-aruny. 

VEEBS 195 

A form of the present perfect which denotes a more complete 
action than the preceding is made by doubling the syllable ka or by 
using ka instead of he, &c. In the third persons the personal prefix 
becomes ho: 

Kaka-a-'sup or ka-a-'sup, I Kaka-ki-isup or ka-ki-isup, we 

have finished following (him). have finished following (him). 

Kaka-i-isup or ka-i-'sup, thou Kaka-o-'sup or ka-o-'sup, you 

hast finished following (him). have finished following (him). - 

Kaka-ko-'sup or ka-ko-'sup, he Kaka-ko-'sup or ka-ko-'sup, they 

has finished following (him). have finished following (him). 

Past Perfect. 
A past perfect tense is made by the prefix hi. It denotes an action 
complete in past time, and represents the indefinite past tense in 
English : 

Ki-a-'sup, I followed (him). Ki-ki-isup, we followed (him) 

Ki-i-'sup, thou followedst (him). Ki-o-'sup, you followed (him). 
Ki-'sup or Ki-ko-'sup, he or she Ki-'sup or ki-ko-'sup, they fol- 
followed (him). lowed (him). 

When it is desired to express a still more complete action in the 
past, hiha is used for hi : 

Kika-a-'sup, I finished following Kika-ki-isup, we finished follow - 

(him). ing (him). 

Kika-i-isup, thou finishedst Kika-o-'sup, you finished follow- 

following (him). ing (him). 

Kika-ko-'sup, he finished fol- Kika-ko-'sup, they finished fol- 
lowing (him). lowing (him). 

If the time of action is qualified by the adverb amt, yesterday, 
slightly different forms are used, hwo and hwoha taking the place of 
ki and hiha : 

Kwo-a-'sup amt, I followed Kwo-ki-isup amt, we followed 

(him) yesterday. (him) yesterday. 

Kwoka-a-'sup amt, I finished Kwoka-ki-isup amt, we finished 
following (him) yesterday. following (him) yesterday. 

An imperfect tense denoting that the action is not yet complete, 
and answering to the English was followed by the present participle, 
is formed by prefixing the same letters as are used in the present and 
past perfect to the present tense : 

Ka-a-'sup-i, I have been follow- Ka-ki-isup-i, we have been follow- 
ing (him). ing (him). 
Ki-a-'sup-i, I was following Ki-ki-isup-i, we were following 
(him). (him). 

o 2 


When the verb is qualified by the adverb amt, yesterday, the prefix 
is changed to hwo : 

Kwo-a-'sup-i amt, I was follow- Kwo-ki-iaup-i amt, we were follow- 
ing (him) yesterday. ing (him) yesterday. 

Again is expressed by inserting ta between the prefix of the past 
tense and the personal prefix : 

Ka-ta-a-'sup, I have again followed (him). 
Ki-ta-a-'sup, I again followed (him). 


A future tense is formed by prefixing ip or inyo to the present. 
The former signifies going, the latter coming. In the third persons ho 
is used for the personal prefix : 

Ip (or inyo)-a-'sup-i, I go (or Ip (or inyo)-ki-isup-i, we go (or 
come) to follow (him), or I come) to follow (him), or we 
shall follow (him). shall (follow) him. 

Ip (or inyo)-i-isup-i, thou goest Ip (or inyo)-o-'sup-i, you go (or 
(or comest) to follow (him), or come) to follow (him), or you 
thou wilt follow (him). will follow (him). 

Ip (or inyo)-ko-'sup-i, he or she Ip (or inyo)-ko-'sup-i, they go (or 
goes (or comes) to follow come) to follow (him), or they 
(him), or he or she will follow will follow (him), 

The present tense with or without such words as hoi, afterwards, 
tun, presently, mutai, to-morrow, is often used instead of the future. 

Conditional Tenses. 


There are two present conditional tenses, one of which is formed by 
the prefix ingo-nga, &C., 1 and the other by ang-wya, &c. The former 
is equivalent to if, the latter to when. When ingo-nga, &c, is used, 
various changes take place in the personal prefixes : 

Ingo-nga-a-'sup, if I follow or Ingo-ngi-isup, if we follow (him). 

am following (him). 

Ingo-ngi-isup, if thou followest Ingo-ngo-o-'sup, if you follow 

(him). (him). 

Ingo-ngo-'sup, if he or she fol- Ingo-ngo-'sup, iftheyfollow(him). 

lows (him). 

1 Ingo or inga is frequently used for ingo-nga or ingo-nga, ingi for ingo-ngi, and 
inge for ingo-nge. 



Ingo-nga-a-par, if I kill (him). 
Ingo-ngi-par, if thou killest 

Ingo-ngo-par, if he or she kills 


Ang-nya-a-'sup, when I follow 
or am following (him). 

Ang-nye-i-'sup, when thou fol- 
lowest (him). 

Ang-nye-'sup, when he or she 
follows (him). 

Ingo-nge-par, if we kill (him). 
Ingo-ngo-o-par, if you kill (him). 

Ingo-ngo-par, if they kill (him). 

Ang-nye-ki-isup, when we follow 

Ang-nyo-o-'sup, when you follow 

(him). ; 
Ang-nye-'sup, when they follow 


As in the indicative tenses, there are several ways of forming the 
past contingent tenses. The most usual way is by prefixing hi to the 
present contingent. Ingo-nga and ingo-ngi are contracted into ingo 
and ingi : 


Ki-ingi-isup, if thou followedst 

Ki-ingo-'sup, if he or she fol- 
lowed (him). 

Ki-ang-nya-a-'sup, when I fol- 
lowed (him). 

if I followed Ki-ingi-isup, if we followed (him). 

if you followed 
they followed 


Ki-ingo-'sup, if 


Ki-ang-nye-ki-isup, when we fol- 
lowed (him). 

When I was about to, &c, is translated by hiolen, &c, placed before 
the personal prefix. When the verb assumes this form, the prefix of 
the third persons is changed to go, and of the first person plural to gi : 

Kiolen-a-'sup, when I was about Kikilen-gi-isup, when 

to follow (him). 
Kiilen-i-isup, when thou wast 

about to follow (him). 
Kilen-go-'sup, when he or she 

was about to follow (him). 

we were 

about to follow (him). 
Kiolen-o-'sup, when you were 

about to follow (him). 
Kilen-go-'sup, when they were 

about to follow (him). 

Slight changes in the above forms are made when the verb is 
qualified by the adverb amt, yesterday : 

Kwo-nga-a-'sup amt, if I fol- Kwo-ngi-isup amt, if we followed 

lowed (him) yesterday. 

Kwo-ang-nya-a-'sup amt, when 
I followed (him) yesterday. 

Kwolen-a-'sup amt, when I was 
about to follow (him) yes- 

(him) yesterday. 

Kwo-ang-nye-ki-isup amt, when 
we followed (him) yesterday. 

Kwokilen-gi-isup amt, when we 
were about to follow (him) yes- 



Again is expressed by inserting ho-ta between the verbal and per- 
sonal prefixes, unless ho forms a part of the former, when ta only 
is used : 

Ingo-ta-a-'sup, if I follow (him) again. 

Ki-afig-nya-ko-ta-a-'sup, when I follow (him) again. 

The future conditional tenses are formed by the prefixes ingo-ngep 
and ang-nyep : 

Ingo-ngep-a-'sup, if 1 shall fol- Ingo-ngep-ki-isup, if we shall fol- 
low (him). low (him). 

Afig-nyep-a-'sup, when I shall Ang-nyep-ki-isup, when we shall 

follow (him). follow (him). 

The Contingent Tenses. 

The present and past contingent tenses are formed by prefixing 
takoraki and ta to the present and past perfect indicative. Ko is 
used for the personal prefix in the third persons: 


Takoraki-a-'sup-i, I should or 

if I did follow (him). 
Takoraki-i-'sup-i, thou wouldst 

or if thou didst follow (him). 
Takoraki-ko-'sup-i, he or she 

would or if he or she did 

follow (him). 


Takoraki-ki-isup-i, we should or 

if we did follow (him). 
Takoraki-o-'sup-i, you would or 

if you did follow (him). 
Takoraki-ko-'sup-i, they would or 

if they did follow (him). 

Ta-ki-a-'sup, I should have or 
had I followed (him). 

Ta-ki-i-'sup, thou wouldst 
have or hadst thou followed 

Ta-ki-ko-'sup, he or she would 
have or had he or she fol- 
lowed (him). 

Ta-kika-a-'sup, I should have 
or had I finished following 

Ta-kwo-a-'sup amt, I should 
have or had I followed (him) 

Ta-kwoka-a-'sup amt, I should 
have or had I finished fol- 
lowing (him) yesterday. 

Ta-ki-ki-isup, we should have or 

had we followed (him). 
Ta-ki-o-'sup, you would have or 

had you followed (him). 

Ta-ki-ko-'sup, they would have 
or had they followed (him). 

Ta-kika-ki-isup, we should have 
or had we finished following 

Ta-kwo-ki-isup amt, we should 
have or had we followed (him) 

Ta-kwoka-ki-isup-amt, we should 
have or had we finished follow- 
ing (him) yesterday. 

VERBS 199 

When again is used with the present contingent tense, ko-ta is 
inserted between takoraki and the personal prefixes. In the other 
tenses ta is used : 

Takoraki-ko-ta-a-'sup-i, I should or if I did follow (him) again, 
Ta-ki-ta-a-'sup, I should have or had I followed (him) again. 


The imperative is the simple verbal root. The plural is formed 
by the prefix o : 

Isup, follow (him). O-'sup, follow ye (him). 

Cham, love (him). O-cham, love ye (him). 

When the object is the first person, a or o is affixed in the singular, 
and ech in the plural : 

Isup-a, follow me. O-'sup-a, follow ye me. 

Isup-ech, follow us. O-'sup-ech, follow ye us. 

One form of the subjunctive (which see below) may also be used 
as an imperative or jussive : 

Ingo-a-'sup, let me follow (him). Ingi-isup, let us follow (him). 

Another form of the imperative is made by the imperative of the 
verb to give, followed by the subjunctive : 

Ikochi ko-'sup, give him that he follows (him), or let him follow 

Kon-o a-' sup-in, give me that I follow (thee), or let me follow 


Again is expressed by prefixing ta in the singular, to in the plural : 

Ta-isup, follow (him) again. To-o-'sup, follow ye (him) again. 

Ta-cham, love (him) again. To-o-cham, love ye (him) again. 

There are three ways of forming the subjunctive. In the first, the 
simple verbal root is preceded by the personal prefixes in the first 
persons, the imperative is employed in the second persons, and the root, 
preceded by ko, is used in the third persons ; in the second method, 
the simple verbal root is preceded by the personal prefixes ; and in the 
third, ingo or ingi is placed before the personal prefixes much as 
in the present conditional tense : 

A-'sup, that I may follow (him). Ki-isup, that we may follow (him). 

Isup, that thou mayest follow O-'sup, that you may follow 

(him). (him). 

Ko-'sup, that he or she may Ko-'sup, that they may follow 

follow (him). (him). 


A-cham, that I may love (him). Ki-cham, that we may love (him). 

Cham, that thou mayest love O-cham, that you may love (him). 


Ko-cham, that he or she may Ko-cham,thattheymay love (him). 

love (him). 

A-'sup, may I follow (him). Ki-isup, may we follow (him). 

I-isup, mayest thou follow O-'sup, may you follow (him). 

Isup, may he or she follow Isup, may they follow (him). 


A-cham, may I love (him). Ki-cham, may we love (him). 

I-cham, mayest thou love (him). O-cham, may you love (him). 

Cham, may he or she love Cham, may they love (him), 

Ingo-a-'sup, let me follow (him). Ingi-isup, let us follow (him). 

Ingi-isup, let thee follow (him). Ingo-o-'sup, let you follow (him). 

Ingo-'sup, let him or her fol- Ingo-'sup, let them follow (him), 
low (him). 

The first of these forms is also used both as a narrative tense and 
where an infinitive is employed in English. In telling a story it is 
usual to commence with a verb in a past tense, and to put all the 
verbs that follow in the subjunctive. In some derivative and irregular 
verbs there is a special form for the narrative tense. 

A few instances of the use of the subjunctive are given in the 
following examples : 

Mwa-chi ko-ip omdin-nyo, tell him to bring my food. 

Kur ko-nyo ka, call him (to come) to the house. 

Kon-o a-wa, give me permission to go. 

Par-in Asis, may God kill thee. 

Met-te ko-ru, leave him alone that he may sleep. 

Ka-a-'le-ch-in tes omdit, I have told thee to increase the food. 

Ko-'le-chi chiito : 'Inge-par,' he said to the man: 'Let us 

kill him.' 
Ki-a-tinye ole-kinye tany-nyo, a-mach a-eny, ko-nai, ko-chilil, 

I formerly had my ox, I wished to slaughter it, it knew, 

and it ran away. 


There are no participles in Nandi. The English present participle 
in -ing may sometimes be represented by the present tense. When 
used in this sense the personal prefix in the third persons becomes ho. 
Example : 

Ki-pir ko-'sup-i, he struck him following him. 

VERBS 201 

"When the past participle in English is used as a verbal adjective, 
it is rendered in Nandi by the verbal forms combined with the 
relative. Example : 

Iyue-i lakwet ne-ka-ki-pel mat, a burnt child fears the fire. 


There is no form for the infinitive, and the subjunctive is generally 
used instead. The present indicative at times takes the place of the 
subjunctive. Examples : 

A-'much-i a-'sup, I am able to follow (him). 
I-moch-e isup, thou wishest to follow (him). 
Sich-e chiito poiisiet kw-ai, the man (will) succeed in doing the 

Ki-ingen ki-isup, we know how to follow (him). 
Mo-o-'much-i oi-eny eito, you were unable to slaughter the 

Ko-sich piik ko-'sup nin, the men succeeded in following that 

Isi a-ta-u a-'sup-i, I will first of all follow (him). 

The Negative Conjugation. — Active Voice. 

Indicative Tenses. 


The negative present is formed by prefixing m to the affirmative, 
with or without a vowel. When the verbal root commences with 
i, the prefix in the third persons is me ; when it commences with any 
other letter, the prefix is ma : 

M-a-'sup-i, I follow (him) not. Ma-ki-isup-i, we follow (him) not. 
Me-i-'sup-i,thou followest (him) Mo-o-'sup-i, you follow (him) not. 

Me-'sup-i, he or she follows Me-'sup-i, they follow (him) not. 

(him) not. 

M-a-chom-e, I love (him) not. Ma-ki-chom-e, we love (him) not. 
Me-i-chom-e, thou lovest (him) Mo-o-chom-e, you love (him) not. 

Ma-chom-e, he or she loves Ma-chom-e, they love (him) not. 

(him) not. 

Again is expressed by the prefix ma (md in the first person plural); 
still, by torn. When these forms are used, the personal prefix of the 
third persons is ho : 


Ma-a-'sup-i, I follow (him) not Ma-ki-isup-i, we follow (him) not 

again. again. 

Ma-i-isup-i,tkoufollowest(him) Ma-o-'sup-i, you follow (him) not 

not again. again. 

Ma-ko-'sup-i, he or she follows Ma-ko-'sup-i, they follow (him) 

(him) not again. not again. 

Tom-a-'sup-i,I still follow (him) Tom-ki-isup-i, we still follow 

not. (him) not. 

Present Perfect. 

The present perfect negative is formed by placing ma before the 
personal prefix : 

Ma-a-'sup, I have not followed Ma-ki-isup, we have not followed 

(him). (him). 

Ma-i-isup, thou hast not fol- Ma-o-'sup, you have not followed 

lowed (him). (him). 

Ma-isup, he or she has not Ma-isup, they have not followed 

followed (him). (him). 

Past Perfect. 

The negative past perfect tenses and the imperfect are made by 
inserting ma between the prefix of the affirmative and the personal 
prefixes : 

Ki-ma-a-'sup, I followed (him) Ki-ma-ki-isup, we followed (him) 

not. not. 

Ki-ma-i-isup, thou followedst Ki-ma-o-'sup, you followed (him) 

(him) not. not. 

Ki-ma-isup, he or she followed Ki-ma-isup, they followed (him) 

(him) not. not. 

Kika-ma-a-'sup, I did not finish Kika-ma-ki-isup, we did not finish 

following (him). following (him). 

Kwo-ma-a-'sup amt, I did not Kwo-ma-ki-isup amt, we did not 

follow (him) yesterday. follow (him) yesterday. 

Kwoka-ma-a-'sup amt, I did Kwoka-ma-ki-isup amt, we did 
not finish following (him) not finish following (him) yes- 
yesterday, terday. 


Ki-ma-a-'sup-i, I was not fol- Ki-ma-ki-isup-i, we were not fol- 
lowing (him). lowing (him). 

Kwo-ma-a-'sup-i amt, I was Kwo-ma-ki-isup-i amt, we were 

not following (him) yesterday. not following (him) yesterday. 

VERBS 203 

Again is expressed by the prefix ma-ta ; not yet, by torn : 

Ma-ta-a-'sup, I have not fol- Ma-ta-ki-isup, we have not fol- 
lowed (him) again. lowed (him) again. 

Tom-a-'sup, I have not yet fol- Tom-ki-isup, we have not yet fol- 
lowed (him). lowed (him). 

Kaka-ma-ta-a-'sup, I have not Kaka-ma-ta-ki-isup, we have not 
finishedfollowing(him)again. finished following (him) again. 

Kaka-tom-a-'sup, I have not Kaka-tom-ki-isup, we have not 
yet finished following (him). yet finished following (him). 

The future negative is formed by the prefix me'p or me'nyo : 
Me'p (or me'nyo)-a-'sup-i, I go Me'p (or me'nyo)-ki-isup-i, we go 
(or come) not to follow (him), (or come) not to follow (him), or 
or I shall not follow him. we shall not follow (him). 

Conditional Tenses. 
In the negative conditional tenses m and a vowel are inserted 
between the prefix of the affirmative and the personal prefixes. Ingo 
takes the place of ingo-nga or ingo-ngi, &c, and ang-nya that of 
ang-nye, &c. : 

Ingo (or a2g-nya)-ma-a-'sup, if Ingo (or ang-nya)-ma-ki-isup, if 

(or when) I follow (him) not. (or when) we follow (him) not. 

Ki-ingo (or ki-ang-nya)-ma-a- Ki-ingo (or ki-ang-nya)-ma-ki- 

'sup, if (or when) I followed isup, if (or when) we followed 

(him) not. (him) not. 

Again is expressed by ma-ta or ko-ma-ta : 

Ingo-ma-ta-a-'sup, if I follow (him) not again. 
Ki-ang-nya-ko-ma-ta-a-'sup, when I followed (him) not again. 

Contingent Tenses. 
To form the negative present contingent tense, homo, is inserted 
between the prefix tahoraki and the personal prefix of the verb. 

Takoraki-koma-a-'sup-i, I Takoiaki-koma-ki-isup-i, we 
should not or if I did not should not or if we did not fol- 
follow (him). low (him). 

The past contingent tenses are formed by inserting ma between the 
prefix of the affirmative and the personal prefixes. 

Ta-ki-ma-a-'sup, I should not Ta-ki-ma-ki-isup, we should not 
have or had I not followed have or had we not followed 
(him). (him). 


Ta-kika-ma-a-'sup, I should not Ta-kika-ma-ki-isup, we should 

have or had I not finished not have or had we not finished 

following (him). following (him). 

Ta-kwo-ma-a-'sup aint, Ishould Ta-kwo-ma-ki-isupamt,weshould 

not have or had I not fol- not have or had we not followed 

lowed (him) yesterday. (him) yesterday. 

Ta-kwoka-ma-a-'sup amt, I Ta-kwoka-ma-ki-isup amt, we 

should not have or had I not should not have or had we not 

finished following (him) yes- finished following (him) yester- 

terday. day. 


There are two ways of expressing the negative imperative. The 
first is formed by prefixing to the root me in the singular and mo in 
the plural. When the verbal root commences with i, that letter 
is omitted. The second is formed by prefixing ma-t in the singular 
and ma-to in the plural. 

Ma-t-lup} follow < him ) not - Ma-to-'sup} follow ve ( him ) not 

Maikup-o} follow me not Ma-t o-'sup-o} follow ^ me not 

The negative imperative of the verb to give followed by the sub- 
junctive is also frequently used for the simple imperative. 

Me-kon-o a-'sup, do not give Me-'kochi ko-'sup, do not give 
me that I follow (him), or do them that they follow (him), or 
not let me follow (him). do not let them follow (him). 

Again is expressed by prefixing ma-ta-ta or ma-t-ko-ta to the 

Ma-ta-ta-isup } follow (him) not Ma-ta-ta-o-'sup \ follow ye (him) 
Ma-t-ko-ta-isupJ again. Ma-t-ko-ta-o-'sup j not again. 


The negative subjunctive is formed by prefixing ma-t to the 

Ma-t-a-'sup, that I may not Ma-t-ki-isup, that we may not 

follow (him). follow (him). 

Ma-t-i-isup, that thou mayest Ma-t-o-'sup, that you may not 

not follow (him). follow (him). 

Ma-t-ko-'sup, that he or she Ma-t-ko-'sup, that they may not 

may not follow (him). follow (him). 

Ingo-ma-a-'sup, let me not Ingo-ma-ki-isup, let us not follow 
follow (him). (him). 



Again is expressed by ma-ta-ta which is sometimes abbreviated 
into ma-fa. 

Ma-ta-ta-a-'sup or Ma-ta-a- Ma-ta-ta-ki-isup or Ma-ta-ki- 

'sup, that I may not follow isup, that we may not follow 

(him) again. (him) again. 

The Impersonal Form or Passive Voice. 
There is an impersonal form which corresponds to the passive in 
English. The prefix ki or he (gi and ge after n) takes the place of the 
personal prefixes of the verb, and the objective affix is used for the 
first and second persons. 

Indicative Tenses. 
is following Ki-isup ech, we are followed. 

Ki-isup-o, there 

with respect to me, or I am 

Ki-isup-in, thou art followed. 

Ki-isup-i, he or she is followed. 

Ke-cham-a, I am loved. 

Ta-ki-isup-o, I am still being 
followed, or I am being fol- 
lowed again. 


Ki-isup-ok, you are followed. 
Ki-isup-i, they are followed. 
Ke-cham-ech, we are loved. 
Ta-ki-isup-ech, we are still being 

Ka-ki-isup-o, I have been fol- 

Ka-ki-isup-in, thou hast been 

Ka-ki-isup, he or she has been 

Ka-ke-cham-a, I have been 

Ka-ta-ki-isup-o, I have again 
been followed. 

Kaki-isup-o, I have finished 
being followed. 

Ki-ki-isup-o, I was followed, or 
I was being followed. 

Kika-ki-isup-o, I was finished 
being followed. 

Kwo-ki-isup-o amt, I was fol- 
lowed, or I was being followed 

Kwoka-ki-isup-o amt, I was 
finished being followed 

Ka-ki-isup-ech, we have been fol- 

Ka-ki-isup-ok, you have been 

Ka-ki-isup, they have been fol- 

Ka-ke-cham-ech, we have been 

Ka-ta-ki-isup-ech, we have again 
been followed. 

Kaki-isup-ech, we have finished 
being followed. 

Ki-ki-isup-ech, we were followed, 
or we were being followed. 

Kika-ki-isup-ech, we were fin- 
ished being followed. 

Kwo-ki-isup-ech amt, we were 
followed, or we were being fol- 
lowed yesterday. 

Kwoka-ki-isup-ech amt, we were 
finished being followed yester- 




Ip (or inyo)-ki-isup-o, I shall 

be followed. 
Ip (or inyo)-ke-cham-a, I shall 

be loved. 

Ip (or inyo)-ki-isup-ech, we shall 
be followed. 

Ip (or inyo)-ke-cham-ech, we shall 
be loved. 

Conditional Tenses. 

Ingo-ngi-isup-o, if I am fol- Ingo-ngi-isup-ech, if we are fol- 
lowed, lowed. 

Ang-nya-ki-isup-o, when I am Ang-nye-ki-isup-ech, when we 

followed. were followed. 

Ki-ingi-isup-o, if I was fol- Ki-ingi-isup-ech, if we were fol- 
lowed, lowed. 

Kiolen-gi-isup-o, when I was Kikilen-gi-isup-ecb, when we were 

about to be followed. about to be followed. 

Kwo-ang-nya-ki-isup-o amt, Kwo-ang-nye-ki-isup-ech amt, 

when I was followed yes- when we were followed yester- 

terday. day. 

Ingo-ngo-ta-ki-isup-o, if I am again followed. 

Contingent Tenses. 

Takoiaki-ki-isup-o, I should be 

Ta-ki-ki-isup-o, I should have 

been followed. 
Ta-kika-ki-isup-o, I should 

have finished being followed. 
Ta-kwo-ki-isup-o amt, I should 

have been followed yester- 

Takoraki-ki-isup-ech, we should 

be followed. 
Ta-ki-ki-isup-ech, we should have 

been followed. 
Ta-kika-ki-isup-ech, we should 

have finished being followed. 
Ta-kwo-ki-isup-echamt,we should 

have been followed yesterday. 

Ki-isup-in, be followed. 
Ke-cham-in, be loved. 

Takoraki-ko-ta-ki-isup-o, I should be again followed. 


Ki-isup-ok, be ye followed. 
Ke-cham-ak, be ye loved. 

Another form of the imperative passive is made by prefixing ingi 
instead of hi : 

Ingi-isup-in, be followed. Ingi-isup-ok, be ye followed. 

Inge-cham-in, be loved. Inge-cham-ak, be ye loved. 

The imperative affirmative of the verb to give followed by the 
imperative is also much used : 

Ikochi ki-isHp-in, give that it is followed to thee, or be followed. 
Ta-ki-isup-in, be followed again. 

VERBS 207 


Ki-isup-o, that I may be fol- Ki-isup-ech, that we may be fol- 
lowed, lowed. 

Ki-isup-in, that thou mayest be Ki-isup-ok, that you may be fol- 

followed. lowed. 

Ki-isup, that he or she may be Ki-isup, that they may be fol- 

followed. lowed. 

Ko-ta-ki-isup-o, that I may be followed again. 

The Negative Passive. 
The negative passive is formed in the same way as the negative 
active : 

Indicative Tenses. 

Ma-ki-isup-o, I am not fol- Ma-ki-isup-ech, we are not fol- 
lowed, lowed. 

Ma-ta-ki-isup-o, I am not again Ma-ta-ki-isup-ech, we are not 
being followed. again being followed. 


Ka-ma-ki-isup-o, I have not Ka-ma-ki-isup-ech, we have not 
been followed. been followed. 

Ki-ma-ki-isup-o, I was not fol- Ki-ma-ki-isup-ech, we were not 
lowed. followed. 

Tom-ki-isup-o, I have not yet Tom-ki-isup-ech, we have not yet 

been followed. been followed. 

Ka-ma-ta-ki-isup-o, I have not Ka-ma-ta-ki-isup-ech, we have 

again been followed. not again been followed. 


Me-'p-ki-isup-o, I shall not be Me-'p-ki-isup-ech, we shall not 
followed. be followed. 

Conditional Tenses. 

. Ingo (or ang-nya-ko)-ma-ki- Ingo {or aiig-nya-ko)-ma-ki-isup- 

isup-o, if (or when) I am not ech, if (or when) we were not 

followed. followed. 

Ki-ingo (or ki-ang-nya-ko)-ma- Ki-ingo (or ki-ang-nya-ko)-ma- 

ki-isup-o, if (or when) I was ki-isup-ech, if (or when) we 

not followed. were not followed. 

Contingent Tenses. 

Takoraki-kom a -ki-isup-o, I Takoraki-koma-ki-isup-ech, we 

should not be followed. should not be followed. 

Ta-ki-ma-ki-isup-o, I should Ta-ki-ma-ki-isup-ech, we should 

not have been followed. not have been followed. 



Ma-ki-isup-in, be not followed, ila-ki-isup-ok, be ye not fol- 
Ma-ta-ki-isup-in, be not again Ma-ta-ki-isup-ok, be ye not again 
followed. followed. 


Ma-ki-isnp-o, that I may not Ma-ki-isup-ech, that we may not 

be followed. be followed. 

Ma-ta-ki-isup-o, that I may not Ma-ta-ki-isup-ech, that we may 

again be followed. not again be followed. 


Vebbs Denoting Motion towards the Speakeb. 

Verbs denoting motion towards the speaker take the affix u : 

Active Voice. 


A-'sup-u, I follow (him) Ki-isup-u, we follow (him) 
hither. hither. 


Ka-a-'sup-u, I have followed Ka-ki-isup-u, we have followed 

(him) hither. (him) hither. 

Ki-a-'sup-u, I followed (him) Ki-ki-isup-u, we followed (him) 

hither. hither. 


Ip (or inyo)-a-'sup-u, I shall Ip (or inyo)-ki-isup-u, we shall 
follow (him) hither. follow him (hither). 


Isup-u, follow (him) hither. O-'sup-u, follow ye (him) hither. 


A-'sup-u, that I may follow Ki-isup-u, that we may follow 
(him) hither. (him) hither. 

Passive Voice. 

Ki-isup-u-a, I am followed Ki-isup-u-ech, we are followed 

hither. hither. 

Ki-isup-u-n, thou art followed Ki-isup-u-ok, you are followed 

hither. hither. 

Ki-isup-u, he or she is fol- Ki-isup-u, they are followed hither. 

lowed hither. 

VERBS 209 


Ka-ki-isup-u-a, I have been Ka-ki-isup-u-ech, we have been 
followed hither. followed hither. 

Ki-ki-isup-u-a, I was followed Ki-ki-isup-u-ech, we were fol- 
hither. lowed hither. 

Examples : 

Isup-u-a ko-pir-o, he is following me hither to strike me. 

Isup-u-n ko-pir-in, he is following thee hither to strike thee. 

Kwo-a-'sup-u-ok okwek yu amt ; kwo-ang-nya-a-it-u yu, o-rua, 
I followed you here yesterday ; when I arrived here, you ran away. 

Ingo-ngo-a-chor-u cheko, ko-lu-e lakok-i? if I steal milk (and 
bring it hither), will the children drink it 1 

Kwo-ki-isup-u-a amt, I was followed hither yesterday. 

Veebs denoting Motion eeom the Speakee. 
The present tense is formed by affixing toi-i in the first and second 
persons, and tot in the third persons : 

A-'sup-toi-i, I follow (him) Ki-isup-toi-i, we follow (him) 

thither. thither. 

I-isup-toi-i, thou followest O-'sup-toi-i, you follow (him) 

(him) thither. thither. 

Isup-toi,he or she follows (him) Isup-toi, they follow (him) thither, 

The past tenses are formed by affixing te in the first and second 
persons, and to in the third persons : 

Ka-a-'sup-te, I have followed Ka-ki-isup-te, we bave followed 

(him) thither. (him) thjther. 

Ke-i-'sup-te, thou hast fol- Ko-o-'sup-te, you have followed 

lowed (him) thither. (him) thither. 

Ke-' sup-to, he or she has fol- Ke-'sup-to, they have followed 

lowed (him) thither. (him) thither. 

Ki-a-'sup-te, I followed (him) Ki-ki-isup-te, we followed (him) 
thither. thither. 


The affix of the imperative is te : 

Isup-te, follow (him) thither. O-'sup-te, follow ye (him) thither. 

In the subjunctive the affix used in the first person singular and in 
the third persons is to ; in the other persons te : 


A-'sup-to, that I may follow Ki-isup-te, that we may follow 

(him) thither. (him) thither. 

Isup-te, that thou mayest fol- O-'sup-te, that you may follow 

low (him) thither. (him) thither. 

Ko-'sup-to, that he or she may Ko-'sup-to, that they may follow 

follow (him) thither. (him) thither. 

Naeeative Tense. 
In verbs denoting motion from the speaker the narrative tense is 
formed by the affix te : 

A-'sup-te, and I follow (him) Ki-isup-te, and we follow (him) 
thither. thither. 

When the object of the verb is the personal pronoun (first and second 
persons), slight changes take place in the verbal affixes. Examples : 


A-'sup-toi-i, I follow him thither. 
A-'sup-toi-in, I follow thee thither. 
A-'sup-to-ok, I follow you thither. 
I-isup-toi-i, thou followest him thither. 
I-isup-to-o, thou followest me thither. 
I-isup-toi-ech, thou followest us thither. 
Isup-toi, he or she follows him thither. 
Isup-to-o, he or "she follows me thither. 
Isup-toi-in, he or she follows thee thither. 
Isup-toi-ech, he or she follows us thither. 
Isup-to-ok, he or she follows you thither. 


Ka-a-'sup-te, I have followed him thither. 
Ka-a-'sup-te-n, I have followed thee thither. 
Ka-a-'sup-t-ok, I have followed you thither. 
Ke-i-'sup-te, thou hast followed him thither. 
Ke-i-'sup-t-o, thou hast followed me thither. 
Ke-i-'sup-t-ech, thou hast followed us thither. 
Ke-'sup-to, he or she has followed him thither. 
Ke-'sup-t-o, he or she has followed me thither. 
Ke-'sup-te-n, he or she has followed thee thither. 
Ke-'sup-t-ech, he or she has followed us thither. 
Ke-'sup-t-ok, he or she has followed you thither. 

"When the verbal root ends in t, the affix denoting motion from the 
speaker is sometimes joined to the root by i. Example : 

It-it-e, to arrive thither (pr. a-it-itoi-i, I arrive thither, p.p. 
ka-a-it-it-e, I have arrived thither). 

In a few instances the verb denoting motion from the speaker is 

VERBS 211 

formed by adding the affix to the verb denoting motion towards the 
speaker. Example ; 

Ngut-u, to spit or to spit Ngut-u-te, to spit thither, 



Ki-isup-to-o, I am followed Ki-isup-toi-ech, we are followed 

thither. thither. 

Ki-isup-toi-in, thou art fol- Ki-isup-to-ok, you are followed 

lowed thither. thither. 

Ki-isup-toi, he or she is fol- Ki-isup-toi, they are followed 

lowed thither. thither. 


Ka-ki-isup-to-o, I have been Ka-ki-isup-t-ech, we have been 

followed thither. followed thither. 

Ka-ki-isup-te-n, thou hast been Ka-ki-isup-to-ok, you have been 

followed thither. followed thither. 

Ka-ki-isup-t-o, he or she has Ka-ki-isup-t-o, they have been 

been followed thither. followed thither. 

Examples : 

A-'sup-toi-i si a-pir, I am following him thither to beat him. 
Kwo-isup-te-n amt ka, he followed thee yesterday to the hut. 
Kwo-isup-to amt ka, he followed him yesterday to the hut. 
Ki-ang-nya-a-it-ite, ko-lapat, when I arrived thither, he ran. 


The dative form is used where in English a preposition is required 
to connect the verb with its object, and indicates that the action of 
the verb is performed for or against a person or thing. When this 
form is assumed, chi is affixed to the verb. 1 In the present tense the 
affix is chi-ni in the first and second persons, and chi-n in the third 
persons : 


A-'sup-chi-ni, I follow for (him) Ki-isup-chi-ni, we follow for 

or I follow (him) to. (him). 

I-isup-chi-ni, thou followest for O-'sup-chi-ni, you follow for 

(him). (him). 

Isup-chi-n, he or she follows Isup-chi-n, they follow for (him). 

for (him). 

1 When the object of the verb is the personal pronoun of the first or second 
persons chi changes to u (vide p. 212). 

3P 2 



Ka-a-'sup-chi, I have followed Ka-ki-isup-chi, we have followed 

for (him). for (him). 

Ke-i-'sup-chi, thou hast fol- Ko-o-'sup-chi, you have followed 

lowed for (him). for (him). 

Ke-'sup-chi, he or she has fol- Ke-'sup-chi, they have followed 

lowed for (him). for (him). 

Whenever the sound permits, the affix in the third persons of the 
past tenses is ch ; e. g. 

Ka-mwe-ch, he has run away to (him). 

Isup-chi, follow for (him). O-'sup-chi, follow ye for (him). 


A-'sup-chi, that I may follow Ki-isup-chi, that we may follow 

for (him). for (him). 

Isup-chi, that thou mayest fol- O-'sup-chi, that you may follow 

low for (him). for (him). 

Ko-'sup-chi, that he or she may Ko-'sup-chi, that they may follow 

follow for (him). for (him). 

As with verbs denoting motion from the speaker, slight changes 
take place in the verbal affixes when the object of the verb is the 
personal pronoun of the first or second persons : 


A-'sup-chi-ni, I follow for him. 
A-'sup-u-n, I follow for thee. 
A-'sup-u-ok, I follow for you. 
I-isup-chi-ni, thou followest for him. 
I-isup-u-a, thou followest for me. 
I-isup-u-ech, thou followest for us. 
Isup-chi-n, he or she follows for him. 
Isup-u-a, he or she follows for me. 
Isup-u-n, he or she follows for thee. 
Isup-u-ech, he or she follows for us. 
Isup-u-ok, he or she follows for you. 


Ka-a-'sup-chi, I have followed for him. 
Ka-a-'sup-u-n, I have followed for thee. 
Ka-a-'sup-u-ok, I have followed for you. 
Ke-i-'sup-chi, thou hast followed for him. 
Ke-i-'sup-u-a, thou hast followed for me. 

VERBS 213 

Ke-i-'sup-u-ech, thou hast followed for us. 
Ke-'sup-chi, he or she has followed for him. 
Ke-'sup-u-a, he or she has followed for me. 
Ke-'sup-u-n, he or she has followed for thee. 
Ke-'sup-u-ech, he or she has followed for us. 
Ke-'sup-u-ok, he or she has followed for you. 


Ki-isup-chi-n-o, I am followed Ki-isup-chi-n-ech, we are followed 

for. for. 

Ki-isup-chi-n-in, thou art fol- Ki-isup-chi-n-ok, you are followed 

lowed for. for. 

Ki-isup-ehi-n, he or she is fol- Ki-isup-chi-n, they are followed 

lowed for. for. 


Ka-ki-isup-ch-o, I have been Ka-ki-isup-ch-ech, we have been 

followed for. followed for. 

Ka-ki-isup-ch-in, thou hast Ka-ki-isup-ch-ok, you have been 

been followed for. followed for. 

Ka-ki-isup-ch-i, he or she has Ka-ki-isup-ch-i, they have been 

been followed for. followed for. 

Examples : 

A-'sup-chi-ni pendo ka, I am following the animal for him to 

the kraal. 
Ki-nyinyir-chi-no ingoiny, I am being crushed to the earth. 
It-yi-n ka, he will reach the town. 


Where in English a preposition connected with a verb can stand by 
itself at the end of a sentence, or where a preposition, which is 
required to connect the verb with its object, does not indicate that 
the action of the verb is performed for or against a person or thing, 
a special form is used in Nandi, e or i being affixed to the verbal 
root in all tenses. Examples : 

Ip-u ngecheret na-a-tep-e, bring me a chair to sit upon. 
Mo-o-mwa-i tarit, do not talk of the birds. 
Ka-tien-e mistoek arawet, the herdsmen have danced in the 
(light of the) moon. 


Many verbs have a reflexive form, which is made by affixing he (ge 
after ng and ny) to the simple verb : 



A-'un-i-ke, I bathe. Ki-iun-i-ke, we bathe. 

I-iun-i-ke, thou bathest. O-'un-i-ke, you bathe. 

Iun-i-ke, he or she bathes. Iun-i-ke, they bathe. 

A-til-i-ke, I cut myself. Ki-til-i-ke, we cut ourselves. 


Ka-a-'un-ge, I have bathed. Ka-ki-iun-ge, we have bathed. 

Ka-a-til-ke, I have cut myself. Ka-ki-til-ke, we have cut ourselves. 


Iun-ge, bathe. O-'un-ge, bathe yourselves. 

Til-ke, cut thyself. O-til-ke, cut yourselves. 


A-'un-ge, that I may bathe. Ki-iun-ge, that we may bathe. 

A-til-ke, that I may cut myself. Ki-til-ke, that we may cut our- 


The reciprocal form denotes doing something with someone else : 

The present tense is formed by affixing tos-i in the first and second 
persons, and tos in the third persons : 

A-'rot-tos-i, I bet with (him). Ki-irot-tos-i, we bet with (him). 
I-irot-tos-i, thou bettest with O-'rot-tos-i, you bet with (him). 

Irot-tos, he or she bets with Irot-tos, they bet with (him). 


A-tii-tos-i, I argue with (him). Ki-tii-tos-i, we argue with (him). 

The past tenses are formed by affixing ie, ye, or e in the first and 
second persons, and to, yo, or o in the third persons. 

Ka-a-'rot-ie, I have betted with Ka-ki-irot-ie, we have betted with 

(him). (him). 

Ke-i-'rot-ie, thou hast betted Ko-o-'rot-ie, you have betted with 

with (him). (him). 

Ke-'rot-io, he or she has betted Ke-'rot-io, they have betted with 

with (him). (him). 

Ka-a-tii-ye, I have argued with Ka-ki-tii-ye, we have argued with 

(him). (him). 

Ka-a-'tui-e, I have joined with Ka-ki-itui-e, we have joined with 

(him). (him). 

VERBS 215 

Irot-ie, bet with (him). O-'rot-ie, bet ye with (him). 

In the subjunctive the affix is io, yo, or o in the first person singular 
and in the third persons, and ie, ye, or e in the other persons : 

A-'rot-io, that I may bet with Ki-irot-ie, that we may bet with 

(him). (him). 

Irot-ie, that thou mayest bet O-'rot-ie, that you may bet with 

with (him). (him). 

Ko-'rot-io, that he or she may Ko-'rot-io, that they may bet with 

bet with (him). (him). 

When the meaning is doing something with each other, either 
the reflexive form is used or the reciprocal affix is joined to the 
dative form : 

Ki-irot-i-ke, we bet with each other. 

Ka-ki-irot-ke, we have betted with each other. 

Iut-yi-n-dos, they are bellowing at each other. 

Ke-'ut-y-io, they have bellowed at each other. 


By affixing se (ze after n), isie, or isye most transitive verbs can 
be used intransitively. 

In the present tense i is also affixed in the first and second persons : 


A-mwog-se-i, I shoot. Ki-mwog-se-i, we shoot. 

I-mwog-se-i, thou shootest. O-mwog-se-i, you shoot. 

Mwog-se, he or she shoots. Mwog-se, they shoot. 

A-'un-ze-i 1 T , Ki-iun-ze-i 1 , 

« , . . . 1 wash. -rr- „ ■•• • w wash. 

A-mwet-isie-iJ Ki-mwet-isie-ij 

A-kesen-isye-i, I carry on the Ki-kesen-isye-i, we carry on the 
back. back. 

In the third persons the affix is so, isio, or isyo: 

Ka-a-mwog-se, I have shot. Ka-ki-mwog-se, we have shot. 

Ke-i-mwog-se, thou hast shot. Ko-o-mwog-se, you have shot. 
Ka-mwog-so", he or she has shot. Ka-mwog-so, they have shot. 

Ka-mwet-isio, he or she has washed. 


Mwog-se, shoot. O-mwog-se, shoot ye. 

Mwet-isie, wash O-mwet-isie, wash ye. 



A-mwog-so, that I may shoot. Ki-mwog-se, that we may shoot. 

Mwog-se, that thou mayest shoot. O-mwog-se, that you may shoot. 

Ko-mwog-so, that he or she Ko-mwog-so, that they may shoot. 
may shoot. 


The rule for the formation of causatives is that all verhs which 
commence with any letter except i take the prefix i. Verbs com- 
mencing with i take the affix e or i, except in the past tense, where 
there is no change. If the present tense of the simple verb takes 
the affix i, the causative affix is e, and vice versa : 

Cham, to love. Icham, to cause to love. 

Lapat, to run. Ilapat, to cause to run. 

Isup, to follow. Isup-e, to cause to follow. 

Ki-chom-e, we love (him). Ki-ichom-i, we cause (him) to love. 

Ki-lopot-i, we run. Ki-ilopot-e, we cause (him) to run. 

Ki-isup-i, we follow (him). Ki-isup-e, we cause (him) to follow. 

Ka-ki-cham, we have loved Ka-ki-icham, we have caused (him) 
(him). to love. 

Ka-ki-lapat, we have run. Ka-ki-ilapat, we have caused (him) 

to run. 

Ka-ki-isup, we have followed Ka-ki-isup, we have caused (him) 
(him). to follow. 

In the causative form of derivative verbs, e or i, which is sometimes 
preceded by n, is affixed to the simple verb. Verbs not commencing 
with i also take the prefix i : 

A-'lapat-u-ne, I cause (him) to run hither. 
Ka-a-'lapat-u-ne, I have caused (him) to run hither. 
A-'sup-u-ne, I cause (him) to follow hither. 
Ka-a-'sup-u-ne, I have caused (him) to follow hither. 
A-'lapat-itoi-e, I cause (him) to run thither. 
Ka-a-'lapat-itoi-e, I have caused (him) to run thither. 
A-'sup-toi-e, I cause (him) to follow thither. 
Ka-a-'sup-toi-e, I have caused (him) to follow thither. 
A-'lapat-yi-ne, I cause (him) to run to. 
Ka-a-'lapat-yi-ne, I have caused (him) to run to. 
A-'sup-chi-ne, I cause (him) to follow for. 
Ka-a-'sup-chi-ne, I have caused (him) to follow for. 


There is a neuter or quasi-passive form which is frequently em- 
ployed. The following example will show its use : 

A-'sup-i ni, ako me-'sup-okse nin, I am following this one, but 
that one will not be (or become) followed. 

VERBS 217 

Indicative Tenses. 


The present tense is formed by the affix at or ot : 

A-'sup-ot, I become followed. Ki-isup-ot, we become followed. 
I-isup-ot, thou becomest fol- O-'sup-ot, you become followed. 

Isup-ot, he or she becomes fol- Isup-ot, they become followed. 


A-rat-at, I become bound. 

In the past tenses the affix in the first and second persons is ah-e 
or oh-e, and in the third persons ah or oh : 

Ka-a-'sup-ok-e, I have become Ka-ki-isup-ok-e, we have become 

followed. followed. 

Ke-i-'sup-ok-e, thou hast be- Ko-o-'sup-ok-e, you have become 

come followed. followed. 

Ke-'sup-ok, he or she has, be- Ke-'sup-ok, they have become 

come followed. followed. 

There is a special form for the future, which is made by affixing 
ahse-i or ohse-i in the first and second persons, and ahse or ohse in 
the third persons : 

A-'sup-okse-i, I shall become Ki-isup-okse-i, we shall become 

followed. followed. 

I-isup-okse-i, thou wilt become O-'sup-okse-i, you will become 

followed. followed. 

Isup-okse, he or she will become Isup-okse, they will become fol- 
followed. lowed. 

Contingent Tenses. 

The contingent tenses are formed like the past : 

Ingo-a-'sup-ok-e, if I become followed. 
Ki-ingo-a-'sup-ok-e, if I became followed. 

Conditional Tenses. 
The present conditional tenses take the same affix as the future, 
the past the same as the past indicative : 

Takoraki-a-'sup-okse-i, I should become followed. 
Ta-ki-a-'sup-ok-e, I should have become followed. 

The affix of the imperative is the same as in the past tenses : 
Isup-ok-e, become followed. O-'sup-ok-e, become ye followed. 

Rat-ak-e, become bound. O-rat-ak-e, become ye bound. 


In the subjunctive the first person singular and the third persons 
take the affix ak or oh, the other persons ah-e or oh-e : 

A-'sup-ok, that I may become Ki-isup-ok-e, that we may become 

followed. followed. 

Isup-ok-e, that thou mayest be- O-'sup-ok-e, that you may become 

come followed. followed. 

Ko-'sup-ok, that he or she may Ko-'sup-ok, that they may become 

become followed. followed. 


Most neuter verbs, and particularly those which in English must 
be translated by an adjective and the verb to be or to become, form a 
class to themselves. All these verbs possess a future tense, and in 
some cases the verbal part takes plural inflexions. With the excep- 
tion of the present indicative and the subjunctive, all tenses take the 

affix -itu. 

Indicative Tenses. 
The present tense is formed by simply adding the personal prefixes 
to the root : 

A-lalang, I am hot. Ki-lalofig, we are hot. 

A-kararan, I am beautiful. Ki-kororon, we are beautiful. 

Ki-a-lalang-itu, I was hot. Ki-ki-lalong-itu, we were hot. 

Ki-a-kararan-itu, I was beau- Ki-ki-kororon-itu, we were beau- 
tiful, tiful. 

A-lalang-itu, I shall be hot. Ki-lalofig-itu, we shall be hot. 

A-kararan-itu, I shall be beau- Ki-kororon-itu, we shall be beau- 
tiful, tiful. 

Conditional and Contingent Tenses. 
Ang-nya-a-lalafig-itu, when I am hot. 
Ki-ang-nya-a-lalang-itu, when I was hot. 
Takoraki-a-lalang-itu, I should be hot. 
Ta-ki-a-lalang-itu, I should have been hot. 

Imperative . 
Lalang-itu, be hot. O-lalang-itu, be ye hot. 

Kararan-itu, be beautiful. O-kororon-itu, be ye beautiful. 

The affix of the subjunctive in the first person singular and the third 
persons is it ; in the other persons itu : 

VERBS 219 

A-lalang-it, that I may be hot. Ki-lalang-itu, that we may be hot. 
Lalang-itu, that thou mayest O-lalaBg-itu, that you may be hot. 

be hot. 
Ko-lalang-it, that he or she Ko-lalang-it, that they may be hot. 

may be hot. 

The causative form of neuter verbs is made by affixing ne to the 
future : 

A-lalang-itu-ne, I cause (him) to be hot. 
Ka-a-lalafig-itu-ne, I have caused (him) to be hot. 

I, To be. 


A, I am. Ki, we are. 

I, thou art. 0, you are. 

(wanting), he or she is. (wanting), they are. 

Kw-a, I have been. Ko-ki, we have been. 

Ko-i, thou hast been. Ko-o, you have been. 

Ko, he or she has been. Ko, they have been. 

Ki-a, I was. Ki-ki, we were. 

Ki-i, thou wast. Ki-o, you were. 

Ki or ko-ki, he or she was. Ki or ko-ki, they were. 

I, be. O, be ye. 

The subjunctive is the same as the present perfect. 

The verb to be must be followed by a substantive. Examples : 

A orkoiyot, I am the chief. 

Ole-kinye ko-ki ngeta, formerly he was a boy. 

Nyo-ne kw-a orkoiyo, he will come when I am (or have been) 

Ko chorlk, they have been thieves. 
O muren ! be warriors ! 

When the verb to be is used in English as the copula it is sometimes 
omitted in Nandi : 

Ng6 orkoiyot ? Who is the chief? 

Ane orkoiyot, 1 1 am the chief. 

Ane ne-ki-a-ai-te k6ton-ni, it is I who made this arrow. 

Kararan chif-chi, this man is handsome. 

1 A orkoiyot is also correct. He is the chief would be simply Orkoiyot, or Inendet 


When the verb to be is used in English to denote existence in place 
or time, the verb Mi, or Mi-te, to be there, is used in Nandi : 

Mi-i yu or mi-i-te 1 yu, he is here. 

Ki-mi ole-kinye chii, there was once a man. 

A-mi-i ono t Where am 1 1 

Ngo ne-mi-i ko 1 Who is in the hut 1 

Ma-mi-i chii, there is nobody there. 

The present tense is often used to translate the past tense in 
English : 

Ki-ny<5 ki muren, he came when we were warriors. 
A-mi-i yu arawet akenge, I have been here one month. 

Eku, To Become. 


Oi-eku, I become. Ki-eku, we become. 

I-eku, thou becomest. Oi-eku, you become. 

Eku, he or she becomes. Eku, they become. 


K-oi-eku, I have become. Ko-ki-eku, we have become. 

Ke-eku, thou hast become. Ko-o-eku, you have become. 

Koi-ek, he or she has become. Koi-ek, they have become. 

Ki-oi-eku, I became. Ki-ki-eku, we became. 


Eku, become. Oi-eku, become ye. 


Oi-ek, that I may become. Ki-eku, that we may become. 

Eku, that thou mayest become. Oi-eku, that you may become. 

Koi-ek, that he or she may be- Koi-ek, that they may become, 

Examples : 

Oi-eku murenet, I shall become a warrior. 

Ile-chi koi-ek murenet, tell him to become a warrior. 

SU T ° G °- 


A-wend-i, I go, am going, or Ki-pend-i, We go. 

shall go. 
I-wend-i, thou goest. O-pend-i, you go. 

Wend-i, he or she goes. Pend-i, they go. 

VERBS 221 

Ka-a-we, I have gone. Ka-ke-phe, we have gone. 

Ke-i-we, thou hast gone. Ko-o-phe, you have gone. 

Ko-wa, he or she has gone. Ka-pa, they have gone. 

Ki-a-we, I went. Ki-ke-phe, we went. 

Ki-i-we, thou wentest. Ki-o-phe, you went. 

Ki-wT) he or she went - li-ko-pal they went 


A-wa, let me go. Ingephe, let us go (if of a few 

O-ngephe, let us go (if of many). 
Ui, go. O-pa, go ye. 


A-wa, that I may go. Ke-phe, that we may go. 

Ui, that thou mayest go. O-pa, that you may go. 

Kwa, that he or she may go. Ko-pa, that they may go. 


A-we, and I go. Ke-phe, and we go. 

I-we, and thou goest. O-phe, and you go. 

Kwa, and he or she goes. Ko-pa, and they go. 


Wend-ote 1 m - ,, 

0-pend-atel Togoforawalk - 

A-wend-oti, I go for a walk. Ki-pend-oti, we go for a walk. 


Ka-a-wend-ote, I have gone for Ka-ki-pend-ate, we have gone for 

a walk. a walk. 

Ke-i-wend-ote, thou hast gone Ko-o-pend-ate, you have gone for 

for a walk. a walk. 

Ko-wend-ot, he or she has gone Ko-o-pend-at, they have gone for 

for a walk. a walk. 

Wend-ote, go for a walk. O-pend-ate, go ye for a walk. 


A-wend-ot, that I may go for Ke-pend-ate, that we may go for 

a walk. a walk. 

Wend-ote, that thou mayest go O-pend-ate, that you may go for 

for a walk. a walk. 

Ko-wend-ot, that he or she may Ko-pend-at, that they may go for 

go for a walk. a walk. 


Most verbs used in conjunction with the verb to go are formed in 
a similar manner, e. g. : 

Iiigwal-ate, to go lame (pr. a-'figwal-oti). 
Sis-ate, to go silently (pr. a-sis-oti). 

Nyo I To Come. 



A-nyo-ne, I come, am coming, Ki-pwo-ne, we come. 

or shall come. 

I-nyo-ne, thou comest. O-pwo-ne, you come. 

Nyo-ne, he or she comes. Pwo-ne, they come. 


Ka-a-nyo, I have come. Ka-ke-pwa, we have come. 

Ke-i-nyo, thou hast come. Ko-o-pwa, you have come. 

Ko-nyo, he or she has come. Ka-pwa, they have come. 


A-nyo, let me come. Ke-pwa, let us come. 

Nyo, come. O-pwa, come ye. 


A-nyo, that I may come. Ke-pwa, that we may come. 

Nyo, that thou mayest come. O-pwa, that you may come. 
Ko-nyo, that he or she may Ko-pwa, that they may come, 


A-nyo, and I come. Ke-pwa, and we come. 

I-nyo, and thou comest. O-pwa, and you come. 

Ko-nyo or inyo, and he or she Ko-pwa, and they come. 


Verbs used in conjunction with the verb to come take the affix arm : 

Ifigwal-anu, to come lame (pr. a-'ngwal-anu). 
Sis-anu, to come silently (pr. a-sis-anu). 

Ikochi (kon), To Give. 
The root of this verb changes from ikochi to kon whenever the 
object is the first or second person singular or plural : 


A-'kochi-ni, I give him, &c. Ki-ikochi-ni, we give him, &c. 

A-kon-in, I give thee. Ki-kon-in, we give thee. 

A-kon-ok, I give you. Ki-kon-ok, we give you. 

VERBS 223 

I-ikochi-ni, thou givest him, &c. O-'kochi-ni, you give him, &c. 

I-kon-o, thou givest me. O-kon-o, you give me, 

I-kon-ech, thou givest us. O-kon-ech, you give us. 

Ikochi-n, he or she gives him, Ikochi-n, they give him, &e. 


Kon-o, he or she gives me. Kon-o, they give me. 

Kon-in, he or she gives thee. Kon-in, they give thee. 

Kon-eeh, he or she gives us. Kon-ech, they give us. 

Kon-ok, he or she gives you. Kon-ok, they give you. 


Ka-a-'kochi, I have given him, &c. 
Ka-a-kon-in, I have given thee. 


Ikochi, give him. O-'kochi, give ye him. 

Kon-o, give me. O-kon-o, give ye me. 


A-'kochi, that I may give him, &c. 
A-kon-in, that I may give thee. 


A-'koch, and I give him, &o. Ki-'kochi, and we give him, &c. 
Ikochi, and thou givest him, &c. O-'kochi, and you give him, &c. 
Ko-'koch, and he or she gives Ko-'koch, and they give him, &c. 
him, &c. 


Ki-kon-o, I am given. 
Ka-ki-kon-o, I have been given. 

Mai, To Know. 


t-,' n S et 1 I know. |H n 8 et } we know. 

A-'ngen) Ki-ingenJ 

l-\ n % et ) thou knowest. ^nget | knQW 

I-mgenJ O-ngenJ ' 

^ et ) he or she knows. J°Jj£* 1 they know. 

In gen J IngenJ 

Ka-a-nai, I have known. Ka-ki-nai, we have known. 

Ke-i-nai, thou hast known. Ko-o-nai, you have known. 

Ka-nai, he or she has known. Ka-nai, they have known. 

Nai, know. O-nai, know ye. 



A-nai, that I may know. Ki-nai, that we may know. 

Nai, that thou mayest know. O-nai, that you may know. 
Ko-nai, that he or she may Ko-nai, that they may know, 


Ki-nai-a, I am known. 
Ki-ki-nai-a, I was known. 

Iro, To See. 


A-'onyi 1 T Ki-ionyi ) 

r> , J I see. v , J \ we see. 

O-kere j Ki-kere J 

t"w 1 thou seest - r»Iw I y° u see - 

I-kere j ' O-kere 

■£ ^ | he or she sees. „ ^ | they see. 


Ka-a-'ro, I have seen. Ka-ki-iro, we have seen. 

Ke-i-'ro, thou hast seen. Ko-o-'ro, you have seen. 

Ke-'ro, he or she has seen. Ke-'ro, they have seen. 


Iro, see. O-'ro, see ye. 


A-'ro, that I may see. Ki-iro, that we may see. 

Iro, that thou mayest see. O-'ro, that you may see. 

Ko-'ro, that he or she may see. Ko-'ro, that they may see. 

0- e pe k -u} ToDi - 


A-me-e, I die. Ke-pek-u, we die. 

I-me-e, thou diest. O-pek-u, you die. 

Me-e, he or Bhe dies. Pek-u, they die. 


Ka-a-me, I have died. Ka-ke-pek-u, we have died. 

Ke-i-me, thou hast died. Ko-o-pek-u, you have died. 

Ka-me, he or she has died. Ka-pek, they have died. 

Me, die. O-pek-u, die ye. 

VERBS 225 


A-me, that I may die. Ke-pek-u, that we may die. 

Me, that thou mayest die. O-pek-u, that you may die. 

Ko-me, that he or she may die. Ko-pek, that tney may die. 

He, To Say, to say thus, to imitate. 

A-len, I say. Ki-len, we say. 

I-len, thou sayest. O-len, you say. 

Len, he or she says. Len, they say. 


Ka-a-'le, I have said. Ka-ki-ile, we have said. 

Ke-i-'le, thou hast said. Ko-o-'le, you have said. 

Ka-'le, he or she has said. Ka-'le, they have said. 


lie, say. O-'le, say ye. 


A-'le, that I may say. Ki-ile, that we may say. 

lie, that thou mayest say. O-'le, that you may say. 

Ko-'le, that he or she may say. Ko-'le, that they may say. 

"When this verb takes the dative form {ile-chi, to say to) it is 

Piiy-e, To Be Satisfied with. 


A-piiy-onyi, I am satisfied with Ki-piiy-onyi, we are satisfied with 

food. food. 

I-piiy-onyi, thou art satisfied O-piiy-onyi, you are satisfied with 

with food. food. 

Piiy-onyi, he or she is satisfied Piiy-onyi, they are satisfied with 

with food. food. 


Ka a-piiy-e, I was satisfied Ka-ki-piiy-e, we were satisfied 
with food. with food. 

Piiy-e, be satisfied with food. O-piiy-e, be ye satisfied with food. 




A-piiy-o, that I may be satis- Ki-piiy-e, that we may be satisfied 

fied with food. with food. 

Piiy-e, that thou rnayest be O-piiy-e, that you may be satisfied 

satisfied with food. with food. 

Ko-piiy-o, that he or she may Ko-piiy-o, that they may be satis- 

be satisfied with food. fied with food. 

Causative Fobm. 


A-'piiy-onye, I satisfy (him) Ki-ipiiy-onye, w^ satisfy (him) 
with food. with food. 


Ka-a-'piiy-e, I have satisfied Ka-ki-ipiiy-e, we have satisfied 
(him) with food. (him) with food. 

* e * u t . + 1 To Grow. 
O-'ekitu [ 


Oi-'etu, I grow. Ki-iekitu, we grow. 

I-ietu, thou growest. O-'ekitu, you grow. 

Ietu, he or she grows. Iekitu, they grow. 


Ka-a-'etu, I have grown. Ka-ki-iekitu, we have grown. 


Ietu, grow. O-'ekitu, grow ye. 


Can, may, and might are represented by the appropriate tenses of 
imuch, to be able. Must is expressed by tai followed by the 
subjunctive : 

Tai mutai a-' sup, I must follow him to-morrow. 

Ought and should are translated by the third persons singular of 
the present or past tenses of cham, to love, followed by si and the 

subjunctive : 

Chom-e si a-wa, I ought to go. 
Ka-cham si a-wa, I ought to have gone. 

Eku, To Become. 
The verb eku, to become, is used to strengthen the conditional 
tenses and to assist in the formation of several other tenses : 

VERBS 227 

Ing-oi-ek ka-a-'sup, if it comes to pass that I follow him, or if 

I follow him. 
Ang-nya-koi-ek ka-a-'sup, while I was following him. 
Eku ka-a-'sup, I shall have followed him. 
Eku a-'sup-i, I shall be in the act of following him. 

The third person singular of the past tense of eku, to become, 
followed by the relative, is often used to translate such phrases as 
about to, on the point of, &c. : 

Ka-koi-ek ne-rarok-toi asista (it has become which descends 
thither the sun), the sun is or was on the point of setting. 

Ka-koi-ek ne-Sget-e chiito mukuleldo (it has become which he 
breaks the man the heart), the man is or was on the point 
of death. 


Doubling a verb often gives an idea of thoroughness : 

A-til-e, I cut. A-tilatil-i, I cut up. 

A-cheng-e, I search. A-chengcheng-i, I search every- 


A-nget-e, I break. A-ngetiiget-i, I break completely. 

A-tiech-e, I trample. A-tiechatiech-i, I trample under 


At other times the meaning is changed : 

A-chom-e, I love. A-chomchom-i, I taste. 

A-'tum-i, I churn milk. A-'tumtum-i, I shake trees. 

A-por-e, I kill. A-porpor-i, I rub. 

A-sop-e, I am alive. A-sopsopi, I touch gently. 


All adverbs in Nandi follow the verbs they qualify. Examples : 

Ngalal mutio, speak slowly. 

A-kony-e kitegin, I shall wait for him a short time. 

Wend-i nguno, he is going now. 

Ka-ki-pir-o puch, I have been beaten for nothing. 

Substantives without the article may be used as adverbs, and verbs 
with or without the relative are commonly used in an adverbial sense : 

Met, before. Korirun, morning. 

Let, behind. Koskoling, evening. 

Mi-i yu-turur, he is above. 

Mi-i ya-pori, he is below. 

Mi-i ye-negit, he is near. 

Ole-loo, (where it is far) far. 

Chok-chi, chok-u, chok-toi, chok-chok-toi, (to do) quickly. 

Q 2 


Adjectives can also be used as adverbs. They are generally pre- 
fixed by ho, it may be : 

Ko-Sgering, ko-mining, little. 

Ko-chang, much. 

Ko-ya, ill. 

Ko-kararan, ko-mie, well. 

Example : — A-onyi ko-mie, I see well. 

Many English adverbs may be translated by mising, very : 

Lapat mising, run fast. Kas mlsing, listen well. 

Nam mlsing, hold tight. Pir mising, strike hard. 

Mlsing is also used for the comparison of adverbs : 

Ngalal mutio mising, speak very slowly. 
Ki-ai-te kararan mlsing, he did it very well. 

Adveebs op Time. 

Eani, to-day. Kitegin, soon. 

Nguno, now. Mutai, to-morrow. 

Nguni, instantly. Tun-gwoiin, the day after to- 

Atkai, lately, now, a short time morrow. 

ago. Amut or amt, yesterday. 

Tun, presently. Oiin, the day before yesterday. 

Ole-kinye, formerly. Ko-keny, again. 

Ole-kinye keny, long since. Katukul, always. 
Koi, afterwards. 

Compound words are frequently used as adverbs of time : 

Ekosie-chu, (these days) nowadays. 
Kosakt' oieiig, twice. 
Kosakta che-chang, often. 

Advekbs op Place. 

There are no true adverbs of place. Sentences beginning in English 
with whither, where, and whence, are expressed by verbal forms com- 
bined with the relative ; substantives without the article take the 
place of such words as before, behind, somewhere, &c. ; and here and 
there are expressed by the demonstratives yu or yun, &c, or if joined 
to the verb to be, by mi : 

A-'ngen ole-i-wendi 1 T , , 

A-'ngen olto ole-i-wendi | * kuow where y° u are S om g- 

A-wend-i oii, I am going somewhere. 

Ka-a-'ro ko-ml yu, I saw him here. 

Ko-rorok-chi yun, he fell there. 


Adverbs of Manner. 

The principal adverbs of manner are : 

Noto, thus. Toma, not yet. 

Kitio, only. Wei, weis, yes. 

Mising, very. Kwekeny, altogether. 

Achecha, no. Po-many, indeed. 

Adverbs of Interrogation. 

The principal adverbs of interrogation are : 

Ni! ne? how? Au? when? 

Ngoro (pi. Ngocho) ? where ? Kotia au ? how long ago 1 

Ono 1 kwano t where ? whence ? Kalia si ? why ? 

whither ? Ata ? how much ? how many ? 

Examples : 

O-lio-chi-ni ni ? how shall I do this ? 

0-le-chi-n-<5k ne ? how shall I tell you ? 

Ngoro chiito ? where (is) the man ? 

Ngocho piik ? where (are) the men ? 

Ngoro ine?) (where he?) ) , . , . 

ifi-i ono ? {(where he is there?)! where ls he? 

I-wend-i ono 1 where art thou going ? 

I-pun-u ono ? whence comest thou ? 

Emen-ngwang gwano ? (where is your country 1) what is your 

Ip-i-wend-oti ono ? where wilt thou go for a walk ? 
I-wend-i au ? when art thou going ? 
Ki-mi-i kotia au ? how long has he been there ? 
Kalia si i-ai-toi-i ni ? why dost thou do this ? 
Kalia si mo-o-yat kurket ? why have you not opened the door ? 
Piik ata cho-om-e omdit ? how many men will eat the food ? 


Conjunctions are often dispensed with by the use of the subjunctive 
or conditional tenses. And, but, or other connective is translated by 
the subjunctive ; if, when, and other conjunctions introducing a state, 
by one of the conditional tenses. The principal conjunctions are : 

Ak or ok, and, with. Ko-keny, again. 

Si, and, then, in order that. Toma, before, ere. 

Annan, or. Kuu, like. 

Amu, amu-ne, for. Kele, because. 
Ako, but. 




There appears to be only one simple preposition in Nandi, eng, 
which is equivalent to at, by, for, from, in, off, on, out, to, and with. 
Certain changes of letters take place at the commencement of words 
following this preposition ; ch becomes j, and t becomes d. Before k 
and p, eng becomes em, and the k changes to g. Examples : 

Ki-a-kas efig-oriit, I felt in myself. 

Ko-mwa-chi akenge eiig-joto, he told one of (or out of) them. 

Ka-ki-iro efig-dimdo, we found it in the wood. 

Ke-'put-ite em-goiik, he fell on the stones. 

Rur-e em-parak, they will ripen (at) above. 

Prepositions can also be expressed by verbs in their simple or 
applied forms, or by a noun with or without the article. Examples : 

Och-e, he pushes him away. 

It-yi-n ka, he will arrive at the town. 

Ke-'rot-io chiito, he has betted with the man. 

Efig-met] , , 

Efig-dae f ahead - 

Eng-let, behind. 

Efig-nyun, beyond. 

Eiig-ono, beside, in the direction of. 

(Kot)-saang or saangut (ap kot), outside (the house). 

(Kot)-oriit or oriitut (ap kot), inside (the house). 


The most usual interjections are given in the following list : 

Of address : 

Grown up 

Old people 

Very old 

Of greeting : 
The reply is : 

Singular. Plural. 

Masculine. Feminine. Masculine. Feminine. 

Kgwe {{gj} Leiye. 

"Weir-i Chep-i Weiri-chu Tip-chu. 

Murenon-ni Korkon-ni Muren-ju Korusie-chu. 

Poiyond6n- Chepioson- Poiisie-chu Chepioso- 

ni ni chu. 

Agwi Koko Akut-agwi Angut-koko. 

A man replies, Oo ; A woman, Oe. 

Singular and Plural. Singular and Plural. 

Masculine. Feminine. 

Sopai Takwenya. 

Epa Igo. 


Of astonishment : Oi ! or He ! oh ! 

Of assent : Aiya or Wei ! all right ! Iman ! truly. 

Of contempt: Ih ! O ! 

Of defiance : Orid ! 

Of grief : Eiyo-nyo ! O my mother ! 

Ofjoy: Oi! 

Of surprise : He ! 

Of taking leave : Saisere ! farewell ! 

Imperatives are frequently used as interjections : 

Ee ! a catch hold ! Chok-chi ! be quick ! 

Sis ! silence ! Isteke ! make way ! 

T er ( " [ behold ! Nate ! move on one side ! 

Topen ! look ! Mite ! don't touch ! leave it alone ! 

Kas ! listen ! Tos ! I don't know ! 

1 Ee is also often used as an equivalent to, I say ! You there 



L. = Lumbwa ; K. = Kamasia ; n. = noun ; v. = verb ; neut. = neuter verb ; 
act. = active verb ; intr. = intransitive verb ; v. imp. = impersonal verb ; rel. 
pron. = relative pronoun ; int. pron. = interrogative pronoun ; adj. = ad- 
jective ; adv. = adverb ; conj. = conjunction ; prep. = preposition ; poss. = 
possessive pronoun; pi. = plural ; pr. =present indicative tense; p.p. = 
present perfect tense ; m. = masculine ; f. = feminine. 

Note. — Nouns are first shown without the article : when joined to the 
article they are put in brackets. With verbs the root is first given, and 
the first person singular of the present and present perfect tenses follow in 
brackets. When a verb has no singular form the corresponding forms of the 
plural are given. 

A what-is-it, kii. 
Such-a-one, so-and-so, anum. 
Abdomen, ketoe (ketoet), pi. 

ketoes (ketoesiek). 
Abhor, wech (pr. a-wech-e, p.p. 

be Able, imuch (pr. a-'nmch-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'much). 
Abort, os-u (pr. a-os-u, p.p. ka-a- 

Abound with, nyitat (pr. a- 

nyitat, p.p. ka-a-nyltat). 
{become full), nyi (pr. a-nyi-e, 

p.p. ka-a-nyi). 
About (near), negit. 
Above, parak ; tor or. 
Abscess, m6 (moet), pi. mooi 

Absorb, tiptipan (pr. a-tiptipon-i, 

p.p. ka-a-tiptipan). 
Abundantly, nyitat ; mising. 
Abuse, chup (pr. a-chup-e, p.p. 

Accept, eham (pr. a-chom-e, p.p. 

(receive), tach (pr. a-toch-e, p.p. 


Accompany, iomis (pr. a-'omis-i, 

p.p. ka-'omis). 
become Accustomed to, nai-te 

(pr. a-noi-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-nai-te). 
Ache, Bgwan (Bgwanet). 
(v. imp.), am ; ngwan. 
My head aches, am-a metit (the 

head eats me). 
Add to, tes (pr. a-tes-i, p.p. ka-a- 

Adjoin, itui-e (pr. a-tui-tos-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'tui-e). 
Admire, cham (pr. a-chom-e, 

p.p. ka-a-cham). 
Adorn, lelesan (pr. a-leleBou-i, 

p.p. ka-a-lelesan). 
commit Adultery, chor. (See 

Advance, indoi (pr. a-'ndoi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'ndoi). 
(go before), ui tae. 
Advance money, pesen (pr. a- 

pesen-i, p.p. ka-a-pesen). 
Advice, kiruog (kiruoget), pi. 

kiruogut (kiruogutik). 
Advise, iruog-chi (pr. a-'ruog- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-'ruog-chi). 



Adviser, kiruogin (kiruogindet), 

pi. kiruog (kiruogik). 
be Afraid, iyue (pr. a-'yue-i, p.p. 

After, let. 
The after part, let (letut), pi. 
letus (letusiek). 
Afterbirth, parpa (parpet), pi. 

parpas (parpasiek). 
Afternoon, koskoling (kosko- 

Afterwards, kitigin ; tun ; koi ; 
ip- (prefixed to the verb). 
He afterwards digs, or he will 
afterwards dig, ip-ko-pal. 
Again, ko-keny, isakte oiefig. 
To do a thing again, nyil (pr. 
a-nyil-i, p.p. ka-a-nyil). 

sak-te (pr. a-sak-toi-i, p.p. 
Not to do a thing again, ias (pr. 
ai- os-i, p.p. ka-'as). 
Age {periods of about 7 J years), 
ipin (ipinda), pi. ipinuag 
Agitate, isacb. (See Shake.) 
Ago, ole-kinye. 
Long ago, ole-kinye ; ole-kinye 

How long ago ? ko-ti-a olto 1 

kotkoit au 1 
Ten days ago, ekonet-ap-taman 
Agricultural people, meyuo 

(meyuot), pi. mee (meek). 
Aim, imu-chi. (See Try.) 
Place an arrow ready prepara- 
tory to aiming, ngat (pr. a- 
iigot-e, p.p. ka-a-ngat). 
Shoot after aiming, itar-chi (pr. 
a-'tar-chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-'tar-chi). 
Air, koris (koristo). 
Alike, kerke. 
This is like that, kerke ni 
ak nin. 
be Alive, sap (pr. a-sop-e, p.p. 

All, tukul. 

All at once, all together, kip- 

akenge ; tukul kip-akenge. 
All three, tukul ko-somok. 
Allow, ikochi. (See irregular 

verbs, pp. 222-3.) 
/ will allow thee to go, a-kon-in 

panda i-ue. 
Alone, ineke, &c. (see pp. 186-7); 

Along, tapan. 
Along with, olt' akenge ak. 
/ will go along with you (We 

will go together), ki-pendi 

Aloud, eng-ngoliot ; eng-ngoliot 

ne-oo; eui-polet. 
Already, nguno. 
I have already followed him, 

Also, ak ; ko-keny. 
Alter (act.), wal (pr. a-wol-e, 

p.p. ka-a-wal). 
Although, ako. 
Altogether, kwekeny ; mlsing ; 

Always, katukul. 
Amalgamation, tuio (tuiet), pi. 

tuios (tuiosiek). 
Amaze, tangany (pr. a-tongony-i, 

p.p. ka-a-tafigany). 
Amend, ai-te (pr. o-oi-toi-i, p.p. 

Amidst, kwen. 
The midst of, kwen (kwenut), 

pi. kwenus (kwenusiek). 
Among, oriit; kwen. 
Amulet (women's), pusaru (pus- 

(warriors'), setan (setanik). 
Amuse, ip6ten (pr. a-ipdten-i, 

p.p. ka-a-ipoten). 
Amusement, ipoton (ipfitonik). 
Ancestor, poiyo (poiyot), pi. 

poiisio (poiisiek). 
(male), inguget, pi. akut- 

(female), ingoget, pi. angut- 




Ancient, ap-kuko. 

(formerly), ap-keny. 
Anciently, ko-rok ; ole-kinye. 
And, ak or ok. 
be Angry, nerech (pr. a-nerech-i, 

p.p. ka-a-nerech). 
Animal, tiony (tiondo), pi. 

tiongin (tioHgik). 
Ankle, kowet-ap-ngwairyo. 
Anklet {warriors'), kipkurkur. 
(See Bell.) 
((/iris'), ingipilio (ingipiliot), 
pi. ingipilios (ingipiliosiek) ; 
kipkarkar (kipkarkarek). 
Annoy, iim (pr. a-'im-i, p.p. ka- 

Another, ake. 

Answer, lokoiyo (lokoiyot), pi. 
lokoiyua (lokoiyuek). 
(v.) twek-u (pr. a-twek-u, p.p. 

ka-a-twek-u) ; am lokoi. 
Answer to, twek-chi (pr. a-twek- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-twek-chi). 
A nswer when called, iyan (pr. a- 
'yon-i, p.p. ka-a-'yan). 

iten (pr. a-iten-i, p.p. ka- 
Black ant, songok (songokiet), 
pi. songok (songokik). 
Brown (soldier) ant, pirech 
(pirechet), pi. pireeh (pirechik). 
White ant, termite, toiya (toiyat), 
pi. toi (toiik). 
Ants in their flying stage, kon- 
gaiya (kongaiyat), pi. kongai 
Other hinds, ririmio (ririiniot), 
pi. ririm (ririmek). 

cheplilia (chepliliat), pi. 
cheplil (cheplilik). 
Ant-hill, tuluet-ap-toiik, (pi. 

Ant bear or Ardvark, kimakut 
(kimakutit), pi. kimakutin 

L., kuto (kutet), pi. kutes 

Antelope : 

Bush buck, poina (poinet), pi. 

poinoi (poinok). 
Cobus cob, teperetio (teperetiot), 

pi. teperetin (teperetlnik). 
Blue duiker (G. aequatorialis), 

kimereng (kimerengit), pi. 

kimerengin (kimerenginik). 
Common duiker (G. grimmi), 

cheptirgich (cheptirgichet), pi. 

cheptirgich (cheptirgicbek). 
Bed duiker (C. igna issaci), 

minde (mindet), pi. mindos 

Eland, singoi (singoito), pi. 

singoiua (singoiuek). 
Hartebeest, chemnyokoso (chem- 

nyokoset), pi. chemnyokoson 

Impalla, situa (situet), pi. 

sitonoi (sitonok). 
Kudu, solgoi (solgoita), pi. 

solgoiuag (solgoiuagik). 
Oribi, kenyele (kenyelet), pi. 

kenyeloi (kenyelok). 
Reed buck, irukut (irukutiet), 

pi. irukutin (irukutlnik). 
Roan, kiplelgut (kiplelgutiet), 

pi. kiplelgutis (kiplelgutisiek). 
Senegal hartebeest (tope), rnukeiyo 

(mukeiyot),pl. mukei (mukeiik). 
Waterbuck, kipsomere (kipso- 

meret), pi. kipsomeroi (kip- 

Anus {human beings), kwetio 

(animals), kimesto (kimestoet). 
Anvil, top (topet), pi. topos 

' Any ' is expressed by using the 

substantive it qualifies abso- 
lutely (i.e. without the 

article), by the relative, or by 

Anybody, chii ; chii tukul. 
Anybody's, pa-chii tukul. 
Anywhere, oii ; oii tukul. 




I don't see anything, m-a-onyi 

Anything whatever, kii tukul. 
Take any you like, nam ne-i- 
Apart, loo. 

Appear, tok-u (pr. a-tok-u, p.p. 
(come out), mang-u (pr. a-mang-u, 
p.p. ka-a-mang-u). 
Appoint, letye. (See Choose.) 
Approach, negit-yi (pr. a-negit- 
yi-ni, p.p. ka-a-negit-yi). 

rik-chi (pr. a-rik-chi-ni, p.p. 

kwany-ji (pr. a-kwany-ji-ni, 
p.p. ka-a-kwany-ji). 
Approach hither, inak-u (pr. a- 
'nok-u, p.p. ka-a-'nak-u). 

rik-u (pr. a-rik-u, p.p. ka-a- 
Approach thither, inak-te (pr. a- 
'nok-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-'nak-te). 

rik-te (pr. a-rik-toi-i, p.p. 
Approve, cham (pr. a-chom-e, 

p.p. ka-a-cbam). 
Argue, tii-ye (pr. a-tii-tos-i, p.p. 

Arise, ng6t (pr. a-figet-e, p.p. 

Arm, e (eut), pi. eun (eunek). 
Forearm, chepwalel (chep- 
walelit), pi. chepwalelis (chep- 

walel (waleldo), pi. waleluag 

Upper arm, rotion (rotionet), 
pi. rotionai (rotionaiik). 

L., ponoch (ponochet), pi. 
ponochai (ponochaiik). 
Arm oneself, nam karik ; itiacli 

Arms (iron), karin (karik). 
Arm-clamp (men's ornament), 
chepos (cheposto), pi. cheposua 

Armlet (women's), indinyol (in- 

dinyoliet), pi. indinyolai (in- 

(men's or girls'), sirimwek 

(chains) ; sonaiek (beads). 
(worn if the arm is painful), 

kelel (kelelik). 
(worn by a man who has lost 

his next elder brother or sister), 

asiel (asielda), pi. asielwag 

(worn by a man who has a 

twin brother or sister), samoiyo 

(samoiyot), pi. samoiin (samoi- 

Armpit, kulkul (kulkulda), pi. 

kulkuluo (kulkuluek). 
Arrange, ai-te (pr. o-oi-toi-i, 

p.p. ka-ai-te). 
Arrive, it (pr. a-it-e, p.p. ka-a- 


kwer (pr. a-kwer-e, p.p. ka- 

Arrive hither, it-u (pr. a-it-u, 

p.p. ka-a-it-u). 
Arrive thither, it-ite (pr. a-it- 

itoi-i, p.p. ka-a-it-ite). 
Make to arrive, iit (pr. a-'it-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'it). 
Beach a person, it-yi (pr. a-it- 

yi-ni, p.p. ka-a-it-yi). 
Arrow, k6to (kotet), pi. koti 

Feathers of arrow, tareyuo 

(tareyuot), pi. tare (tareyuek). 
Shaft of arrow, ngopta (iigoptet), 

pi. ngoptoi (ngoptok). 
Notch at end of arrow, sokwo 

(sokwot), pi. sokwa (sokwek). 
Binding used for fastening head 

on to shaft, simol (simoliet), 

pi. simolai (simolaiik). 
Leaf-shaped barb (large), kip- 

chapo (kipchapet), pi. kip- 

chapon (kipchaponik). 
Leaf-shaped barb (smalt), chepi- 

lofigio (chepiloSgiot), pi. chepi- 

loiigen (chepilofigenik). 



Arrow : 

Harpoon-shaped barb, tukvvario 
(tukwariot), pi. tukwarin (tu- 

kipitinyo (kipitinyot), pi. 
kipitinin (kipitinmik). 
Head made of a spike of wood, 
supet (supetiet), pi. supet 
Boys' {for shooting rats), kipirio 
(kipiriot), pi. kipiren (kipi- 
Boys' (for shooting birds), koiisi 
(koiisit), pi. koiisin (koiislnik). 
Arrow used for bleeding cattle, 
sheep, and goats, lofigno 
(longnet), pi. longin (loiigik). 
Artery, tikltio (tikitiot), pi. tlkit 

As, as if, like, kuu; ile; nette; te. 
Do as you please, ai-te kuu ne-i- 
Ascend, lany (pr. a-lony-e, p.p. 
A scend higher, itoch (pr. a-'toch-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'toch). 
Ash, oria (oriat), pi. or (orek). 
be Ashamed, tech (pr. a-tdch-e, 
p.p. ka-a-tSch). 
tinye konyit. 
Aside, tapan ; nepo-tapan ; 

go Aside, mas-te (pr. a-mas-toi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-mas-te). 
Ask, tep (pr. a-tep-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Ash after, tepe (pr. a-tepe, p.p. 

Ask for (want), mach (pr. a- 

moch-e, p.p. ka-a-mach). 
Make inquiries on behalf of any 
one, tep-chi (pr. a-tep-chi-ni, 
p.p. ka-a-tep-chi). 
Ass, sigirio (sigiriet), pi. sigiroi 

Assemble, ium (pr. a-'um-i, p.p. 

Assembly, tuiyo (tuiyot). 

Place of Assembly {large), kap- 
kiruog (kap-kiruoget), pi. kap- 
kiruogut (kap-kiruogutik). 
Place of Assembly (small), kokwa 
(kokwet), pi. kokwan (kok- 
Place of Assembly (for warriors), 
kap-tui (kap-tuiet), pi. kap- 
tuion (kap-tuionek). 
Assent, cham (pr. a-chom-e, p.p. 

Assert, mwa (pr. a-mwo-i, p.p. 

Assist, toret (pr. a-toret-i, p.p. 

Astonish, tangany (pr. a-toiig- 

ony-i, p.p. ka-a-tafigany). 
At, eng. 
At first, ko-rok. 

At home, kain-nyo, kain-ngung, 
kain-nyi, &c. (my house, thy 
house, his or her house, fyc). 

olin-nyo, olin-figufig, olin-nyi, 
&c. (my place, ij"c.). 
At last, taiitio. 
At night, kemhoi. 
At once, nguni; nguni-to. 
At the top, parak. 
At the bottom, ingoiny. 
Attempt, tiem (pr. a-tiem-e, p.p. 

Attend, kany. (See Wait.) 
Aunt : 
(paternal), senge (senget) ; 
(maternal), kamet or kametit, pi. 

Avoid (escape), mwe (pr. a-mwe, 
p.p. ka-a-mwe). 
Get out of the way of, is-te-ke 
(pr. a-is-toi-i-ke, p.p. ka-is-te- 
Await, iken. (See Expect.) 
Awake (neut.), ng§t (pr. a-nglt-e, 
p.p. ka-a-ng6t). 
Waken (act.), ifiget (pr. a-'nget-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'iigSt). 
be Awake, kas-u (pr. a-kas-u, 
p.p. ka-a-kas-u). 



I am going away, a-wend-i ; a- 
we-chi-ni-ke (/ will go myself). 
Gome away, nyo. 
He is away, ma-mi-i. 
Axe, aiyuo (aiyuet), pi. aunoi 

Baboon, moso (moset), pi. moson 

Baby, cherere (chereret), pi. 
chereren (chererenik). 

kiplekwa (kiplekwet), pi. 
kiplekon (kiplekonik). 
Back {human beings), patai 
(patet,) pi. patoi (patoiik). 
{cattle), let (letut), pi. letus 
Back-bone {human beings), oret- 
(animals), rot (rotet), pi. rotos 

(near neck), kapiog (kapioget), 

pi. kapiogos (kapiogosiek). 
{near rump), sukulum (suku- 
lumdo), pi. sukulumwag (suku- 
Bad, ya, pi. yaach ; samis, pi. 
To be bad, ya-itu (pr. a-ya, p.p. 

Bad-tempered, ya-atep, pi. yaach- 
Badness, yaitio (yaitiot). 
Bag {small), lol (lolet), pi. lolo- 
tinua (lolotinuek). 
(very small), supere (superet), 

pi. superoi (superok). 
(large), milo (milet), pi. milos 

sack, gunia (guniet), pi. gunias 
Bake, pel (pr. a-pel-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Baldness, pos (posto), pi. posuo 

Bamboo, teka (tekat), pi. tek 

Banana, makomya (makomyat), 

pi. makom (makomik). 

mototia (mototiat), pi. motot 

Flower of banana, sororua 

(sororuet), pi. sororon (sororon- 

Wild banana, sasur (sasuriet), 

pi. sasur (sasurik). 
Band (stripe), siro (siret), pi. 

sireyua (sireyuek). 
Banded (striped), sirat, pi. 

siro tin. 
Banish, oon (pr. a-oon-e, p.p. 

Bank (of a river), ingekut (inge- 

kutiet), pi. ingekutoi (inge- 

(side of a river), tapan 

(tapanda), pi. tapanuag (tapan- 

The opposite bank, pit (pitit) ; 

Barber, konimunin (koni- 

raunindet), pi. konimun (koni- 

Bare, puch, pi. puch. 
Bargain, klm (pr. a-klm-e, p.p. 

Bark (of a tree), perto (pertet), 

pi. per (perik). 
Barrel (honey), moing (moinget), 

pi. moingon (moingonik). 
(clothes), keto (ketet), pi. ketos 

Barren (person or animal), 

son (sonet), pi. sonos (sonos- 

Basin, tapo (tapet), pi. tapoi 

Basket, kitonga (kitonget), pi. 

kitongoi (kitongok). 

mesendo (mesendet), pi. me- 

sendai (mesendaiik). 
(large), kipserion (kipserionit), 

pi. kipserionin (kipserionlnik). 
(small), kerep (kerepet), pi. 

kerepon (kereponik). 



Basket : 

(small), kirokoro (kirokoret), 
pi. kirokoroi (kirokorok). 
(very small), ikongo (ikonget), 
pi. ikongen (ikongenik). 
(children's grass basket), soko 
(sokot), pi. sok (sokek). 
Bat, reres (reresiet), pi. reres 

Bathe, iun-ge (pr. a-'un-i-ke, 

p.p. ka-a-'un-ge). 
Battle, porio (poriet), pi. porios 

Battle-field, kaporio (kaporiot). 
Be, i ; mi ; mi-te. (See irregular 
verbs, p. 2 1 9.) 
(stay), tepi (pr. a-tepi-e, p.p. 
Bead, sonaiya (sonaiyat), pi. 
sonoi (sonoiek). 
Bead made of ostrich egg-shell, 
kelelio (keleliot), pi. kelel 

Each kind of bead has a 
special name. The following 
are some of the principal 
kinds : — 

anongoiyo (anongoiyot), pi. 
anongoiin (anongoiinik). 

ingopotio (ingopotiot), pi. 
ingopot (ingopotek). 

ndorio (ndoriot), pi. ndore 

ingupusio (ingupusiot), pi. 
ingupusin (ingupusinik). 

sombaiyo (sombaiyot), pi. 
sombai (sombaiek). 

nongoiyo (nongoiyot), pi. 
nongoiin (nongoilnik). 
Beak (bird's), kutit-ap-tarityet. 
Bean, makandia (makandiat), pi. 

makanda (makandek). 
Bear (fruit or children, &c), ii 
(pr. a-ii-e, p.p. ka-ii). 
Person who has recently borne 
or who is about to bear, tomono 
(tomonet), pi. tomonos (tonio- 

(carry), ip (pr. a-ip-e, p.p. ka-ip). 
Carry on the back, la (pr. a-lo-i, 
p.p. ka-a-la). 
Beard, kororek-ap-tamnet. 
Beast, tiony (tiondo), pi. tioiigin 

Beat, pir (pr. a-pir-e, p.p. ka-a- 
(conquer), ipel (pr. a-'pel-i, p.p. 

Beat a child slightly with a stick, 
itiol (pr. a-'tiol-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Be too great a task, temene (pr. 
a-temene, p.p. ka-a- temene). 
Beautiful, kararan, pi. kororon. 
To be beautiful, kararan-itu (pr. 
a-kararan, p.p. ka-a-kararan- 
Beauty, kararin (kararindo). 
Because, amu ; amu ne ; kele. 
Beckon to, figwech (pr. a- 

figwech-i, p.p. ka-a-figwech). 
Become, ek-u. (See irregular 

verbs, p. 220.) 
Bed, itok (itokut), pi. itokus 
(warriors'), kitar (kitarut), pi. 

kitarus (kitarusiek). 
The head of a bed, meto (metout). 
The foot of a bed, kap-kelien 
Bee, segemya (segemyat pi. 
segem (segemik). 
Names of various kinds of bees : 
chepongonyo (chepofigonyot), 
pi. chepoSgonyin (chepongony- 

kosomyo (kosomyot), pi. ko- 
sora (kosomek). 

kiptulonio (kiptuloniot), pi. 
kiptulon (kiptulonik). 

kulumbio (kulumbiot), pi. 
kulumben (kulumbenik). 

imeio (imeiot), pi. imei 

chepruecho (chepruechot), pi. 
chepruechoi (chepruechck). 




Drone, chepkopirio (chepkopir- 
iot), pi. chepkopiren (chepko- 
Beehive {natural), pondo (pon- 
det), pi. pondos (pondosiek). 
(artificial), moing (moinget), pi. 
moingon (moingonik). 
Take a beehive, inget-te (pr. 
a-'nget-toi-i, pp. ka-a-'nget- 
Beer, maiya (maiyat), pi. maiyo 

Beeswax, temen (temenyet), pi. 

temenai (temenaiik). 
Beetle, cheptoruruog (cheptorur- 
uoget), pi. cheptoruruog 
Before, tae {place) ; toma (time). 
The front of, tae (taeta), pi. toiua 

To go before, indo'i (pr. a-'ndo'i-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'ndo'i). 
Before he goes to sleep, tom-ko- 
Beg, som (pr. a-som-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Beget, ii (pr. a-ii-e, p.p. ka-ii). 
Beggar, somin (somindet), pi. 
som (somik). 

chemngesusuo (chemngesu- 
suot), pi. chemngesusua (chem- 

chepsoiso (chepsoiset). 
Begin (hither), ta-u (pr. a-ta-u, 
p.p. ka-a-ta-u). 
(thither), ta-te (pr. a-ta-toi-i, 
p.p. ka-a-ta-te). 
Beginning, olekopoch (oleko- 

pochet) ; tapan (tapanda). 
Behind (adv.), let. 

(prep.), letut-ap ; letun-nyi, 
Belch, sie (pr. a-sie-i, p.p. ka- 

Bell (warriors'), kipkurkur (kip- 
kurkuriet), pi. kipkurkurai 

iet), pi. chepkurkurai (chepkur- 
(cows'), twalio (twaliot), pi. 
twalin (twallk). 
Bellow (oxen), parar (pr. a- 
poror-i, p.p. ka-a-parar). 
(cows calling their calves), iut 
(pr. a-'ut-i, p.p. ka-a-'ut). 
Bellows, kopan (kopanda), pi. 

kopanua (kopanuek). 
Belly, mo (moiet), pi. mootinua 

Below (adv.), ingoiny ; ya-pori. 
(prep.), ingoinyut-ap ; ingoi- 
iiyun-nyi, &c. 
Belt (women's), legetio (legetiet), 
pi. legetai (legetaiik). 

(men's), pireyuo (pireyuot), 
pi. pireyuos (pireyuosiek). 
Bend, figwal (pr. a-ngwol-e, p.p. 
(fold), aruny (pr. a-aruny-i, 
p.p. ka-aruny). 
Bend wood, Qc, kwen (pr. a- 
kwen-e, p.p. ka-a-kwen) ; yem 
(pr. a-yem-e, p.p. ka-a-yem). 
Bend a bow, riich (pr. a-riicn-e, 

p.p. ka-a-riich). 
Bend down (act.), ifiguruch (pr. 
a-'figuruch-i, p.p. ka-a-'ngu- 

(neut.), inguruk-e (pr. a-'ilgu- 

ruk-at, p.p. ka-a-'figuruk-e). 

Bequeath, pokok-chi (pr. a- 

pokok-chl-ni, p.p. ka-a-pokok- 


Beseech, sa (pr. a-so-e, p.p. 

Beside, tapan. 
Besides, ko-keny. 
Best, better, kaikai, pi. koikoi. 
Thou hadst better go, kaikai i-ue. 
Bet with some one, irot-ie (pr. 

a-'rot-tos-i, p.p. ka-a-'rot-ie). 
Between, kwen; takoi. 
The space between, takoi (takoi- 
ta), pi. takoiua (takoiuek). 



Beware, iro. (See irregular 

verbs, p. 224.) 
Bhang, nyasore (nyasoret), pi. 

nyasoroi (nyasorok). 
Biceps, chepwilpwil (chepwil- 
pwiliet), pi. chepwilpwiloi 
Big, oo, pi. echen. 
To be big, oo-itu (pr. a-00, p.p. 
Bile, es (eset) ; cheptigon (chepti- 

Bill-hook, mor (morut), pi. moras 

Bind, rat (pr. a-rot-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Bind round, ta (pr. a-to-e, p.p. 

Bird, tarit (tarityet), pi. tarit 
Buzzard, chepkokosio (chepko- 
kosiot), pi. chepkokosin (chepko- 
Crested crane, kongonyo (kong- 
onyot), pi. kofigony (kofigo- 

Croio, chepkwog (chepkwogit), 
pi. chepkwogin (chepkwoglnik). 
Dove, cheptuge (cheptuget), pi. 
cheptugen (cheptugenik). 
Duck, kokopeno (kokopenet), pi. 
kokopen (kokopenik). 
Eagle, kipsich (kipsichit), pi. 
kipsichin (kipsichlnik). 

orokcha (orokchat), pi. orok 
Green Pigeon, nengo (nenget), 

pi. nengai (nengaiik). 
Ground Hornbill, eheptlbi (chep- 
tlbit), pi. cheptibin (cheptlbln- 
Guinea-fowl, terkekya (terke- 
kyat), pi. terkeken (terke- 
Hawk, chepsirire (ohepsiriret), 
pi. chepsiriren (obepsirirenik). 
Honey-bird, chepkeche (chei>ke- 

cheit), pi. chepkecheis (chepke- 

Kite, chepsengwa (chepsengwet), 

pi. chepsengwen (chepsen- 

Lesser bustard, chelokom (chelo- 

komiet), pi. chelokomai (chelo- 

Owl, sukuru (sukurut), pi. suku- 

rus (sukurusiek). 
Ox-pecker, ririo (ririet), pi. rir 

Plantain-eater, merewa (mere- 
wet), pi. mereon (mereonik). 
Quail, chepiakwai (chepiakwai- 

et), pi. chepiakwaien (chepia- 

Shrike, kipkekend (kipkekendet), 

pi. kipkekendai (kipkekend- 

Spurfowl, partridge, francolin, 

taiyua (taiyuet), pi. taoi 

Stork, kapcheptalamia (kipchep- 

talamiat), pi. kapcheptalamin 

Svmbird (CalcJiometra acik), che- 

silio (chesiliot), pi. chesilen 

Sunbird (Nectarinia kilimensis), 

chepkemis (chepkemisiet), pi. 

chepkemisai (chepkemisaiik). 
Swallow, kipisua (kipisuet), pi. 

kipisoi (kipisok). 
Vulture, motony (motonda), pi. 

motofigwa (raotongwek). 
Wagtail, takipos (takiposit), pi. 

takiposin (takiposinik). 
Woodpecker, kiptiltil (kiptiltil- 
iat), pi. kiptiltiloi (kiptiltil- 
Bird-lime, petnba (pembet), pi. 

pembon (pembonik). 
Birth-mark, tisio (tisiet), pi. 

tisioi (tisiok). 
Bite, sus (susut). 

(v.), sus (pr. a-sus-e, p.p. ka-a- 



Bitter, ngwan, pi. ngwonin. 
To be bitter, figwang-itu (pr. a- 
ngwafig, p.p. ka-a-ngwang-itu). 
Black, tui, pi. tuen. 
To be black, tui-itu (pr. a-tui, 
p.p. ka-a-tui-itu). 
Blacksmith, kitongin (kitoBg- 

indet), pi. kitoBg (kitoiigik). 
Bladder, chepkule (chepkulet), 

pi. chepkules (chepkulesiek). 
Blade of spear, melei (meleito), 

pi. meleiua (meleiuek). 
Blanket, marangeti (iiiarangetit), 
pi. marangetis (marangetisiek). 
sumat (sumet), pi. sumot 
Bleed {oxen), char (pr. a-chor-e, 
p.p. ka-a-char). 
(people), kwer (pr. a-kwer-e, p.p. 
Blind, korat, pi. korotin. 
To be blind, kor (pr. a-kor-e, p.p. 
One-eyed person (m.), kipkofigak, 
(f.), chepkongak. 
Blink, mismis (pr. a-mismis-i, 

p.p. ka-a-raismis). 
Blister, termeniut (termemutiet), 

pi. termemut (termemutik). 
Blood, koroti (korotik). 
Blood used as food, reges 
(regesto), pi. regesua (regesuek). 
Blood-brotherhood, kalia (ka- 
liet) ; muma (mumek) ; patu- 
reshin (patureshlnik). 
Enter into blood-brotherhood or 
be on friendly terms vrith, ka- 
lian ; par mumek ; nam patu- 
Blood-vessel, tikitio (tikitiot), 

pi. tikit (tikltik). 
Blow (act.), kut (pr. a-kut-e, p.p. 

- (of the wind), imut (pr. a-'mut-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'mut). 
Blow a horn, kut kuinet. 
Blow the nose, ngu seperik. 
Blow bellows, kut kopanda. 

Blunder, ichilil (pr. a-'chilil-e, 

p.p. ka-a-'chilil). 
Blunt, ngutum, pi. figutumen. 
Boast, las-ke (pr. a-los-i-ke, p.p. 

(be puffed up), men (pr. a-men-e, 

p.p. ka-a-men). 
Boaster, menotio (menotiot), pi. 

menot (menotik). 
Body, por (porto), pi. porua 

A dead body, musio (musiol), 

pi. musua (musuek). 
Boil (plain), undir (undiriet), pi. 

undir (undirik). 
Boil (bubble up), kut-u (pr. 

a-kut-u, p.p. ka-a-kut-u). 

(act.), ikut-u (pr. a-'kut-u, 

p.p. ka-a-'kut-u). 
Bone, k6wo (kowet), pi. kowoi 

be Born (v. imp.), sich. 

/ was born in Kandi, ki-ki- 

sick-in-o Nandi. 
Both, towae ; kwoieBg. 
Both . . . and, ak . . . ak. 
Bother, iim (pr. a-'im-i, p.p. 


iluiluch (pr. a-'luiluch-i, p.p. 

Bottom, ingoiny (ingoinyut), pi. 

ingoinyus (ingoinyusiek). 
Bough, mornet-ap-ketit. 
Boundary, kiwoto (kiwotet), pi. 

kiwotos (kiwotosiek). 
People living on the bovndar:/ of 

a country, toroch (toroita) ; 

kiptorochin (kiptorochlnik). 
Bow, kwnng (kwanget), pi. 

kwangoi (kwangok). 
Bow for bleeding cattle, kirer (ki- 

rerto), pi. kirerua (kireruek). 
Bow (act.), inguruch (pr. a-'ngu- 

ruch-i, p.p. ka-a-'nguruch). 
(neut.), inguruk-e (pr. a-'ngu- 

ruk-at, p.p. ka-a-'Sguruk-e). 
Bow-string, Ino (inet). pi. Inai 




Bow-string : 

Leather band to keep bow-string 
in place, tikiseyuo (tikiseyuot), 
pi. tikise (tikiseyuek). 
Piece of leather attached to a 
bracelet to prevent the bow- 
string from hurting the wrist, 
lokos (lokosta), pi. lokosua 
Box the ears, irapach (pr. a- 

'ropoch-e, p.p. ka-a-'iapach). 
Boy, ngeta (ngetet), pi. nget 

lemin (lemindet), pi. lem 
Bracelet (women's), makiraria 
(makirariat), pi. makirarin 

mukurio (mukuriot), pi. 
mukure (mukurek). 
(old men's), samoiyo (samoiyot), 
pi. samoiin (samoilnik). 
(of iron, bound with small iron 
rings, worn by boys and 
warriors), asingai (asingaiit), 
pi. asingaiin (asingaiinik). 
(worn by men if wounded in the 
arm), sirimdo-ap-eut. 
Brain, kunyut (kundit), pi. 

kunyut (kunyutik). 
Branch, mornet-ap-ketit. 
Brand, pel (pr. a-pel-e, p.p. 

Branding-iron (cattle), mechei 
(mecheito), pi. mecbeiua (me- 
(sheep), samoiyo (samoiyot), pi. 
samoiin (samoilnik). 
Brass wire, tae (taet), pi. taoi 

Breadth, tepesin (tepesindo). 
Break, iri (pr. oi-'ri-e, p.p. ka- 
iyei (pr.a-'yei-e, p.p.ka-a-'yei). 
(break off), nget (pr. a-nget-e, 

p.p. ka-a-nget). 
(pound), tu-i (pr. a-tu-e, p.p. 

(tear), pact (pr. a-poch-e, p.p. 

Break through (pierce), rut (pr. 

a-rut-e, p.p. ka-a-rut). 
Break wind, kwat (pr. a-kwot-e, 

p.p. ka-a-kwat). 
Breast (human beings), teget 

(teget), pi. teget (tegetik). 
(animals), tagat (tagatet), pi. 

tagot (tagotik). 

Woman's breast, murungu (mu- 

rungut), pi. murungus (murun- 

Breasts, kina (kmefc), pi. klnai 

Breath, kapuso (kapuset). 
Breathe, ipus (pr. a-'pus-i, p.p. 

Breathe oneself, imuny. (See 

Brew (beer, fyc), riech (pr. a- 

riech-e, p.p. ka-a-riech). 
Bridge, etio (etiet), pi. etios 

be Brilliant, tilil (pr. a-tilil-i, 

p.p. ka-a-tilil). 
Bring (things only), ip-u (pr. 

a-ip-u, p.p. ka-ip-u). 
(persons only), imut-u (pr. a- 

'mut-u, p.p. ka-a-'mut-u). 
(persons and things), kon-u (pr. 

a-kon-u, p.p. ka-a-kon-u). 
Broad, tepes, pi. tepesen. 
Broom, kapukio (kapukiot), pi. 

kapuken (kapukenik). 

kweyo (kweyot), pi. kweon 

Brother, nget-ap-kamet, pi. 

akut-nget-ip-kamet (or akut- 


tupcho (tupchet), pi. akut- 

tupchet (or tupchosiek). 
Thy brother, nget-ap-komit, pi. 

alsut-nget-ip-komit (or akut- 

My brother, nget-ap-eiyo, pi. 

akut-nget-ip-eiyo ; kitupche ; 



Brother : 

weiri ne-kitupche, pi. weirik 
{word used by women), tete, pi. 
Brother-in-law {wife's brother), 
kap-yukoi (kap-yukoiit). 
(man's sister's husband), sanyo 

(husband's brother), pamur 
Bruise (act.), ichirimit (pr. 
a-'chirimit-i, p.p. ka-a-'chiri- 

(neut.), chirimit (pr. a-chiri- 
mit-e, p.p. ka-a-chirimit). 
Buffalo, so (soet), pi. soen 

Bug, kololio (kololiot), pi. kolol 

Build, t§ch (pr. a-tSch-e, p.p. 
(erect an enclosure), ngot (pr. 
a-Sgot-e, p.p. ka-a-Sgot). 
Bull, kiruk (kirkit), pi. kiruk 

Bullet, parpario (parpariot), pi. 
parpar (parparek). 
koii. (See Stone.) 
Bullock, ei (eito), pi. ein (einik). 
Bully, usin (usindet), pi. us (usik). 
(v.), inyalil (pr. a-'nyolil-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'nyalil). 

us (pr. a-us-e, p.p. ka-a-us). 
Bulrush, cherungu (cherungut), 

pi. cherungus (cherungusiek). 

Burn (be consumed), lach (pr. 

a-loch-e, p.p. ka-a-lach). 

(consume), iloch (pr. a-'loch-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'loch). 

(be on fire, scorch), lal (pr. a-lol-e, 

p.p. ka-a-lal). 
(set on fire, make up afire), ilal 

(pr. a-'lol-i, p.p. ka-a-'lal). 
(apply fire to, bake, brand), pel 

(pr. a-pel-e, p.p. ka-a-pel). 
(kindle), inam (pr. a-'nom-i, p.p. 

(burn the skin off), ichur (pr. 

a-'chur-e, p.p. ka-a-'chur). 
(feed afire), iyuok-chi mat. 
Burrow, ikut-u (pr. a-'kut-u, 

p.p. ka-a-'kut-u). 
Burst (act.), pet (pr. a-pet-e, p.p. 


(neut.), pSt-ake (pr. a-pfet-at, 

p.p. ka-a-pet-ake). 
Bury, tup (pr. a-tup-e, p.p. ka- 

Place a corpse ready for the 

hyenas, ison (pr. a-'son-i, p.p. 

ka-a-'son) ; mwi (pr. a-mwi-e, 

p.p. ka-a-mwi). 
Bush, ket (ketit), pi. ket (ketik). 
Bustle (act.), iserserin (pr. a- 

'serserin-e, p.p. ka-a-'serse- 

Be in a bustle, serserin (pr. 

a-serserin-i, p.p. ka-a-serserin). 
But, ako. 
Butcher (cattle), par or tor kimu- 

tit (ap-teta). 
(sheep or goats), iket. (See 

Choke, Strangle.) 
Butter, mwait'-ap-clieko; mwait'- 

Butterfly, tapurpur (tapur- 

puriet), pi. tapurpur (tapur- 

Buttock, kwetio (kwetiot), pi. 

kwetua (kwetuek). 
Buy, al (pr. a-ol-e, p.p. ka-al). 
Buy for, al-chi (pr. a-ol-chi, 

p.p. ka-al-chi). 
Buyer, alin (alindet), pi. al 

Buzz (like a bee), imut (pr. a- 

'mut-i, p.p. ka-a-'mut). 
(like a drone), ite (pr. a-'te-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'te). 

Calabash, sot (sotet), pi. eoton 
(small), terga (terget), pi. tergoi 

E 2 



Calabash : 

Half-calabash, sepet (septet), pi. 

sepetai (sepetaiik). 
Wide-mouthed calabash {female), 

sotet ne-marlch- kut. 
Narrow-mouthed calabash {male), 

sotet ne-para-kut. 
Long-necked calabash, sotet ne- 

Put a calabash to one's mouth, 
nyoput (pr. a-nyoput-i, p.p. 
Stick for cleaning calabashes, 
sosio (sosiot), pi. sos (sosik). 
Calabash fruit, tenderia (ten- 

deriat), pi. tender (tenderik). 
Calabash plant, silakwa (sila- 

kwet), pi. silakon (silakonik). 
Calf, moi (molta), pi. moii 

Young calf, kiptoiyo or kiptoi 

(kiptoiyot or kiptoito), pi. kip- 

toiin (kiptoilnik). 

Call, kur (pr. a-kur-e, p.p. ka- 


{name), itar (pr. a-'tor-i, p.p. 

Call out to, iten-ji (pr. a-iten-ji- 
ni, p.p. ka-a-iten-ji). 
Call out, shout, wach (pr. a- 
woch-e, p.p. ka-a-wach). 
Camel, tombes (tombesiet), pi. 

tombes (tombesik). 
Camp, kap-ruon (kap-ruondo). 
Camp on the war-path, olpul 
(olpulit), pi. olpulis (olpulisiek). 
Can, imuch (pr. a-'much-i, p.p. 

Cap, chepkule (chepkulet), pi. 

chepkules (chepkulesiek). 
Cape {warriors'), kororik. (See 

Caravan, un (undo), pi. unwa 
{smalt), rutoi (rutoito), pi. rutoiua 
Caravan porter, otuag. (See 

Carcase, musio (musiot), pi. 

musua (musuek). 
Care, iro. (See irregular verbs, 
p. 224.) 
Take care of, rip (pr. a-rip-e, 
p.p. ka-a-rip). 
/ don't care ; no matter, ror-chi 

ket ; ma-uu kii. 
Carry, ip (pr. a-ip-e, p.p. ka-ip). 
Carry for, ip-chi (pr. a-ip-chi-ni, 

p.p. ka-ip-chi). 
Carry hither {bring), ip-u (pr. 

a-ip-u, p.p. ka-ip-u). 
Carry something heavy, snt (pr. 

a-sut-i, p.p. ka-a-sut). 
Carry on the back, la (pr. a-lo-e, 

p.p. ka-a-la). 
Carry a child or load, kesen (pr. 
a-kesen-i, p.p. ka-a-kesen). 
Cartridge, parpario (parpariot), 

pi. parpar (parparek). 
Cast, met-te (pr. a-met-toi-i, p.p. 
Cast upon or at, met-yi (pr. 

a-met-yi-ni, p.p. ka-a-met-yi). 
Cast one's eyes upon, kwer-te 

Cast a light on, ikweny (pr. 
a-'kweny-i, p.p. ka-a-'kweny). 
Castor-oil plant, imanya (iman- 

yat), pi. iman (imanek). 
Castrate, lat (pr. a-lot-e, p.p. 

Cat, kiptuswai (kiptuswet), pi. 
kiptusai (kiptusaiik). 

simba (simbet), pi. simboi 

L., semingor (semingoret), 
pi. semingorin (semingorfnik). 
Cerval cat, cheptuino (cheptui- 
net), pi. cbeptuinos (cbeptui-' 

L., kesogoror (kesogororet), 
pi. kesogororos (kesogororos- 
Catch, tal (pr. a-tol-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Catch hold ! ee ! 



Catch : 

Catch in a trap, tech (pr. a-tech-e, 

p.p. ka-a-tech). 
Catch rain-water, tach. (See 

Catch a disease (v. imp.), inam. 
Caterpillar, cheput (cheputiet), 

pi. cheput (cheputik). 
Cattle, tany. (See Ox.) 
Cattle-fold, pe (peut), pi. peus 

Raided cattle, koiyo (koiyet), pi. 

koiyos (koiyosiek). 
Cave, kepen (kepenet), pi. kepen- 

6s (kepenosiek). 
Cease, ias (pr. ai-'os-i, p.p. ka- 

Cease talking, sis (pr. a-sis-i, p.p. 

Ceiling, taput(taputet), pl.taput- 

on (taputonik). 
Centipede, kimorin (kimorinet), 

pi. kimorin (kimonnik). 
Chaff, metetia (metetiat), pi. 

metet (metetek). 
Chain, sirim (sirimdo), pi. sirim- 

wag (sirimwagik). 
Chair, figecher (figecheret), pi. 

Sgecheroi (figecnerok). 
Chalk, tartar (tartarik). 
Chameleon, nyirit (nyiritiet), pi. 

nyiritoi (nyiritok). 
Change (act.), wal (pr. a-wol-e, 

p.p. ka-a-wal). 
(neut.), wal-ak-e (pr. a-wal-at, 

p.p. ka-a-wal-ak-e). 
Charcoal, nesio (nesiot), pi. nes 

Charm. (See Amulet.) 
Charm against the evil «t/e,lapuon 

Chase, loko (loket). 
Chase away, oon (pr. a-oon-e, 

p.p. ka-a-oon). 
Chatter (lies), lembech (lembe- 

chet), pi. lembech (lembechek). 

(v.), iperiper-itu (pr. a-'peri- 

per, p.p. ka-a-'periper-itu). 

Chatter (of the teeth), kutkut 
(pr. a-kutkut-i, p.p. ka-a-kut- 
Chatterer (m.), kiplembechwa 
(kiplembechwet), pi. kiplem- 
bechon (kiplembechonik). 
(f.), cheplembechwa. 
Cheap, ma-ui, pi. ma-uen. 

To sell cheap, al-ok-e ko-mie. 
Cheat, ken (pr. a-ken-e, p.p. 

iperiper (pr. a-'periper-i, p.p. 
Cheek, matafig (matanda), pi. 

matofigwa (matofigwek). 
Chest {human beings), teget 

(teget), pi. teget (tegetik). 
Chew, nye (pr. a-nye, p.p. ka-a- 

Chew and spit out, mit (pr. 
a-mit-e, p.p. ka-a-mit). 
Chew whilst walking, sos-ate (pr. 
a-sos-oti, p.p. ka-a-sos-ate). 
Chicken, lakwet-ap-ingokiet, pi. 

Chief (captain), olaitorio (olai- 
(spokesman), kiruogin (kiruo- 

gindet), pi. kiruog (kiruogik). 
(head man), chiit'-ap-metit. 
(adj.), oo, pi. echen. 
Chief medicine man, orkoiyo 

(orkoiyot), pi. orkoi (orkoiik). 
Child, lakwa (lakwet), pi. lakoi 

Chin, tamna (tamnet), pi. tamnoi 

Choke, iket (pr. a-'ket-i, p.p. 

Choose, letye (pr. a-letye-i, p.p. 

kwe (pr. a-kwe, p.p. ka-a- 
Chop, ep (pr. a-ep-e,'p.p.ka-a-ep). 
Chop to a point, lit (pr. a-lit-e, 
p.p. ka-a-lit). 
Chop up small, murmur (pr. a- 
murmur-i, p.p. ka-a-murmur). 



Churn milk, isach (pr. a-'soch-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'sach). 

Circumcise, muratan (pr. a- 

muraton-i, p.p. ka-a-muratan). 

itum (pr. a-'tum-i, p.p. ka-a- 


He has been circumcised, ka-ki- 

muratan ; ki-kwa turn. 
A person recently circumcised, or 
one about to be circumcised, 
tarusio (tarusiot), pi. tarus 
A circumcised man or woman, 
kipkelel (kipkeleldet), pi. kip- 
kelelai (kipkelelaiik). 
Circumcision ceremony, turn 
(tumdo), pi. tumwa (tumwek). 
Clan, or. (See Road.) 
Clap the hands, rapacb (pr. a- 

rapoch-i, p.p. ka-a-rapach). 
Clasp {in the hand), nam (pr. a- 
nom-e, p.p. ka-a-nam). 
(in the arms), suup (pr. a-suup-e, 
p.p. ka-a-suup). 
Claw, siiya (siiyet), pi. sioi (siok). 
(talon), silolio (siloliot), pi. silo- 
len (silolenik). 

(v.), sil (pr. a-sil-e, p.p. ka-a- 

kut (pr. a-kut-e, p.p. ka-a- 

pach (pr. a-poch-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Clay (red), iigario (ngariet), pi. 
iigarioi (ngariok). 
(white), eorio (eoriot), pi. eor 
(grey, yellow), tartar (tartariet), 
pi. tartar (tartarik). 
Clean, iun (pr. a-'un-i, p.p. ka- 
Clean the teeth, siifc kelek. 
Clear, tilil, pi. tililen. 
(o;;e»i),isengengat, pl.isengeiigot- 
(white), lei, pi. lelach. 
Clear (at night), lapke, pi. lap- 

Clear the ground preparatory to 
planting, tern (pr. a-tem-e, p.p. 
Cleave, p§t. (See Tear.) 
Clever, ngom, pi. ngomin. 
Climb, lany (pr. a-lony-e, p.p. 

Climb up, tokos (pr. a-tokos-i, 
p.p. ka-a-tokos). 
Climb a tree without branches, 

sikop ketit. 
Climb (e. g. a hill) and descend 
again, ingir-te (pr. a-'ngir-toi-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'ngir-te). 
Stick used to assist a climber, 
kombo (kombet), pi. kombes 
Close, isip-chi (pr. a-'sip-chi-m, 
p.p. ka-a-'sip-chi). 

ien (pr. a-'en-i, p.p. ka-a- 
(shut), ker (pr. a-ker-e, p.p. ka- 

Close the eyes, inuch (pr. a- 
'nuch-i, p.p. ka-a-'nuch). 
Close the fist, mumut eut. 
Cloth, anga (anget), pi. angas 

Clothe, ilach (pr. a-'loch-i, p.p. 

Clothes. (See Garment.) 
Cloud, poldo (poldet), pi. pol 

Club, rungu (rungut), pi. rungus 
Old men's club, sbari (sbarit), pi. 

Bharin (sharinik). 
Handle of club, irumo (irumet), 

pi. irumai (irumaiik). 
Head of club, metit-ap-rungut. 
Coax, ken-ji (pr. a-ken-ji-ni, p.p. 

Cock, kipsoiyua (kipsoiyuet), pi. 
kipsoon (kipsoonik). 
A cock's comb, songonyet-ap- 

A cock's spur, silolio (siloliot), 
pi. silolen (silolenik). 




A cock's wattles, keneya (kene- 
yat), pi. kene (keneek). 
Cockroach, solopcho (solopcliot), 

pi. solop (solopik). 
Coition, engumisio (engumisiet). 
Cold, koris (koristo). 
/ have a cold, am-a tungwek or 
ka-ker-a met. 
(adj.), kaitit, pi. koitit. 
Collar-bone, malingot(malingot- 
iet), pi. malingotai (maliDgot- 

Collect, ium (pr. a-'um-i, p.p. 

itui-ye (pr. a-'tui-tos-i, p.p. 
Collect together goats, preparatory 
to driving them home, ision-u 
(pr. a-ision-u, p.p. ka-ision-u). 
Colour, chesoleyua (chesoleyuat), 
pi. chesole (cbesoleyuek). 
Black, tui, pi. tuen. 
Black and white, pusien, pi. 

Blue, arus, pi. arusen. 
Brown, mur or muruon,pl. muru- 

Bark brown, omo, pi. omonen. 
Green, nyalil, pi. nyalilen. 
Khaki-coloured, grey, yellow, 
talelio, pi. talelion. 
Many-coloured, samo, pl.samoen. 
Bed, pirir, pi. piriren. 
Red-brown, sitye, pi. sityonen. 
Red and white, mongorio, pi. 
White, lei, pi. lelach. 
Come, nyo. (See irregular verbs, 
p 222.) 
{arrive), it-u (pr. a-it-u, p.p. ka- 
Come apart, nget (pr. a-figet-e, 
p.p. ka-a-nget). 
Come behind, let-u (pr. a-let-u, 
p.p. ka-a-let-u). 
Come by, for, to, $c, nyon-ji (pr. 

a-nyon-ji-ni, p.p. ka-a-nyon- 

Come from, pun-u (pr. a-pun-u, 

p.p. ka-a-pun-u). 
Come in, out, mang-u (pr. a- 
mong-u, p.p. ka-a-mang-u). 
Come in the morning, mus-u (pr. 
a-mus-u, p.p. ka-a-mus-u). 
Come near, inak-u (pr. a-'nok-u, 
p.p. ka-a-'nak-u). 

negit-yi (pr. a-negit-yi-ni, 
p.p. ka-a-negit-yi). 
Come round, alak-u (pr. a-alak-u, 

p.p. ka-alak-u). 
Come silently, sis-anu (pr. a-sis- 

anu, p.p. ka-a-sis-anu). 
Come upon (meet with), nyor-u 
(pr. a-nyor-u, p.p. ka-a-nyor-u). 
Come with (someone), ire-u (pr. 
a-'re-u, p.p. ka-a-'re-u). 
Comet, cheptapis (cheptapisiet), 
pi. cheptapisoi (cbeptapisok). 
kipsarur (kipsaruriet). 
Command, figat (pr. a-ngot-e, 

p.p. ka-a-ngat). 
Companion, chorua (choruet), 

pi. choronai (choronok). 
Company (of warriors), poror 
(pororiet), pi. pororos (pororos- 
(parish), sirit (siritiet), pi. sirit- 
ai (siritaiik). 
Complete, tukul. 
Comprehend, nai. (See irregu- 
lar verbs, pp. 223-4.) 
Conceal, uny (pr. a-uny-e, p.p. 

Conduct a person, imut (pr. 

a-'mut-i, p.p. ka-a-'mut). 
Conquer, ipel (pr. a-'pel-i, p.p. 
(win), lot (pr. a-lot-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Be too great a task for one, te- 
mene (pr. a-temene, p.p. ka-a- 
Consent, cham (pr. a-cbom-e, 
p.p. ka-a-cham). 



Consider, ipwat (pr. a-'pwot-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'pwat). 
kerer met. 
Construct, t6ch (pr. a-tSch-e. 

p.p. ka-a-tech). 
Consult, iruoch (pr. a-'ruoch-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'ruoch). 
Consultation, kiruog (kiruoget), 

pi. kiruogut (kiruogutik). 
Consultation place (large), kap- 
kiruog (kap-kiruoget), pi. kap- 
kiruogut (kap-kiruogutik). 
(small), kokwa (kokwet), pi. ko- 

kwan (kokwanik). 
(warriors'), kap-tui (kap-tuiet), 
pi. kap-tuion (kap-tuionik). 
Consume, am (pr. a-om-e, p.p. 
Consume by fire, pel (pr. a-pel-e, 
p.p. ka-a-pel). 
Contempt : 
Make a noise with one's mouth 
to show contempt, isony (pr. 
a-'sony-i, p.p. ka-a-'sony). 
Continue (stay at work, <$■<;.), 
peni (pr. a-peni-e, p.p. ka-a- 
(remain), tepi (pr. a-tepi-e, p.p. 
Contract (lessen), ingir-te (pr. 
a-'ngir-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-'ngir-te). 
(press together), kwilil (pr. a- 
kwilil-i, p.p. ka-a-kwilil). 
Cook, kaoin (kaoindet), pi. kaoi 

(v.), ioi (pr. a-'oi-i, p.p. ka-a- 

kwany (pr. a-kwany-e, p.p. 
Cook for, io-chi (pr. a-'o-chi-ni, 

p.p. ka-a-'o-chi). 
Cook with fat, isus (pr. a-'sus-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'sus). 
Boil, ikut-u (pr. a-'kut-u, p.p. 

Cooking-pot, ter. (See Pot.) 
Stones for resting a cooking-pot 
on, koiik-am-ma. 

Cool (persons), iur (pr. a-'ur-e, 
p.p. ka-a-'ur). 
(things), ema (pr. a-ema-i, p.p. 
(adj.), urot, pi. urotin. 
Copulate, kum (pr. a-kum-i, 

p.p. ka-a-kum). 
Cord, porowa (porowet), pi. 
poroon (poroonik). 
(used for building purposes), 
tingwa (tingwet). 
Cord of skin, anua (anuet), pi. 
anoi (anok). 
Eleusine, paiyua (paiyuat), pi. 

pai (pak). 
Indian corn, ipandia (ipandiat), 

pi. ipande (ipandek). 
Millet, mosongio (mosongiot), pi. 

mosong (mosongek). 
Seed grain, kesua (kesuot), pi. 

kesui (kesuek). 
Corn-stalk, mopcho (mopchot), pi. 
mop (mopek). 
Corner, tapan (tapanda), pi. 

tapanua (tapanuek). 
Corpse, musio (musiot), pi. 

musua (musuek). 
Cough, tungwo (tungwot), pi. 
tungwa (tungwek). 
(v.), lal(pr. a-lal-e, p.p.ka-a-lal). 
Counsellor, kiruogin. (See 

Count, iit(pr. a-'It-i, p.p.ka-a-'It). 
L., rar (pr. a-ror-e, p.p. ka-a- 

One who counts, koiltin (koiltin- 
det), pi. koiit (koiltik). 
Countenance, tokoch (toket), 

pi. tokoch (tokochik). 
Country, em (emet), pi. emotinua 

(district), kor (koret), pi. koro- 
tinua (korotinuek). 
Cousin (paternal), tupchet, pi. 

(maternal), weirit-ap- 
lakwet-ap-chepto ; imamet. 



Cover, tuch (pr. a-tuch-e, p.p. 

(shut), ker (pr. a-ker-e, p.p. ka- 

Lid, kereyuo (kereyuot), pi. kere 

Cow (any animal that has borne), 

iy u °g (iyuoget), pi. iyuog 

Coward, simba (simbet), pi. 

simboi (simbok). 
Cowardly, niokor, pi. uiokoren. 
To be cowardly, niokor-itu (pr. 

a-niokor, p.p. ka-a-niokor-itu). 
Cowry, sekerio (sekeriot), pi. 

seker (sekerek). 
Crab, kiplongon (kiplongonit), 

pi. kiplongonin (kiplongonlnik). 
Crawl, kuikuiot (pr. a-kuikuiot-i, 

p.p. ka-a-kuikuiot). 
Crease, aruny (pr. a-aruny-i, p.p. 

Crease for, <$•&, arung-ji (pr. 

a-arung-ji-ni, p.p. ka-arung-ji). 
Be creased, arung-ake (pr. a- 

arung-at, p.p. ka-arung-ake). 
Creep, kuikuiot (pr. a-kuikuiot-i, 

p.p. ka-a-kuikuiot). 
Creeping-thing, kuikui (kui- 

kuiet), pi. kuikui (kuikuiik). 
Cricket, keteria (keteriat), pi. 

keteren (keterenik). 
Cripple (m.), kimugung (kimu- 

gungit), pi. kimugufigin (kimu- 

(f.), ohemugung. 
Crocodile, tiBgofigo (tingofiget), 

pi. tingongoa (tingongosiek). 
Cross (a river), oi-iye (pr. o-oi- 

tos-i, p.p. ka-oi-iye). 

lan-de (pr. a-lon-doi-i, p.p. 

(a road), imrok (pr. a-imrok-e, 

p.p. ka-a-imrok). 
Crowd, tuiyo (tuiyot), pi. tuiyos 

Crumble (with two hands), pur 

(pr. a-pur-e, p.p. ka-a-pur). 

(with one hand), pirir (pr. a-pirir- 
i, p.p. ka-a-pirir). 
Crush, nyinyir (pr. a-nyinyir-i, 

p.p. ka-a-nyinyir). 
Cry, riro (riret), pi. riros (riros- 

(v.), rir (pr. a-rir-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Cry out with pain, ite (pr. a-'te-i, 
" p.p. ka-a-'te). 
Cultivate, ipat (pr. a-'pot-i, p.p. 

Cultivation (work of cultivating), 
kapato (kapatet), pi. kapatos 
(field), imbar (imbaret), pi. im- 
baren (imbarenik). 
Land out of cultivation, ur 

Be out of cultivation, ur (pr. a- 
ur-e, p.p. ka-a-ur). 
Cunning, figom, pi. figomen. 
To be cunning, ngom-itu (pr. 
a-ngom, p.p. ka-a-ngom-itu). 
Cup (men's), saiga (saiget), pi 
saigoi (saigok). 
(women's), mwendo (mwendet) 
pi. mwendos (mwendosiek). 

(v.), kul (pr. a-kul-e, p.p 

Cwp slightly, wat (pr. a-wat-e 
p.p. ka-a-wat). 
(bleed), kwer (pr. a-kwer-e, p.p. 
Cupper, kulin (kulindet), pi. kul 

Cupping-horn, lal (lalet), pi. 

laloi (lalok). 
Curdled milk, mursi (mursiik). 
Cure, isap (pr. a-'sop-i, p.p. ka- 

Be cured, sap (pr. a-sop-e, p.p. 
Current (of a stream), sororua 

Curse (abuse), chup (pr. a-chup-e, 
p.p. ka-a-chup). 



Custom, piiton (piitondo), pi. 

piitonua (piitonnek). 
Cut, til (pr. a-til-e, p.p. ka-a-til). 
(chop), ep (pr. a-ep-e, p.p. ka-a- 

(slash), iep (pr. oi-'ep-e, p.p. 

Cut for, til-chi (pr. a-til-chi-ni, 

p.p. ka-a-til-chi). 
Cut to shreds, tilatil (pr. a- 

tilatil-i, p.p. ka-a-tilatil). 
Cut up meat, firewood, Sfc, mur- 
mur (pr. a-murmur-i, p.p. ka-a- 

Cut off joints of meat, sach (pr. 

a-soch-e, p.p. ka-a-sach). 
Cut the skin (preparatory to 

shinning), kerer (pr. a-kerer-i, 

p.p. ka-a-kerer). 
Cut a piece off a skin or garment, 

rar (pr. a-ror-e, p.p. ka-a-rar). 
Cut to a point, lit (pr. a-lit-e, 

p.p. ka-a-lit). 
Cut corn-stalks, kes (pr. a-kes-e, 

p.p. ka-a-kes). 
Cut slightly, wat (pr. a-wot-e, 

p.p. ka-a-wat). 
Cut trees and undergrowth, tern 

(pr. a-tem-e, p.p. ka-a-tem). 
Cut branches off a tree, sabor (pr. 

a-sabor-i, p.p. ka-a-sabor). 

Daily, katukul ; kwekeny. 
Dam (a river), tokom (pr. a- 

tokom-i, p.p. ka-a-tokom). 
Damage, ngem (pr. a-ngem-e, 

p.p. ka-a-ngem). 
Dance, tien (tiendo), pi. tienwag 

(v.), tien (pr. a-tien-i, p.p. 
(j)lay) ureren (pr. a-ureren-i, p.p. 

Circumcision dances (men's), 
cheptile (cheptilet), pi. chep- 
tiles (cheptilesiek) ; aiyuo (ai- 
yuet) ; suiye (suiyet). 

(women's), kjpsergoi (kipser- 

goiit), pi. kipsergoiin (kipsergo- 
Old men's dance, sondoiyo (son- 
doiyet), pi. sondoiyos (sondoi- 

Warriors' dance, kambak (kam- 
bakta), pi. kambakvvag (kam- 
Dandy (m.),kipleleya (kipleleyat), 
pi. kiplelein (kiplelelnik). 
(f.), cbepleleya. 
Dare, kany (pr. a-kony-e, p.p. ka- 
Dare to ask for something, ita- 
ngany (pr. a-'toiigony-i, p.p. 
Dark, ap-tuindo. 
Darkness, tuin (tuindo). 
(no moon), mesundei (mesun- 
Darling, chaman (chamanet), pi. 

chaman (chamanik). 
Daub (plaster huts), mal (pr. 
a-mol-e, p.p. ka-a-mal). 
(oil), iil (pr. a-'il-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Daub clay or paint on the body, 
sir (pr. a-sir-e, p.p. ka-a-sir). 
Daughter, tie (chepto), pi. tipin 

lakwa (lakwet), pi. lakoi (la- 
Dawn, korirun (korirunet). 
Day, ekon (Ikonet), pi. Skones 
or Ikos (Ikonesiek or Ikosiek). 
All day, pet koimen. 
Another day, pesiet ake. 
One day, petun-ak ; petut-akenge. 
Daylight, pet (petut). 
Dazzle, HI (pr. a-lil-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Dead person (whose name must 
not be mentioned), kimaita (ki- 
Dead body, musio (musiot), pi. 
musua (musuek). 
Deaf (m.), kimiugat, pi. kimi- 




(f.), chemingat, pi. chemi- 

Dear, ui, pi. uen ; kim, pi. klmen. 
Death, myat (myat). 
Be near death, rik-te (pr. a-rik- 

toi-i, p.p. ka-a-rik-te). 
Debt, pesen(pesendo), pi. pesenua 

Decay, pul (pr. a-pul-e, p.p. ka- 

Decease, me. (See irregular 

verbs, pp. 224-5.) 
Deceive, iperiper (pr. a-'periper-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'periper). 
Decrease (act.), ingir-te (pr. a- 

'ngir-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-'ngir-te). 
(neut.), ngering-itu. (pr. a- 

ngering, p.p. ka-a-figering- 

Deep water, tolil (tolilet), pi. 

tolilon (tolilonik). 
Defend, rip (pr. a-rlp-e, p.p. ka- 

Deformed person, salua(saluet), 

pi. salus (salusiek). 

salomua (salomuet), pi. salo- 

mus (salomusiek). 
Delay (act.), ikaa (pr. a-'koo-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'kaa). 

(neut.), ikaa-ke (pr. a-'kaa-i- 

ke, p.p. ka-a-'kaa-ke). 
Delicacy (nice dish), kariseyuo 

(kariseyuot), pi. karise (karise- 

Give delicacies to a sick person, 

karis (pr. a-koris-i, p.p. ka-a- 

Demolish, iyei (pr. a-'yei-e, p.p. 


ngem (pr. a-ngem-i, p.p. ka- 

Den, kepen (kepenet), pi. kepenos 

Deny, ios-ie (pr. a-'os-tos-i, p.p. 


(argue), tii-ye (pr. a-tii-tos-i, 

p.p. ka-a-tii-ye). 

(refuse), esie (pr. a-esie-i, p.p. 
Depart, ui. (See irregular verbs, 
pp. 220-1.) 
(go out), man-de (pr. a-mon-doi-i, 
p.p. ka-a-man-de). 
Depart from me, is-te-ke eng- 
Deride (laugh at), rore-chi (pr. a- 
rore-chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-rore-chi). 
Descend (hither), chor-u-ke (pr. 
a-chor-u-ke, p.p. ka-a-chor-u- 
ke) ; rek-u. 
(thither), chor-te-ke (pr. a-chor- 
toi-i-ke, p.p. ka-a-chor-te-ke) ; 
Desert, pakak-te. (See Tor- 

met-te. (See Throw away.) 
Desert, kewo (kewet), pi. kewos 

Desire, mach (pr. a-moch-e, p.p. 

cham (pr. a-chom-e, p.p. ka- 
Despise, mon-de (pr. a-mon- 
doi-i, p.p. ka-a-mon-de). 
Destroy, ngem (pr. a-ngem-i, p.p. 
(break), iyei (pr. a-'yei-e, p.p. 
Detain (a person), ikaa (pr. a- 
'koo-i, p.p. ka-a-'kaa). 
(a thing), tep-te (pr. a-tep-toi-i, 
p.p. ka-a-tep-te). 
Deter, ete (pr. a-ete, p.p. ka-a-ete). 
Devil, musambwania (musam- 
bwaniat), pi. musambwan (rau- 
(spirit of deceased), oiin (oiindet), 

pi. oi (oiik). 
One-legged devil, chemos (chemo- 
Devise, ai-te (pr. o-oi-toi-i, p.p. 

Dew, rewo (rewot). 
Dewlap (oxen), takol (takolet), 
pi. takoles (takolesiek). 



Dewlap : 

{sheep or goats), lakop (lakopet), 
pi. lakopos (lakoposiek). 
Dialect, ngal (figalek). 
have Diarrhoea, kaiyuai (pr. 
a-koiyuoi-i, p.p. ka-a-kaiyuai). 
Person or animal that has diar- 
rhoea, kipor (kiporto). 
Die, me. (See irregular verbs, 
pp. 224-5.) 
(of an old man), ilil (pr. a-'lil-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'lil). 
Different, ake, pi. alak. 
Difficult, ui, pi. uen. 
Dig, pal (a-pol-e, p.p. ka-a-pal). 
(cultivate), ipat (pr. a-'pot-i, p.p. 

Dig out, pal-u (pr. a-pal-u, p.p. 

Dig easily (e.g. in light soil), 
pumbun (pr. a-pumbun-i, p.p. 
Digging-stick (large), kipturur 
(kiptururit), pi. kiptururin 
(small), maiyo (maiyat), pi. maen 

maipun (maipunit), pi. mai- 
punin (maipunlnik). 
Diminish (act.), ingir-te (pr. a- 
'ngir-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-'ngir-te). 

(neut.), figering-itu (pr. a- 

ngerifig, p.p. ka-a-ngering-itu). 

Dip, iroch (pr. a-'roch-i, p.p. ka- 


Dip thither, irok-te (pr. a-'rok- 

toi-i, p.p. ka-a-'rok-te). 

Dirt, sim (simdo), pi. simwag 

Disagree (make a noise), pol (pr. 
a-pol-e, p.p. ka-a-pol). 
(argue), tii-ye(pr. a-tii-tos-i, p.p. 
Disappear, ui. (See Go.) 
(of the moon), ilingan (pr. a- 
'lingon-i, p.p. ka-a-'lingan). 
Discuss, tii-ye (pr. a-tii-tos-i, p.p. 

Disease, mion. (See Illness.) 
Disembowel, undur (pr. a- 

undur-i, p.p. ka-a-undur). 
Dish, tapo (tapet), pi. tapoi 

Dish up (hitlier), pal-u (pr. a- 
pol-u, p.p. ka-a-pal-u). 
(thither), pal-de (pr. a-pol-doi-i, 
p.p. ka-a-pal-de). 
Dislike, sos (pr. a-sos-e, p.p. ka- 

reny (pr. a-reny-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Distribute, chwe (pr. a-chwe, 

p.p. ka-a-chwe). 
District, poror (pororiet), pi. 

pororos (pororosiek). 
Ditch, kering (keringet), pi. ke- 

ringon (keringonik). 
Dive, ilis (pr. a-'lis-i, p.p. ka-a- 

Divide, ipohe (pr. a-ipche, p.p. 

cbwe (pr. a-chwe, p.p. ka-a- 
Divine, ngor (pr. a-ngor-e, p.p. 

Do, ai (pr. o-oi-e, p.p. ka-ai). 
Do again, nyil (pr. a-nyil-e, p.p. 

Don't do it again I ias ! 
How shall I do it 1 o-lio-chi ni ? 
/ have done nothing, ma-ai-e kii. 
It is done (cooked), ka-ko-rur ; 

It is done (finished), ka-rok ; 

What shall I do 1 o-oi-e ni ? 
Doctor, kipkericho (kipkerichot), 
pi. kipkerichin (kipkerichinik). 
Dog, sese (seset), pi. eesen (se- 

Wild dog, suio (suiot), pi. sui 
Donkey, sigirio (sigiriet), pi. 

sigiroi (sigirok). 
Door, kurkat (kurket), pi. kurkot 




Door of cattle-fold, ormarlch 

(ormarlchet), pi. ormarlchoi 

Door of calves' house, soimo 

(soimout), pi. soimous (soimous- 

Front door of a house, kurket- 

Back door of a house, kurket- 

Door opening into bach part of 

house, ngotie (ngotieut), pi. 

rigotieus (ngotieusiek). 
Door plank, musere (musereta), 

pi. musereua (musereuek). 
Door-post, tukatuk (tukatuk- 

chet), pi. tukatuk (tukatukik). 
Door-post of cattle-fold, ikenio 

(ikeniot), pi. iken (ikenik). 
Wickerwork door, irpa (irpet), 

pi. irpoi (irpok). 
Gate of field, kisirua (kisiruet), 

pi. kisiron (kisironik). 
Doze, pir-te met. 
Drag, Draw, ichut (pr. a-'chut-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'chut). 
Draw out (e.g. string, entrails), 

mrnlr (pr. a-nlrnlr-i, p.p. ka-a- 


Draw water, sil p£k ; ram pek. 
Dread, iyue (pr. a-'yue-i, p.p. 

Dream, iruoti-te (pr. a-'ruoti- 

toi-i, p.p. ka-a-'ruoti-te). 
Dress, ingor (ingoriet), pi. in- 

gorai (ingoraiik). 
(v.), ilach (pr. a-'loch-i, p.p. 

Drink, ie (pr. oi-'e, p.p. ka-a-'e). 
Drink milk, lu (pr. a-lu-e, p.p. 

Give to drink, inak-e (pr. a- 

'nok-i, p.p. ka-a-'nak-e). 
Drink greedily, ikuikuch (pr. a- 

'kuikucli-i, p.p. ka-a-'kuikuch). 
Drinking-place for cattle, tapar 

(taparta), pi. taparuag (tapar- 
Drip {hither), sa-u (pr. a-sa-u, 
p.p. ka-a-sa-u). 
(thither), sa-te (pr. a-sa-toi-i, p.p. 

Let drip, isa-u ; isa-te. 
Drive (as a shepherd), iak-e (pr. 
a-'ok-i, p.p. ka-'ak-e). 
Drive cattle or goats home, irot 

(pr. a-'rot-i, p.p. ka-a-'rot). 
Drive cattle or goats home and 
separate the herds, kwe (pr. a- 
kwe, p.p. ka-a-kwe). 
Drive away, oon (pr. a-oon-e, 
p.p. ka-a-oon). 
(of several things), iuriet (pr. a- 

'uriet-i, p.p. ka-a-'uriet). 
Push away, och (pr. a-och-e, 
p.p. ka-a-och). 
Drop, soiitoi-pek (water); soiitoi- 
cheko (milk) ; &c. 

(v. act.),wir-te (pr. a-wir-toi-i, 
p.p. ka-a-wir-te). 
(throw), met-te (pr. a-met-toi-i, 
p.p. ka-a-met-te). 

(v. neut.), iput (pr. a-'put-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'put). 
(fall in drops), sa-u (pr. a-sa-u, 
p.p. ka-a-sa-u). 
Drown, me em-pek ; me-chi pek. 
(sink), lis (pr. a-lis-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Drum, sukut (sukutit), pi. su- 
kutin (sukutinik). 
Friction drum, keto (see Barrel) ; 
ngetuny (see Lion) ; cheplanga 
(see Leopard), 
be Drunk, pokit (pr. a-pokit-i, 

p.p. ka-a-pokit). 
Drunkard, kipokitio (kipokitiot), 
pi. kipokitin (kipokitinik). 
Drunkard or a drunken crowd, 
kimaiyo (kimaiyot), pi. kimaiin 
Dry (neut.), yam (pr. a-yom-e, 
p.p. ka-a-yam). 




(act.), iyam (pr. a-'y° m -i> P-P- 
Put out to dry, ma (pr. a-mo-e, 

p.p. ka-a-ma). 
Become dry or hard (of fat), kor 
(pr. a-kor-e, p.p. ka-a-kor). 
Dry, yamat, pi. yamotin. 
Dry thing, kiptam (kiptamit). 
Drying-place for grain, saina 

(sainet), pi. sainoi (sainok). 
Dumb (m.), kimotuek, pi. kimo- 
(f.), chemotuek. 
Dung (cattle), Sgatatia (ngata- 
tiat), pi. ngotot (ngototek). 
(goats or sheep), soroiyo (soroi- 
yot), pi. soroi (soroiek). 
Dunghill, kap-ngotot (kap-ngo- 

Dust, terit (tertit). 

temburio (temburiot), pi. 
tembur (temburiek). 
Dwarf, chiito lie-mining. 
Dwell, tepi (pr. a-tepi-e, p.p. 

Dwelling-place, atep (atepet), 
pi. atepos (ateposiek). 

Each, tukul. 

Ear, iit (iitit), pi. iitin (iitlk). 
Ear-ring. (See Ring.) 
Grass inserted in top part of ear, 

solio (soliot), pi. sol (solik). 
Ear of corn, iitlt-ap-pak or iitit- 
am-mosongek, &c. 
Early, korirun. 

Earth, em (emet), pi. emotinua 
(world, universe), kia (Met), pi. 

kias (kiasiek). 
(sand), figuSgtmya (ngungunyat), 
pi. ngunguny (ngungunyek). 
Ease oneself, pi (pr. a-pi-e, p.p. 

Easy, wesis, pi. wisisin. 
To do easily or quickly, chok- 

Eat, am (pr. a-om-e, p.p. ka-am). 
Eat with someone, am-de (pr. 

a-om-doi-i, p.p. ka-am-de). 
Be eaten or eatable, am-ake» 
Have eaten enough, piiy-e (pr. 
a-piiy-onyi, p.p. ka-a-piiy-e). 
Overeat oneself uiren (pr. a- 
uiren-i, p.p. ka-a-uiren). 
Educate, inet (pr. a-'net-i, p.p. 

Egg, koii. (See Stone.) 
make an Effort, inet-ke kut. 
Eight, sisiit. 

Eighteen, taman ok sisiit. 
Eighth, ap-sisiit. 
Eighty, tomonuagik sisiit. 
Either ... or, annan. 
Elbow, kutung (kutunda), pi. 
kutungwa (kutuiigwek). 
Elder (old man), poiyo (poiyot), 

pi. poiisio (poiisiek). 
Elder or Eldest, oo, pi. echen. 
Elephant, pelio (peliot), pi. pel 

Eleusine grain, paiyua (paiy uat), 
pi. pai (pak). 
(stalks of), mopcho (mopcbot), 
pi. mop (mopek). 
Eleven, taman ak akenge. 
Elsewhere, olt'ake. 
Embrace, toroch (pr. a-toroch-i, 

p.p. ka-a-toroch). 
Employment, poiisio (poiisiet), 

pi. poiision (poiisionik). 
Empty (adj.), puch, pi. puch. 
(v.), tar-te (pr. a-tor-toi-i, p.p. 
(spill), tum-de (pr. a-tum-doi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-tum-de). 
Pour from one receptacle into 
another, rang-de (pr. a-rorig- 
doi-i, p.p. ka-a-rafig-de). 
Enclosure, figotua (figotuet), pi. 
figotonoi (figotonok). 

toi (toot), pi. toos (toosiek). 
(for cattle), sipaiya (sipaiyat), 
pi. sipaien (sipaieuik). 



End (the after part), let (letut), 

pi. letus (letusiek). 

Endof a journey, letut-ap-panda. 

It is finished, ka-ko-pek ; ka-ko- 


Enemy, punyo (punyot), pi. pun 

Enigma, tangoch (tangochet), pi. 

tongoch (tongochik). 
Enjoy, ikas-ke (pr. a-'kos-i-ke, 

p.p. ka-a-'kas-ke). 
Enlarge, iet (oi-'et-i, p.p. ka-a- 
(increase), tes (pr. a-tes-e, p.p. 
be Enough, yam (pr. a-yam-e, 
p.p. ka-a-yam). 
Have enough food, piiy-e (pr. 
a-piiy-onyi, p.p. ka-a-piiy-e). 
Enquire, tepe (pr. a-tepe, p.p. 

Ensnare, tech (pr. a-tech-e, p.p. 

Enter (hither), mang-u (pr. a- 
mofig-u, p.p. ka-a-mang-u). 
(thither), man-de (pr. a-mon-doi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-man-de). 
Enter a hole, chut (pr. a-chut-e, 

p.p. ka-a-chut). 
Enter without leaving a trace be- 
hind, ikes-chi-ke (pr. a-'kes-chi- 
ni-ke, p.p. ka-a-'kes-chi-ke). 
Entirely, mlsing ; kwe-keny. 
Entrail, akutan (akutaniet), pi. 
akutan (akutanik). 

kipsegetet (kipsegetetit), pi. 
kipsegetetoi (kipsegetetok). 
Entreat, som (pr. a-som-e, p.p. 

Equal (in standing or in age), 

ap-ipinda akenge. 
be Equal to, ioiechin-e (pr. a-'oie- 
chin-dos-i, p.p. M-'oiechin-e). 
Be equal to an undertaking, dec, 
imuch (pr. a-'much-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Be a match for, ikany (pr. a- 
'kony-e, p.p. ka-a-'kany). 

Ergot (horny spur of an ox), se- 

geiyo (segeiyot), pi. segei (se- 

Err (make a mistake), lei (pr. a- 

lel-e, p.p. ka-a-lel). 
(miss), ichilil (pr. a-'chilil-i, p.p. 

Error, kachililo (kachililet). 
Escape, chilil (pr. a-chilil-e, p.p. 

(run away), lapat (pr. a-lopot-i, 

p.p. ka-a-lapat). 
(of many people), c-rua (pr. ki- 

rua-i, p.p. ka-ki-rua). 
Escort (accompany), iomis (pr. 

a-'omis-i, p.p. ka-a-'omis). 
European, Asungio (Asungiot), 

pi. Asungu (Asunguk). 
(woman), chemuginginzue (' cut 

at the waist '). 
Even, akut. 

Even I, akut ane. 
Evening, koskoling (koskoli- 

ngut) ; imen (imenet) ; koi- 

Ever, kwe-keny. 

For ever, akut keny. 
Every, tukul. 
Every man, chii tukul. 
Everywhere, olto tukul ; ola 

tukul ; oii tukul. 
Every time I go, or whenever I 

go, oii tukul ya-a-wendi. 
Evil, ya, pi. yaach. 
Evil eye, sakutin (sakutindet), 

pi. sakut (sakutik). 
Exceed, sir-te. (See Pass by.) 
Except, nem-u (pr. a-nem-u, p.p. 

Exchange, wal (pr. a-wol-e, p.p. 

Excrement (human), pie (piek). 
Expect, iken (pr. a-'ken-i, p.p. 

Expel, oon (pr. a-oon-e, p.p. ka- 

Explain, mwo-chi (pr. a-mwo- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-mwo-chi). 



Explode, pet-ak-e (pr. a-p§t-at, 

p.p. ka-a-p§t-ak-e). 
Explode in the fire with a great 

noise, tiol (pr. a-tiol-i, p.p. ka- 

Extinguish (the fire), par (mat); 

pakach (mat). 
Four water on the fire, tis (pr. 

a-tis-e, p.p. ka-a-tis). 
To go out, me. (See irregular 

verbs, pp. 224-5.) 
Eye, kong (konda), pi. konyan 

Loss of an eye or one-eyed (m.), 

kipkongak; (f.), chepkongak. 
Put something (e. g. a finger) in 

the eye, chul (pr. a-chul-e, p.p. 

Eyebrow or eyelash, kororik- 


Fable, kapchemosin (kapchemos- 

Face, tokoch (toket), pi. tokoch 

Faint, tanui (pr. a-tonui, p.p. ka- 

Fall, kaputo (kaputet). 

(v.), iput (pr. a-'put-i, p.p. ka- 
Fall down with something, ipu- 
ite (pr. a-'put-itoi-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Fall into, on to, &c, iput-yi (pr. 
a-'put-yi-ni, p.p. ka-a-'put- 


Make to fall, throw down, wir-te 

(pr. a-wir-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-wir- 

Fall from a tree or into a hole, 

rorok-chi (pr. a-rorok-chi-ni, 

p.p. ka-a-rorok-cM). 
Fall like rain, robon (pr. a- 

robon-i, p.p. ka-a-robon). 
Tree falling by itself, lul (pr. a- 

lul-e, p.p. ka-a-lul). 
To fell trees, ilul (pr. a-'lul-i, p.p. 


Fall sick, mian (pr. a-mion-i, 
p.p. ka-a-mian). 
Falsehood, lembech (lembechet), 

pi. lembech (lembechek). 
Family, or. (See Road.) 
Husband's family, kap-katun. 
Wife's family, kap-yukoi. 
Famine, rub (rubet), pi. ruboa 

Fan, kipkaliang(kipkaliafigit), pi. 
kipkaliafigis (kipkaliangisiek). 
us (uset), pi. uso (usosiek). 
(v.), us (pr. a-us-e, p.p. ka-a-us). 
Far or far off, loo. 
Fast, mlban, pi. mlban. 
Fasten, rat (pr. a-rot-e, p.p. ka- 
Fasten feathers on to an arrow, 
tar (pr. a-tar-e, p.p. ka-a-tar). 
Fat, mwai (mwaita), pi. mwan 
Fat used and thrown away, ma- 

mitia (mamitiat). 
Fat person, nero (neret), pi. neros 

(adj.), nyikis, pi. nyikisen ; ne- 
rat, pi. nerotin. 
To be fat, akwai-itu (pr. a-akwai, 
p.p. ka-akwai-itu). 

ner (pr. a-ner-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Fatten, iDer (pr. a-'ner-e, p.p. ka- 

Get fat, nerak-e (pr. a-ner-at, p.p. 
Father, kwan (kwanda), pi. akut- 
kwan (akut-kwanda or akut- 
Own father (child talking), papa, 
pi. akut-papa. 

(man talking), apoiyo, pi. 

(woman talking), pakwa, pi. 


Thy father, kon (konut), pi. akut- 

kon (akut-konut or akut-konu- 


So-and-so's father, k wamba anum. 





{woman's), pamongo (pamonget). 

Own father-in-law (man talking), 


(woman talking), pamongo. 

be Fatigued, nget (pr. a-figet-e, 

p.p. ka-a-nget). 
Fault, kachililo (kachililet), pi. 

kachililos (kachililosiek). 
Favourite, chaman (chamanet), 

pi. chaman (chamanik). 
Fear, nyokorio (nyokoriet). 

(v.), iyne (pr. a-'yue-i, p.p. ka- 
Feast day, kambak. (See War- 
riors' Dance.) 
Feather, kororia (kororiet), pi. 
yuot), koror (kororik). 
Feather of arrow, tareyuo (tare- 
yuot, pi. tare (tareyuek). 
Ostrich feather, songolia (songol- 
iet), pi. songol (songolik). 

(v.), tar (pr. a-tar-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Be feathered, tar-ak-e (pr. a-tar- 

at, p.p. ka-a-tar-ak-e). 
Feeble person, choriren (chori- 
renet),pl. choriren (chorirenik). 
Be feeble, nyelnyel-itu (pr. a- 
nyelnyel, p.p. ka-a-nyelnyel- 
Feed cattle (act.), iak-e (pr. 
a-'ok-i, p.p. ka-'ak-e). 

(neut.), ak-et-e (pr. a-ak-et-i, 
p.p. ka-ak-et-e). 
Feed a child, pai (pr. a-poi-e, 
p.p. ka-a-pai). 
Feeder, koiokin. (See Herds- 
Feel, kas (pr. a-kos-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Feel one's way (e.g. in the dark), 
sapsap (pr. a-sopsop-i, p.p. ka- 
Fell (trees), ilul (pr. a-'lul-i, p.p. 

Female (human beings), korko 

(korket), pi. korusio (koru- 
(animals), koko (koket), pi. ko- 
kon (kokonik). 
One that has borne, iyuog (iyuog- 
et), pi. iyuog (iyuogik). 
One that bears frequently, mise- 
kutio (rnisekutiot), pi. misekut 
One that bears rarely, oilio 

(o'iliot), pi. oil (oilik). 
One that does not bear, son. (See 
Immature female, suben (suben- 
do), pi. subenwa (subenwek). 

(adj.), chepaike, pi. chepai- 
Fence, ngotua. (See Enclosure.) 
Fence in, ngot (pr. a-ngot-e, p.p. 

Ferry, tapar (taparta), pi. tapar- 

uag (taparuagik). 
Ferry over (neut.), oi-iye (pr. 
o-oi-tos-i, p.p. ka-oi-iye). 
(hither), laiig-u (pr. a-laiig-u, p.p. 

(thither), lan-de (pr. a-lon-doi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-lan-de). 
(act.), ilang-u; ilan-de. 
Fetch, ip-u (pr. a-ip-u, p.p. ka- 

Few, che-ngering. 
Field, imbar (imbaret), pi. im- 
baren (imbarenik). 
Field in which nothing has been 
sown, kapatut (kapatut), pi. 
kapatut (kapatutik). 
Field that has been harvested, roi 
(roret), pi. rorotinua (rorc- 
Fierce, korom, pi. koromen. 
Fifteen, taman ak mut. 
Fifth, ap-mut. 
Fifty, onom. 

Fight, porio (poriet), pi. porios 

(v.), o-pir-ke (pr. ki-pir-i-ke, 
p.p. ka-ki-pir-ke). 



Fight with someone, por-ie (pr. 

a-por-tos-i, p.p. ka-a-por-ie). 
Cause to fight with some one, 
iul-ie (pr. a-'ul-dos-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Fill, inylt (pr. a-'nyit-i, p.p. ka- 

(become full), nyi (pr. a-nyi-e, p.p. 
(abound with), nyltat (pr. a- 
nyltat, p.p. ka-a-nyltat). 
Fill in (a hole), tim (pr. a-tim-e, 
p.p. ka-a-tim). 
Fill with food, ipiiy-e(pr. a-'piiy- 

onye, p.p. ka-a-'piiy-e). 
To be full, to have had enough to 
eat, piiy-e (pr. a-piiy-onyi, p.p. 
Filth, sim (simdo), pi. simuag 

be Filthy, tinye simdo. 
Find, iro. (See irregular verbs, 
p. 224.) 

sich (pr. a-sich-e, p.p. ka-a- 

nyor-u (pr. a-nyor-u, p.p. ka- 
Find out a crime, kin (pr. a- 

kin-e, p.p. ka-a-kin). 
Person who finds out a crime, 
kinen (kinendet), pi. kin (kin- 
Fine, kararan. (See Beautiful.) 
Fine for a murder, tuk'-am- 
He has paid a fine for a murder, 
ka-ko->pas tuk'-am-met. 
Finger, morna (mornet), pi. mo- 
rin (morik). 
Thumb, momet ne-oo. 
Middle finger, mornet-ap-kwen. 
Little finger, chepkildo (chepkil- 
Finish (act.), poroch (pr. a- 
poroch-i, p.p. ka-a-poroch). 

tar (pr. a-tar-e, p.p. ka-a- 

kes-u (pr. a-kes-u, p.p. ka-a- 

iwong-u (pr. a-'wong-u, p.p. 
(neut.), rok (pr. a-rok-e, p.p. ka- 

pek-u (pr. a-pek-u, p.p. ka- 

pit-u (pr. a-pit-u, p.p. ka-a- 
Fire, ma (mat), pi. mostinua 
Firewood, kwendo (kwendet), pi. 
kwen (kwenik). 

Twigs for firewood, sikorio (si- 
koriot), pi. sikor (sikorik). 
Stones on which to set a pot over 

the fire, koiik-am-ma. 
Bonfire, sacred fire, korosio (ko- 

rosiot), pi. koros (korosek). 
Place where bonfire is made, kap- 

Set on fire, in-de mat ; ilal. 
Make fire by the use of fire-sticks, 

parpar mat. 
Ajyply fire to, pel (pr. a-pel-e, 

p.p. ka-a-pel). 
Fire a gun, mwog mat (pr. a- 
mwog-e mat, p.p. ka-a-mwog 
Fire-stick, pion (pionet), pi. pion 

First, tae ; ko-rok ; nepo-met ; 
First of all, isi. 

/ shall go first of all, isi a-wend-i. 
To go first, indo'i (pr. a-'ndo'i-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'ndo'i). 
Fish, injirio (injiriot), pi. injiren 

Fist, lukut (lukutiet), pi. lukut 

Five, mut. 

Fix, kwilil (pr. a-kwilil-i, p.p. 
Fix the eyes upon, ichil-chi konda. 
Flay, eny (pr. a-eny-e, p.p. ka-a- 



Flea, kimitia (kimitiat), pi. kimit 

Flee, lapat (pr. a-lopot-i, p.p. ka- 

Flesh, peny (pendo), pi. pany 

Fling, met-te (pr. a-met-toi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-met-te). 
Fling hither, met-u (pr. a-met-u, 

p.p. ka-a-met-u). 
Flog, pir (pr. a-pir-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Floor, ingoiny (ingoinyut), pi. 

ingoinyus (ingoinyusiek). 
Flour, pusio (pusiek). 
Sand or earth resembling flour, 

lump of flour mixed with water, 

pusia (pusiat). 
Flow (of water), root (pr. a-root- 

e, p.p. ka-a-root). 
Flower, tapta (taptet), pi. taptoi 

Fluently, raising. 
Fly, kaliang (kaliafiget), pi. 

kaliafig (kaliangik). 
Gad-fly, sokorio (sokoriet), pi. 

sokor (sokorik). 
Midge, kipcharkarario (kipchar- 

karariet), pi. kipcharkarar 

(v.), toriren (pr. a-toriren-i, 

p.p. ka-a-toriren). 
Fly away, sakuren (pr. a- 

sukuxen-i, p.p. ka-a-sakuren). 
Foam, puka (pukat). 
Fog, kipurienge (kipurienget). 
Fold, arungut (arungutiet), pi. 

arungut (arungutik). 
Cattle-fold, pe (peut), pi. peus 

(v.), aruny (pr. a-aruny-i, p.p. 

Foliage, soko (sokot), pi. sok 

Follow, isup (pr. a-'sup-i, p.p. 

Follower, kasupin (kasupindet), 

pi. kasup (kasupik). 

Food, omit (omdit), pi. oraituag 

Fool, aposan (aposanet), pi. 
aposart (aposanik). 
You are a fool, pet-in met or 
mi-tiny e met. 
Foot, kel (keldo), pi. kelien 
Pad, mukung (mukunget), pi. 

mukungon (mukungonik). 
Sole of the foot, kel-tepea (kel- 
tepesiet), pi. kel-tepesoi (kel- 
Arch of the foot, mukuleld'-ap- 

Heel, muk'-ap-ker. 
Footprint, marandu (marandut), 
pi. marandus (marandusiek). 

on (kerengonik). 

kel (keldo), pi. kelien (keliek). 
For (conj.), amu ne; amu kalia. 
(prep.), efig. For is generally 
expressed by the use of the 
applied form of the verb. 
(in the place of), olt'-ap. 
Forbid, ete (pr. a-ete, p.p. ka-a- 

Force, kowo. (See Bone.) 
Ford, tapar (taparta), pi. tapar- 

uag (taparuagik). 
Foreigner, too (toot or toondet), 

pi. toi (toiek). 
Forest, tim (timdo), pi. timua 

Forge, kap-kitany (kap-kitanyit). 
Forge iron, itany (pr. a-'tony-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'tany). 
Forget, utie (pr. a-utie, p.p. ka- 
Don't forget, me-utie. 
Fork (agricultural implement), 
kipkarich (kipkarichet), pi. 
kipkarichai (kipkarichaiik). 
Former, ap-ole-kinye ; ap-ko- 

rok ; ap-keny. 
Formerly, kinye ; ole-kinye ; 




Forsake, pakak-te (pr. a-pokok- 

toi-i, p.p. ka-a-pakak-te). 
L., pakach (pr. a-pokocli-i, 

p.p. ka-a-pakach). 
Port, irim (irimet), pi. iiimon 

(cave), kering (keringet), pi. 

keringon (keringonik). 
Forth, saang. 
To go forth, man-de (pr. a-mon- 

doi-i, p.p. ka-a-man-de). 
Forty, artam. 
Forward, tae. 

To go forward, ui tae. 
Four, aiigwan. 

Fourteen, taman ak angwan. 
Fourth, ap-angwan. 
Free, itiach. (See Loose.) 
Free man, chii-ap-ka ; cliii-pa- 

Frequently, fikosiek che-chang. 
Fresh, tuon, pi. tuonen. 
Fresh water, p6k che-koitit. 
Friend, chorua (choruet), pi. 

choronai (choronok). 
Friend! (salutation), Poiyonddn- 

ni ! {old man) ; Murenon-ni ! 

(warrior) ; Weir-i ! (boy). 
Be on friendly terms with, kalian 

(pr. a-kolion-i, p.p. ka-a-ka- 

Frighten, iyue-chi (pr. a-'yue- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-'yue-chi). 
Frog, mororoch (mororochet), pi. 

mororoch (mororochik). 
From. From is generally ex- 
pressed by the use of the forms 

denoting motion from, or by the 

preposition eng. 
Since, akut keny. 
From noiv on, akoi tun. 
From here to there, nette yu ok 

Front, tae (taeta), pi. toiua 

Froth, pukaa (pukaandet) ; puka 

Frown, siriny toket. 

Fruit, different hinds of: — 

Vangueria edulis, kimolua(kimo- 

luet), pi. kimolon (kimolonik). 

Ximenia Americana, lamaiya 

(lamaiyat), pi. lamai (lamaiek). 

Ficus sp., mokoiyo (mokoiyot), 

pi. mokoi (mokoiek). 

Fry, isus (pr. a-'sus-i, p.p. ka-a- 

Fugitive, lapatin (lapatindet), 

pi. lapot (lapotik). 
Fun, urerio (ureriet). 
Further, ko-keny. 
Further on, tae. 

Gait, pan (panda), pi. ponua 

Gallop, lapat (pr. a-lopot-i, p.p. 

Game, urerio (ureriet). 
Gape, tangurur (pr. a-tangurur-i, 

p.p. ka-a-tangurur). 
Garment (of shin), ingor (ingor- 
iet), pi. ingorai (ingoraiik). 
(of cloth), anga (anget), pi. angas 

(worn by old men, made of hyrax, 
antelope or monkey skin), sambu 
(sambut), pi. sambun (sam- 

(made of goat-skin), sumat 
(sumet), pi. sumot (sumotik). 
(worn by warriors, to cover the 
shoulders), kipoia (kipoiet), pi. 
kipooi (kipook). 
(apron worn by warriors), 
koroiisi (koroiisit), pi. koroiisin 

L., ngoiisi (ngoiisit), pi. ngoii- 
sin (ngoiislnik). 
(worn by women, to cover the 
upper limbs), koliko (koliket), 
kolikai (kolikaiik). 

(to cover the lower limbs), 
chepkawi (chepkawit), pi. chep- 
kawis (chepkawisiek). 
(worn by girls to comer the shoul- 
ders), ingoriet-ap-ko. 



Garment : 

{apron worn by girls), osio 

(women's wedding garment), 
kiskis (kiskisto), pi. kiskisua 
Gate, kisirua. (See Door.) 
Gather, put (pr. a-put-e, p.p. 

kes (pr. a-kes-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Gather together (act.), ium (pr. 
a-'um-i, p.p. ka-a-'um). 

(neut.), ium-ke (pr. a-'um-i- 
ke, p.p. ka-a-'um-ke). 
Generation, ipin. (See Age.) 
Gentle, wesis, pi. wisisin. 
Gently, mutio. 

Geographical division, poror 

(pororiet), pi. pororos (poror- 


Get, sich (pr. a-sieh-e, p.p. ka-a- 


Get better, get well, sap (pr. a- 

sop-e, p.p. ka-a-sap). 
Get drunk, pokit (pr. a-pokit-i, 

p.p. ka-a-pokit). 
Get dry, yam (pr. a-yom-e, p.p. 

Get for, sik-chi (pr. a-sik-chi-ni, 
p.p. ka-a-sik-cbi). 
Get goods on credit, pesen (pr. a- 

pesen-i, p.p. ka-a-pesen). 
Get into, chut (pr. a-chut-e, p.p. 
Get out, man-de (pr. a-mon-doi-i, 
p.p. ka-a-man-de). 
Get out of the way, is-te-ke (pr. 
a-is-toi-i-ke, p.p. ka-is-te-ke). 
Get palm-wine, par porokek. 
Get ripe, rur (pr. a-rur-e, p.p. 
Get up (rise), figet (pr. a-nget-e, 

p.p. ka-a-figet). 
Get up or upon, lany (pr. a-lony-i, 
p.p. ka-a-lany). 
Ghost, oiin (oiindet), pi. oi (oiik). 
(shadow of people), tomirimir 

(tomirimiriet), pi. tomirimirai 
(shadow of things), urua (uruet), 
pi. uruondoi (uruondok). 
be Giddy, u met. 
/ am giddy, ka-u-a met. 
Person made giddy by turning 
round, cheptombirir (cheptom- 
biririet), pi. cheptombiriroi 
Gift, melek(melekto), pl.melekua 

Giraffe, ingotio (ingotiot), pi. 

ingotin (ingotlnik). 
Girl, tie (chepto), pi. tlpin (tiplk). 
cheplemia (cheplemiat), pi. 
clieplemin (cheplemlnik). 
melia(meliat),pl. mel (melik). 
(uncircumcised), somnyo (som- 
nyot), pi. some (somek). 
Give, nem-u (pr. a-nem-u, p.p. 
Give to, ikochi. (See irregular 

verbs, pp. 222-3.) 
Give back, iwech (pr. a-'wech-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'wech). 
Give to eat to, pai (pr. a-poi-e, 

p.]>. ka-a-pai). 
Give trouble, iim (pr. a-'im-i, p.p. 
Glance, wir-te konda. 
Gleam, lil (pr. a-lil-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Glide, icbapaii-te (pr. a-'chapoii- 

toi-i, p.p. ka-a-'ckapaii-te). 
Glutton, kipkeya (kipkeyat), pi. 

kipkein (kipkemik). 
Gnaw (meat), iigeny (pr. a-Kgeny-e, 
p.p. ka-a-figeny). 
(vegetables), figom (pr. a-ngom-e, 
p.p. ka-a-figom). 
Go, ui. (See irregular verbs, 

pp. 220-1.) 
(follow), isup (pr. a-'sup-i, p.p. 

Go alone (without help), we-chi- 
ke (pr. a-we-chi-ni-ke, p.p. ka- 




Go away from, pakak-te (pr. a- 

pokok-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-pakak-te). 

Go away in the morning, mus-te 

(pr. a-mus-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-mus- 


Go back, ket-u-ke (pr. a-ket-u-ke, 

p.p. ka-a-ket-u-ke). 
Go backward, we-e patai. 
Go bad, pul (pr. a-pul-e, p.p. ka- 
Go before, indo'i (pr. a-'ndoi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'ndo'i). 
Go behind {follow), isup let. 
Go by, sir-te (pr. a-sir-toi-i, p.p. 
Go down, chor-te-ke (pr. a-chor- 
toi-i-ke, p.p. ka-a-chor-te-ke). 
Go for a walk, wend-ote (pr. a- 
wend-oti, p.p. ka-a-wend-ote). 
Go in place of, we-chi (pr. a-wc- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-we-chi). 
Go into, mang-u (pr. a-mafig-u, 

p.p. ka-a-mang-u). 
Go 2awie,ingwal-ate(pr. a-'ngwol- 

oti, p.p. ka-a-'ngwal-ate). 
Go near, inak-te (pr. a-'nok-toi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'nak-te). 
Go out, man-de (pr. a-mon-doi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-man-de) ; {like afire), 

me. (See irregular verbs, 

pp. 224-5.) 
Go over, across, lan-de (pr. a- 

lon-doi-i, p.p. ka-a-lan-de). 
Go past, sir-te (pr. a-sir-toi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-sir-te). 
Go round, imut (pr. a-'mut-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'mut). 
Go running, ui lapat. 
Go silently, sis-ate (pr. a-sis-oti, 

p.p. ka-a-sis-ate). 
Go through, chut (pr. a-chut-e, 

p.p. ka-a-chut). 
Go to meet someone, torok-te (pr. 

a-torok-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-torok- 

Go to the devil I ror-chi ket. 
Go to war, set luket. 

Go up, lany (pr. a-lony-i, p.p. 

Go up and down, ingir-te (pr. 

a-'ngir-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-'iigir-te). 
Go up higher, itoch (pr. a-'toch-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'toch). 
Goat, figoror (figororiet), pi. 

ngoror (ngororek). 

ara (artet), pi. no (neiko). 
Kid, aruwa (aruwet), pi. are 


Young she-goat, suben (subendo), 

pi. subenua (subenuek). 
She-goat that lias borne, iyuog 

(iyuoget), pi. iyuog (iyuogik). 
He-goat, kwe (kwesta), pi. kwes 

Castrated goat, tesiim (tesiimiet), 

pi. tesiim (tesiimik). 
God, Asis. (See Sun.) 
Godfather or godmother, mo- 

terio (moteriot), pi. moteren 

Going, pan (panda), pi. ponua 

Good, mie, pi. miach. 

To be good, mie-itu (pr. a-mie, 

p.p. ka-a-mie-itu). 

irifig-se (pr. a-'ring-se-i, p.p. 


Bo one good, iis (pr. a-'is-i, p.p. 


Make good (strong), iweit (pr. 

a-Veit-i, p.p. ka-a-'weit). 

Make good (sweet), ianyiny (pr. 
a-'anyiny, p.p. ka-'anyiny). 
Good-bye, saisere. 

Say good-bye, ikat saisere. 
Goodness, mieno (mienot). 
Gourd, sot. (See Calabash.) 
Granary, choke (choket), pi. 
choken (chokenik). 

The space underneath a granary, 
Grandchild, machakoro (macha- 
koret), pi. machakoron (macha- 
Grandfather, ingug (inguget). 



Grandfather : 

Own grandfatlier, agwi, pi. akut- 
Grandmother, ingog (ingog- 
Own grandmother, koko, pi. an- 
Grasp, nam (pr. a-nom-e, p.p. 

Grass, susuo (susuot), pi. susua 
Burnt grass, ngemia (ngemiat), 

pi. ngem (ngemik). 
Place on which grass has been 
burnt, ivvas (iwasto). 
lalua (laluet). 
Place on which new grass has 
grown, malel (maleliet). 
Grasshopper, talamwa (talam- 
wat), pi. talam (talamwek). 
Different kinds of grass- 
hoppers : — 
chemonjorua (chemonjoruet), 
pi. chemonjoroi (chemonjorok). 

kimekwan (kimekwanit), pi. 
kimekwanin (kimekwanlnik). 

cheptoldol (cheptoldoliet), pi. 
cheptoldoloi (cheptoldolok). 

chemundu (cheniundut), pi. 
chemundun (chemundunik). 

chemoliog (chemolioget), pi. 
chemoliogoi (chemoliogok). 

cheptomoto (cheptomotet), pi. 
cheptomoton (cheptomotonik). 

tangwerer (tangwereriet), pi. 
tangwerer (tangwererik). 

chepuka (chepukat), pi. che- 
pukas (chepukasiek). 

cheptany (cheptanyit), pi. 
cheptanyin (cheptanyinik). 

cheptirtir (cneptirtiriet), pi. 
cheptirtirai (cheptirtiraiik). 
Gratis, puck. 
Grazing ground, limo (llmet), 

pi. limos (llmosiek). 
Grease, mwai (mwaita), pi. 
mwan (mwanik). 
Grease-pot, chepkirau (chep- 

kiraut), pi. chepkiraun (ohep- 
Great, oo, pi. echen. 
To be great, oo-itu (pr. a-oo, p.p. 
Great age, oin (oindo). 
Greedy person, kipkeya (kip- 
keyat), pi. kipkein (kipkemik). 
Greet, ikat (pr. a-'kot-i, p.p. 

toroch (pr. a-torock-i, p.p. 
Grey hair, kalualia (kalualiat), 

pi. kalual (kalualek). 
Grieve, arogen (pr. a-arogen-e, 

p.p. ka-arogen). 
Grime {on a pot), nesek (ap- 

Grind, nga (pr. a-ngo-i, p.p. ka- 
Grind coarsely, pak-te (pr. a- 
pok-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-pak-te). 
Grind the teeth, nye kelek. 
Grindstone, koiit'-ap-pai. 
Groan, tiken (pr. a-tiken-i, p.p. 

Groin, palia (paliet), pi. palioi 

Grope, sapsap (pr. a-sopsop-i, 

p.p. ka-a-sapsap). 
Ground, kor (koret), pi. koro- 

tinua (korotinuek). 
Grow (of persons and animals), 
et-u (pr. a-et-u, p.p. ka-a-et-u). 
(of plants), pit (pr. a-plt-e, p.p. 

Sprout (of plants), kun-u (pr. 
a-kun-u, p.p. ka-a-kun-u). 

siek-u (pr. a-siek-u, p.p. ka- 
Shoot (as plants), ifigat (pr. a- 

'ngot-i, p.p. ka-a-'ngat). 
Grow fat, ner (pr. a-ner-e, p.p. 

Grow thin, sagit (pr. a-sogit-i, 
p.p. ka-a-sagit). 
Growl, moror (pr. a-moror-i, p.p. 



Grub of bee or wasp, aruwa 

(aruwet), pi. are (arek). 
Gruel, musar (musarek). 

Cook gruel, chul musarek. 
Guard, ripin (rlpindet), pi. rip 

kakunin (kakunindet), pi. 
kakun (kakunik). 

(v.), rip (pr. a-rlp-e, p.p. ka- 

ikun (pr. a-'kun-i, p.p. ka-a- 
(cover), tuch (pr. a-tuch-e, p.p. 

Guard yourself/ Look out ! Take 
care ! Eip-ke ! 
Guess, figor (pr. a-ngor-e, p.p. 

Guide, kaparun (kaparundet). 
segein. (See Soldier.) 
(v.), ipor-chi. 
(show the way), ipor-chi oret. 
Gullet, siin (siindo), pi. siinua 

Gum (of the teeth), pend'-ap- 
(of babies or toothless old men), 

mununua (mununuet). 
(of trees), kipit (kipitiet), pi. 
kipitoi (kipitok). 
Gum arabic, manga (manget), 

pi. mangoi (mangok). 
Gun, ma. (See Fire.) 
Gun without ammunition, kip- 
tuli (kiptulit), pi. kiptulia (kip- 
Gunpowder, pusaiu (pusaruk). 
Gut, akutan (akutaniet), pi. aku- 
tan (akutanik). 

Haft (of sword, axe, <J-c), kun- 

yuk (kungit), pi. kunyuk (kun- 

(of spear), iruma (irumet), pi. 

irumai (irumaiik). 
Haggle (over a price), kim (pr. 

a-klm-e, p.p. ka-a-kim). 

Hail, koiiyo (koiiyot), pi. koiin 
(v.), robon koiin. 
Hair, sumeyo (sumeyot), pi. sume 
Hair of the beard, kororik-ap- 

Hair of the eyebrows, kororik-ap- 

Hair of the armpits, kororik-ap- 

Hair of the pubes, kororik-ap- 

Band for binding vnrrior's hair, 

When a girl has lost her elder 
brother or sister, it is cus- 
tomary to leave on the head 
a ridge of hair called — son- 
gonyo (songonyet), pi. songony- 
ai (songonyaiik). 
Half, matua (matuet), pi. matuas 
portion), kipeperia (kipeperiat), 

pi. kipeperua (kipeperuek). 
Halt (rest), imuny (pr. a-'muny-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'muny). 
(stand), tonon (pr. a-tonon-i, p.p. 
(put down burdens), itu (pr. a- 
'tu-i, p.p. ka-a-'tu). 
Hammer, kirisua (kirisuet), pi. 

kirison (kirisonik). 
Hand, e (eut), pi. eun (eunek). 
Palm of the hand, rubei (rubeito), 
pi. rubeiuag (rubeiuagik). 
Handle, kunyuk (kungit), pi. 
kunyuk (kunyukik). 
Handle of Iioe, kikoro (kikoret), 

pi. kikores (kikoresiek). 
Handle of knife, ketit-ap-rotuet. 
Handsome, kararan, pl.kororon. 
Hang, ikartat (pr. a-'kortot-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'kartat). 
(strangle), iket (pr. a-'ket-i, p.p. 
Harass, iim (pr. a-'im-i, p.p. ka- 



Hard, ui, pi. uen. 
To make hard, iweit (pr. a- 
'weit-i, p.p. ka-a-'weit). 
To run hard, ngwek mising. 
Hare, kiplengwa (kiplengwet), 

pi. kiplengonoi (kiplengonok). 
Haste, chokchino (chokchinet). 
Hasten, chok-chi (pr. a-chok- 
chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-chok-chi). 

girgir (pr. a-girgir-i, p.p. 
Hasten hither, cliok-u (pr. a- 

chok-u, p.p. ka-a-chok-u). 
Hasten thither, chok-te (pr. a- 
chok-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-chok-te). 
Hatch, ikeny (pr. a-'keny-i, p.p. 

Hatchet, mor (morut), pi. morus 

Hate, wech (pr. a-wech-e, p.p. 

Have, tinye (pr. a-tinye, p.p. 

He, inendet ; ine. 
Head, met (metit), pi. metoa 
Be smooth-headed, kuluny met. 
Head-dress : 
(worn by girls), ngishelio (ngi- 
sheliot), pi. ngisheli (ngishelik). 
(worn by boys who have been 
recently circumcised), kimarang- 
uch (kimaranguchet), pi. kimor- 
anguchai (kimoranguchaiik). 
(worn by girls who have been 
recently circumcised), soiyuo 
(soiyuet), pi. soon (soonik). 
(worn by old men), chepkule 
(chepkulet), pi. chepkules 
(worn by brides), Dario (nariet), 

pi. narioi (nariok). 
Head-dress of ostrich feathers 
(warriors'), sombe (sombet), pi. 
sombenut (sombenutik). 
Head-dress of lion-skin (war- 
riors'), kutua (kutuet), pi. kuto- 
noi (kutonok). 

Head-dress of ox-hide(warriors'), 

eur (eurto), pi. eurua (euruek). 

Heal, isap (pr. a-'sop-i, p.p. ka- 

Health, sapon(sapondo); chamet- 
ap-ke; uio (uiet) ; uin (uindo). 
Be in good health, cham-ke (pr. 
a-cham-i-ke, p.p. ka-a-cham-ke). 
Healthy, mukul, pi. mukulen. 
Heap, kaumut (kaumutiet), pi. 
kaumut (kaumutik). 

karurukut (karurukutiet),pl. 
karurukut (karurukutik). 
Heap up,iruruch (pr.a-'ruruch-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'ruruch). 
(collect), ium (pr. a-'um-i, p.p. 
Hear, kas (pr. a-kos-e, p.p. ka- 

Heart, mukulel (mukuleldo), pi. 

mukulelua (mukuleluek). 
Heat, ilalany (pr. a-'lolony-i, p.p. 
To get hot, sich mat. 
To be hot, lalang-itu (pr. a-lalang, 
p.p. ka-a-lalang-itu). 
Heaven, parak (parakut) ; tororo 
(tororot) ; em-polik (in the 
Heavy, nyikis, pi. nyikisiu. 
Hedge, iigotua (ngotuet), pi. ngo- 
tonoi (figotonok). 
Hedge round cattle enclosure, 
sipaiya (sipaiyat), pi. sipaien 
Make a hedge, ngot (pr. a-Bgot-e, 
p.p. ka-a-figot). 
Heel, muk'-ap-kor. 
Heifer, ror (rorta), pi. rorua 

rarewa (rarewat). 
Help, imung-ji (pr. a-'mung-ji-ni, 
p.p. ka-a-'muHg-ji). 

toret (pr. a-toret-i, p.p. ka- 
Hen, ingok (ingokiet), pi. ingok- 

ai (ingokaiik). 
Her, inendet ; ine. 




(poss.), nyi, pi. chik. 
hers (used absolutely), nenyi, pi. 
Herb, ingua (inguot), pi. ingui 

Herd (of cattle), akwot (akwet), 

pi. akwotis (akwotisiek). 
Herd cattle, iak-e. (See Feed.) 
Herdsman, mistoa (mistoat), pi. 
mistoe (mistoek). 

koiokin (koiokindet), pi. 
koiok (koiokik). 
Here, yu ; oli. 
He is here, mi-i ; mi-te yu. 
/ am here, ane yu. 
Here and there, yu ok yun. 
Hero, kiruk. (See Bull.) 
Hiccough (v. imp.), iket. 
I have hiccoughs, ki-iket-o. 
(of children), riech (pr. a-riech-e, 
p.p. ka-a-riech). 
Hide (ox), mui (muito), pi. muiua 
Piece of ox-hide, iririo (iririot), 

pi. iriren (irirenik). 
Strip of ox-hide, anua (anuet), pi. 

anoi (anok). 
Strip of dressed ox-hide, iugiriren 
(ingirirenet), pi. ingiriren (in- 
Goat-hide, makata (makatet), pi. 
makatai (makataiik). 
Strip of goat-hide, tapsien (tapsi- 
enet), pi. tapsienai (tapsienai- 
Hide, uny (pr. a-uny-e, p.p. 

High, koi, pi. koiin. 
Hill, legem (legemet), pi. legem- 
os (legemosiek). 

tulua (tuluet), pi. tuluoudoi 
Hilt,kunyuk (kungit), pi. kunyuk 

Him, inendet; ine. 
Hinder, rany (pr. a-rony-i, p.p. 

Hip, ingorai (ingoraiet), pi. ingo- 

raiin (ingorailnik). 
Hippopotamus, makas (makas- 
ta), pi. makasua (makasuek). 
L., makai (makaita), pi. mokoi 
His (poss.), nyi, pi. chik. 
(uEed absolutely), nenyi, pi. che- 
Hit, pir (pr. a-pir-e, p.p. ka-a-pir). 
(with a spear or arrow), mwog 
(pr. a-mwog-e, p.p. ka-a-mwog). 
Hither, yu ; akui yu. 

Hither is generally expressed 
by the form of the verb denoting 
motion towards. 
Hither and thither, yu ok yun. 
Hitherto, akut nguni. 
Hock (of animals), kowet-ap- 

Hoe, mokombe (mokombet), pi. 

mokombai (mokombaiik). 
Hoist, ichut (pr. a-'chut-i, p.p. 
(lift), sut (pr. a-sut-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Hold, nam (pr. a-nom-e, p.p. ka- 
Hold something in the open hand, 
irop (pr. a-'rop-i, p.p. ka-a-'rop). 
Hold something in the closed 
hand, mumut (pr. a-mumut-i, 
p.p. ka-a-mumut). 
Hole, kong (konda), pi. koiigin 
Hole in the earth, kering (ke- 
ringet), pi. keringon (keringon- 
Hole in the upper part of the ear, 
Hollow (in tree), pondo (pondet). 

pi. pondai (pondaiik). 
Home (man talking), kain-nyo, 
kain-ngung, &c. (at my house, 
at thy house, <$■<;.). 

(woman or child talking), 
koin-nyo, ko'in-nguiig, &c. 
Home-stayer, kiptep (kiptepit). 



Honey, kumia (kumiat), pi. 
kumin (kumik). 
Honey-barrel, moing (moinget), 

pi. moingon (moingonik). 
Honey-comb, masamia (masam- 

iat), pi. masam (masamek). 
Honey-comb (with honey in it), 

pok (pokiet), pi. p6k (pokik). 
Honey-wine, kipketin (kipketln- 
Honour, konyit (konyit). 

(v.), ikocbi konyit. 
Hoof, siiya (siiyet), pi. sioi (siok). 
Hoof of young oxen or goats, 
putul (putuldo), pi. putulua 
Hope, tak (followed by the sub- 
/ hope I shall be able to go, tak 
a-moch a-wa. 
Horn, kuina (kuinet), pi. kuinai 

lal (lalet), pi. laloi (lalok). 
Hornet, kiprorog (kiproroget), 

pi. kiprorogin (kiproroginik). 
Horse, olbartany (olbartanyit), 
pi. olbartanyis (olbartanyisiek). 
Hot, am-ma (am-mat). 
To be hot, lalang-itu (pr. a-lalafig, 
p.p. ka-a-lalafig-itu). 
/ am hot, ka-a-lalafig-itu or 
ko-'figet-yi-o kaotik. 
House {man speaking), ka (kaita), 
pi. korin (korik). 
(woman speaking), ko (kot), pi. 
korin (korik). 

Kaita when used in con- 
junction with the genitive 
becomes kdp. 

Kot when used in conjunction 
with the genitive becomes kop 
or kot-ap. 
Part of house occupied by people, 
koiima (koiimaut), pi. koiimaus 
Part of house occupied by sheep 
and goats, injor (injorut), pi. 
injorus (injorusiek). 

Milk compartment, kaplengu 
(kaplengut), pi. kaplengun 
In front of the house, serem 
(seremut), pi. seremus (serem- 

Warriors' house, sigiroin (sigi- 
roinet), pi. sigiroinos (sigiroin- 
Club-house, kait'-am-murenik. 
Stone house, kopokoii (kopo- 

Dwelling-house, kap-sat, pi. 

House in cattle-kraal, chepki- 
malia (chepkimaliat), pi. chep- 
kimalin (chepkimalinik). 
Live in a house, meny (pr. a- 
meny-i, p.p. ka-a-meny). 
How, ne; ni. 
How are you ? I-cham-i-ke t 
How often 1 kosakta ata 1 inyil' 

How much ? how many ? ata 1 
However, ako; ako-i. 
Human, ap-chii. 
Hump (of an ox), uk (ukta), pi. 

ukwa (ukwek). 
Humpback, mulua (muluet), pi. 

mulondoi (mulondok). 
Hundred, pokol. 
Hunger, rub (rubet), pi. rubos 
/ am hungry, am-a rubet. 
Hunt (act.), mwog (pr. a-mwog-e, 
p.p. ka-a-mwog). 

logotin (pr. a-logotin-i, p.p. 

(neut.), mwog-se (pr. a-mwog- 
se-i, p.p. ka-a-mwog-se). 
Hunter, kiplogotio (kiplogotiot), 

pi. kiplogotin (kiplogotlnik). 
Hurry, chokchino (chokchinet). 
(v.), chok-chi (pr. a-chok-chi- 
ni, p.p. ka-a-chok-chi). 
Hurt (v. imp.), am. (See 

Husband, manofigotio (manong- 



Husband : 

otiot), pi. manongot (manoiig- 
Husband's brother after husband's 
death, kipkondii (kipkondiit), 
pi. kipkondiin (kipkondilnik). 
Husk, morio (moriot), pi. mor 

(v.), ipony (pr. a-'pony-i, p.p. 
Hut. (See House.) 
Hut in the corn fields, kerio 

(keriet), pi. kerion (kerionik). 
Hut in lohich warriors eat meat, 
ekor (ekorto), pi. ekorua (ekor- 
Boys' circumcision hut, menjo 
(menjet), pi. menjos (menjos- 
Hyena, kiniaket (kimaketyet), 
pi. kimaketoi (kimaketok). 
lei (lelda), pi. lelua (leluek). 
K., apei (apeiet), pi. apeioi 
Hyrax, kipkoris (kipkorisiet), 
pi. kipkorisoi (kipkorisok). 

I, ane. 

Idle person, choriren (choriren- 

et), pi. choriren (chorirenik). 
If, ingo-ngo, etc. (See p. 196.) 
Ignorance, periperio (periper- 

Ignorant, periper, pi. peripeien. 
be 111, mian (pi. a-mion-e, p.p. 
Be very ill, nylt-ak-e (pr. a-nylt- 

at, p.p. ka-a-nylt-ak-e). 
Be nearly dead, rum-ok-e (pr. a- 
rum-ot, p.p. ka-a-rum-ok-e). 
Illness, mion (miondo), pi. mion- 
wag (mionwagik). 
The names of some illnesses are 
given in the following list : — 
Abscess, m6 (moet), pi. mooi 

Boil, undir (undiriet), pi. undir 

Catarrh (cold), tungwa (tufig- 

Chicken-pox, kapimperu (ka- 

Dropsy, puras (purasta). 

Dysentery, chelole (cheloleit). 

Gonorrhoea, kipnonog (kipnonog- 

Heartburn, kalut (kalut). 

Liver or spleen complaints, nga- 
sat (ngasatet). 

Lung complaints, chepuon (che- 

Malaria, es (eset). 

Mumps, lupan (lupanik). 

Pimples, tigoi (tigoiik). 

(itch), koiicha (koiichat), pi. 
koiich (koiichek). 
(rash), ingosen (ingosenik). 

Rheumatism, mokongio(mokong- 

(lumbago), cherapuny (cherap- 

Small-pox, konjurio (konjuriot). 
L., chesirun (chesirunik). 

Sore throat, kipkamog (kipka- 

Swelling of the neck, terit (tertit). 

Syphilis, takan (takanet). 

Ulcer, chepsergech (chepserge- 

The people of Kapwaren suffer 
from a disease which is charac- 
terized by a hardening of the 
skin and a swelling of the tes- 
ticles. This disease the Nandi 
call temer (temerik), and the 
Luinbwa sarsar (sarsariek). It 
is said to be caused by the 
bite of a fly which is known as 
Ill-treat, inyalil (pr. a-'nyolil-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'nyalil). 
Imitate, ile. (See irregular verbs, 

p. 225.) 
Immature, mining, pi. mingech. 
Immediately, nguni ; nguni- 



Immerse, ills (pr. a-'lis-i, p.p. 

Implore, som (pr. a-som-e, p.p. 

Imprecate against, iosie-cki 
(pr. a-'osie-chi-ni, p.p. ka-'osie- 
In, efig. 
In front, tae. 
In order that, si (followed by the 

In place of, olt'-ap. 
In the middle, kwen. 
In the morning, korirmi. 
In the evening, koiraen. 
Incline (act.), ifiguruch (pr. a- 
'nguruch-i, p.p. ka-a-'nguruch). 
(neut.), iSguruk-e (pr. a-'figu- 
ruk-at, p.p. ka-a-'figuruk-e). 
Increase, tes (pr. a-tes-e, p.p. 

Indeed, po-many. 
Inform, mwo-chi (pr. a-niwo- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-mwo-chi). 
Information, figolio (ngoliot), 
pi. figal (Sgalek). 

lokoiyo (lokoiyot), pi. lokoi- 
yua (lokoiyuek). 
Inhabit, tepi (pr. a-tepi-e, p.p. 

Insect, kut (kutiet), pi. kut (kut- 

Inside, oriit. 

He is inside, mi-i oriit. 
Instantly, nguui; nguni-to. 
Instruct, inet (pr. a-'net-i, p.p. 

Insult, chupisio (chupisiet). 

(v.) chup (pr. a-chup-e, p.p. 

Use insulting language to, tach 
(pr. a-toch-e, p.p. ka-a-tach). 
Inter, tup (pr. a-tup-e, p.p. ka- 

Intercede for, som-chi (pr. a- 
som-chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-som-chi). 
Intercept, rany (pr. a-rony-i, 
p.p. ka-a-rany). 

Interrupt (when speaking), til 

Intestines, mootinua (mootin- 

Small intestine, akutan (akutan- 

Large intestine, pe (peut). 
become Intoxicated, pokit (pr. 

a-p6kit-i, p.p. ka-a-pokit). 
Investigate (a crime), kin (pr. 

a-kni-e, p.p. ka-a-kin). 
Iron, karna (karnet), pi. karin 

Iron ore, ngoriamu (figoriamuk). 
Refuse of iron-ore, tapungen 

Irritate, tach (pr. a-toch-e, p.p. 

Issue from, pun-u (pr. a-pun-u, 

p.p. ka-a-pun-u). 
It, inendet; ine. 
Itch, koiicha (koiichat), pi. koiich 

(v.), iutut (pr. a-'utut-i, p.p. 

Its (poss.), nyi, pi. chik. 
(used absolutely), nenyi, pi. che- 

Ivory, kelda (keldet), pi. kelat 


Jackal, lelua (leluot), pi. lelue 

Jar, ter. (See Pot.) 
Men's water-jar, faiga (saiget), 

pi. saigoi (saigok). 

Women's water -jar, mwendo 

(mwendet), pi. mwendoi (mwen- 

Jaw, takilkil (takilkiliet), pi. ta- 

kilkil (takilkilik). 
Jealous person, lomin (lomin- 

det), pi. loin (lomik). 
Jigger, kut. (See Insect.) 
Join, rop (pr. a-rop-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Join with, itui-e (pr. a-'tui-tos-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'tui-e). 



Joining together, tuio. (See 

Joint, mongwa (mongwet), pi. 

mongwos (mongwosiek). 
Journey, pan (panda), pi. ponua 


rutoi (rutoito), pi. rutoiua 

Tivo days' journey, pancl'-ap- 

§kosiek oiefig. 
Joy, kakaso (kakaset). 
Jugular vein, kep (kepet), pi. 

kepon (keponik). 
Open the jugular vein of animals 

after death, un (pr. a-un-i, p.p. 

Juice, pei. (See Water.) 
Juicy, tinye plk ; ap-p§k. 
Jump, toromben (pr. a-toromben- 

i, p.p. ka-a-toromben). 
Jump over something, sir (pr. 

a-sir-e, p.p. ka-a-sir). 

Keep, konor (pr. a-konor-i, p.p. 
{guard), rip (pr. a-rlp-e, p.p. ka- 

{hold), nam (pr. a-nom-e, p.p. 
Kick, itiar (pr. a-'tiar-i, p.p. ka- 
Kick frequently or violently, 
itiartiar (pr. a-'tiartiar-i, p.p. 
Kid, arawa (aruwet), pi. are 

Kidney, soromya (soromyet), pi. 

soromoi (soromok). 
Kill, par (pr. a-por-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Kill a Nandi, rum (pr. a-rum-e, 

p.p. ka-a-rum). 
Kill by slashing with a sword, iep 

(pr. oi-'ep-e, p.p. ka-a-'ep). 
Kill by stabbing, tor (pr. a-tor-e, 

p.p. ka-a-tor). 
KM for, por-chi (pr. a-por-chi- 
ni, p.p. ka-a-por-chi). 

Kill for food, eny (pr. a-eny-e, 

p.p. ka-a-eny). 
Kill with, par-e (pr. a-por-e, p.p. 

Give a coup de grdce, pakach 
(pr. a-pokocli-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Kind, mie, pi. miach. 
Kindle, inam (pr. a-'nom-i, p.p. 

ilal (pr. a-'lol-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Kiss, ngutut (pr. a-ngutut-i, p.p. 

Kitchen {cooking-place), kap- 

Knead, imoi (pr. a-'moi-i, p.p. 

Knee, kutung (kutunda), pi. 
kutungwa (kutungwek). 

The rectus femoris muscle, kipser 
(kipserit), pi. kipseris (kipseris- 
Kneel, kutuny (pr. a-kutuuy-i, 

p.p. ka-a-kutuny). 
Knife, chepkeswai (chepkeswet), 
pi. chepkesoi (chepkesok). 
{large), rotua (rotuet), pi. rotoi 

{used for tapping palms), kesimor 
(kesimoret), pi. kesimoros (kesi- 
{used for butchering cattle), cham- 
bolua (chamboluet), pi. chambo- 
los (chambolosiek). 
Boys' circumcision knife, kipos 
(kiposit),pl. kiposin(kiposlnik). 
Girls' circumcision knife, mwatin 
(mwatindet), pi. mwat (mwatik). 
Knit {the brows), ingusuk toket. 
Knock {tap), ikonggony (pr. a- 
'koiiggony-i, p.p. ka-a-'kong- 
{strike), pir (pr. a-pir-e, p.p. ka- 

Knock down, tu-i (pr. a-tu-e,p.p. 



Knock : 

Seize a person in order to knock 

him down, ingir (pr. a-'iagir-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'ngir). 
Knot, ukut (ukutiet), pi. ukut 

(v.), uch (pr. a-uch-e, p.p. ka- 

Know, nai. (See irregular verbs, 

pp. 223-4.) 
{recognize), inyit (pr. a-'nyit-e, 

p.p. ka-a-'nyit). 
I don't know whether he will like 

it, Tos ! chani-e. 
Knowing, ngom, pi. ngomen. 
Kraal, ka or ko. (See House.) 
Cluster of huts, nganasa (ngana- 

set), pi. nganasoi (nganasok). 
Deserted kraal, kipkupere (kip- 

kuperet), pi. kipkuperai (kip- 

Site of former kraal, karatia 

(karaita), pl.karatua(karatuek). 
Cattle-kraal on the grazing 

grounds, kap-tich (kap-tugut), 

pi. kap-tugun (kap-tugunik). 
Cattle-kraal near the dwelling 

huts, pe (peut), pi. peus (peus- 


Labour, poiisio (poiisiet), pi. 
poiision (poiisionik). 
To labour at birth, temel (pr. a- 
temel-i, p.p. ka-a-temel). 
Lake, nianja (nianjet), pi. nianjas 

be Lame, ingwal (pr. a-'ngwol-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'ngwal). 
Walk lame thither, ingwal-ate 
(pr. a-'ngwal-oti, p.p. ka-a- 

Walk lame hither, ingwal-anu 
(pr. a-'ngwal-anu, p.p. ka-a- 
Land (country), em (emet), pi. 
emotinua (emotinuek). 
{district, soil), kor (koret), pi. 
korotinua (korotinuek). 

Language, ngal (ngalek). 
Insulting language, chupisio 
Lap, kupes (kupesto). 
Put in one's lap, tiny (pr. a- 
tiny-i, p.p. ka-a-tiny). 
Large, oo, pi. echen. 
Last, nepo-let; ole-poch. 

At last, let. 
be Late, ek-chi (pr. oi-ek-chi- 

ni, p.p. koi-ek-chi). 
Lately, ya-kinye. 
Laugh, rorio (roriet). 

(v.), rori (pr. a-rori-e, p.p. ka- 
Laugh at, rore-chi (pr. a-rore- 
chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-rore-chi). 
Lay, konor (pr. a-konor-i, p.p. 
Lay eggs, kolok (pr. a-kolok-i, 

p.p. ka-a-kolok). 
Lay hold of, nam (pr. a-nom-e, 

p.p. ka-a-nam). 
Lay open, Sgany (pr. a-ngony-i, 

p.p. ka-a-ngany). 
Lay {something) on its back, 
itarSgany (pr. a-'tarngony-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'tarSgany). 
Lay out, iit-te (pr. oi-'it-toi-i, 

p.p. ka-'it-te). 
Lay upon, in-de (pr. a-'n-doi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'n-de). 
Lay a wager, irot-ie (pr. a-'rot- 
tos-i, p.p. ka-a-'rot-te). 
be Lazy, eku ckoriren. 
Lead {show), iaror-cki (pr. a- 
'aror-chi-ni, p.p. ka-'aror-chi). 
{take a person), imut (pr. a- 
'mut-i, p.p. ka-a-'mut). 
Leader, kamutin (kamutindet), 

pi. kamut (kamutik). 
Leaf, soko (sokot or sokondet), pi. 

sok (sokek). 
Leak, pun (pr. a-pun-e, p.p. ka- 
The house leaks, robon-u kot. 
become Lean, sagit(pr.a-sogit-i, 
p.p. ka-a-sagit). 



Lean : 

Make lean, isagit (pr. a-'sogit-e, 
p.p. ka-a-'sagit). 
Lean against, itur (pr. a-'tur-i, 

p. j). ka-a-'tur). 
Lean upon, ti (pr. a-ti-e, p.p. 
Lean upon a staff, tepen (pr. a- 
tepen-i, p.p. ka-a-tepen). 
Leap, toromben (pr. a-toromben-i, 

p.p. ka-a-toromben). 
Learn, inet-ke (pr. a-'n6t-i-ke, 

p.p. ka-a-'net-ke) 
Leather {ox-hide), mui (muito), 
pi. muiua (muiuek). 
{goatskin), makata (makatet), 
pi. niakatai (makataiik). 
Leave {go away), man-de (pr. a- 
mon-doi-i, p.p. ka-a-man-de). 
{come away), mafig-u (pr. a- 

mong-u, p.p. ka-a-mang-u). 
{leave alone), pakak-te (pr. a- 
pokok-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-pakak-te). 
L., pakach (pr. a-pokoch-i, 
p.p. ka-a-pakaeh). 
{leave aZo««/or),pokok-chi (pr. a- 
pokok-chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-pokok- 
{tlvrow away), lak-te (pr. a-lak- 
toi-i, p.p. ka-a-lak-te). 

met-te (pr. a-met-toi-i, p.p. 
{let go), un-de (pr. a-un-doi-i, 
p.p. ka-a-un-de). 
Leave it alone ! Let go I pakak- 
te ! un-de ! 
Be left, ngit-u (pr. a-ngit-u, p.p. 
Give leave, chani-chi ; ikochi 

Take leave of, ikat (pr. a-'kot-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'kat). 

Leave a piece when cutting off 

something, ituch (pr. a-'tuch-i, 

13. p. ka-a-'tuch). 

Leech, pinyiny (pinyinyet), pi. 

pinyiny (pinyinyik). 
Left {Jiand, §c), ap-katani. 

Leg, kel (keldo), pi. kelien 

kereng (kerenget), pi. ke- 
rengon (kerengonik). 
One-legged per son (m.), kipkelok, 

(f.), cliepkelok. 
Calf of leg, ai (aita), pi. a'isai 

Shin, korok (korokta), pi. korok- 
wa (korokwek). 

Thigh, kupes (kupesto), pi. 
kupesua (kupesuek). 
Fore-leg, kus (kusto), pi. kusua 

Hind-leg, chat (chatit), pi. chatin 
Legend, kapchemosin (kapche- 

Leglet {warriors' , worn below 
the knee), mungen (mungeniet), 
pi. mungen (mungenik). 

marikeho (marikcbot), pi. 
marik (marikik). 
{ivarriors', worn above the knee), 
kipkurkur (kipkurkuriet), pi. 
kipkurkurai (kipkurkuraiik). 
{girls'), tapakwa (tapakwet), pi. 
tapakwon (tapakwonik). 
{of brass wire), tae (taet), pi. 
taoi (taok). 
have Leisure, para-itu (pr. a- 

para, p.p. ka-a-para-itu). 
Length, koiin (koiindo). 
Lengthen, ikoiit (pr. a-'koiit-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'koiit). 
Leopard, cheplanga (cheplanget), 
pi. cheplangoi (cheplangok). 
L. and K., melil (melildo), pi. 
melilua (meliluek). 
Lessen, ingir-te(pr. a-'ngir-toi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'ngir-te). 

Let {leave alone), pakak-te (pr. a- 

pokok-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-pakak-te). 

{allow), cham-chi ; ikochi panda. 

Level (a gun or spear) at, ngat 

(pr. a-ngot-e, p.p. ka-a-figat). 
Lick, mel (pr. a-mel-e, p.p. ka- 



Lid, kereyuo (kereyuot), pi. kere, 
Lid of honey-barrel, kelengeyuo 
(kelengeyuot), pi. kelenge 
Lie (falsehood), lembech (lembe- 
chet), pi. lembech (lembechek). 
(v.), ken-u (pr. a-ken-u, p.p. 

chombil (pr. a-chombil-i, p.p. 
Lie down, ru (pr. a-ru-e, p.p. 
Lie across, imrok (pr. a-imrok-e, 

p.p. ka-a-imrok). 
Lie on the top of, siep (pr. a- 

siep-e, p.p. ka-a-siep). 
Lie on the bach, siep patai. 
Lift, sut (pr. a-sut-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Lift up, keleny (pr. a-keleny-i, 

p.p. ka-a-keleny). 
Lift up and look underneath, 
ngany (pr. a-ngony-e, p.p. ka- 
Light {not dark), lei, pi. lelach. 
(not heavy), wesis, pi. wisisin. 
Light (a fire), ilal (pr. a-'lol-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'lai). 
Commence to be light, irir (pr. 
a-'rir-i, p.p. ka-a-'rir). 
Lightning, koliel (kolielet). 
Like, cham. (See Love.) 
Like (as), kuu ; ile ; kuu 'le ; 
nette ; te. 
Do like this I ai ile ! 
Make it like this, ai-te nette ni. 
be Like, uu (pr. a-uu-e, p.p. 

Liken, ioiechin-e (pr. a-'oiechin- 

dos-i, p.p. ka-'oiechin-e). 
Line, ropo (ropet). 
Line down the back of a beast, 
urer (ureryet), pi. urer (urerik). 
Linger, ikaa-ke (pr. a-'kaa-i-ke, 

p.p. ka-a-'kaa-ke). 
Lion, ngetuny (ngetundo), pi. 
ngetuny (ngetunyik). 

Lip, iririot-ap-kutit. 
Listen, kas (pr. a-kos-e, p.p. ka- 
iep-chi iit. 
Little, mining, pi. mingech. 
A Utile (of one thing), kite- 
Bring a little meat, ip-u pendo 

A little (of several things), to- 
tegin. Bring a little water, 
ip-u plk totegin. 
Little by little, a little at a time, 
kitegin-kitegin . 
Live, tepi (pr. a-tepi-e, p.p. ka- 
Be alive, sap (pr. a-sop-e, p.p. 

Live in a house, meny (pr. a- 
meny-e, p.p. ka-a-meny). 
Liver, koi (koito), pi. koiwag 

Lizard (house-lizard), cheringis 
(cheringisiet), pi. cheringisai 
(tree-lizard), chepenet (chepe- 
netiet), pi. chepenetin (chepe- 
Locust, cherefigen (cherengen- 
det), pi. cherengenyen (chere- 
Cloud of locusts, kiperefigen (kip- 
ereBgendet), pi. kiperengen- 
yen (kiperengenyenik). 
Cooked locust, tyolio (tyoliot), pi. 

tyolin (tyolik). 
Locust egg, mukenya (mukenyat), 
pi. muken (mukenik). 
Log, suben (subenet), pi. subenai 

Loin, suwe (suwet), pi. suwenut 

Loiter, ikaa-ke (pr. a-'kaa-i-ke, 

p.p. ka-a-'kaa-ke). 
Long, koi, pi. koiin. 
Longing, rong (ronget). 
He longs for some meat, tinye 



Look, iro. (See irregular verbs, 
p. 224.) 

tapen (pr. a-topen-i, p.p. ka- 
Look after (guard), rip (pr. a- 

rip-e, p.p. ka-a-rlp). 
Look after, while doing other 
things, ikun (pr. a-'kun-i, p.p. 
Look behind, kus kong. 
Look down, ngurur (pr. a- 

ngurur-i, p.p. ka-a-ngurur). 
Look for, chefig (pr. a-cheng-e, 

p.p. ka-a-cheng). 
Look out for, sege (pr. a-sege-i, 

p.p. ka-a-sege). 
Look up, inyal (pr. a-'nyol-i, p.p. 
Loose, itiach (pr. a-'tioch-i, p.p. 

Loosen, iturtur (pr. a-'turtur-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'turtur). 
Lose, ipet (pr. a-'pet-i, p.p. ka- 
Be lost to, pet (pr. a-pet-e, p.p. 

/ have lost my knife, ko-pet-en-o 
Take away and lose, ilus (pr. a- 
'lua-i, p.p. ka-a-'lus). 
Louse, iseria (iseriat), pi. iser 

Love, cham (pr. a-chom-e, p.p. 

Lover (man), saanya (saandet), 
pi. saan (saanik). 
(girl), murer (mureret), pi. mu- 

reren (murerenik). 

(woman), kipaikeiyo (kipaikei- 

yot),pl.kipaikein (kipaikemik). 

Lower (hither), irek-u (pr. a- 

'rek-u, p.p. ka-a-'rek-u). 

(thither), irek-te (pr. a-'rek-toi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'rek-te). 
Lower a load, itu (pr. a-'tu-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'tu). 
Luck, keluno (kelunet); tokoch 

It is lucky, mi-i keluno or mi-i 

Lump (piece), kipeperia (kipe- 

periat), pi. kipeperua (kipe- 

Lump on the body, mulua (mu- 

luet), pi. mulondoi (mulondok). 
Lung, puon (puondet), pi. puon 

Lurk, tech. (See Trap.) 

be Mad, tinye iyuek. 

Mad person, kipiyuo (kipiyuet), 

pi. kipiyuon (kipiyuonik). 
Maggot, kut (kutiet), pi. kut 

Magic, chepkericho (chepkeri- 
chot), pi. chepkerichin (chep- 
Make magic, pan (pr. a-pon-e, 
p.p. ka-a-pan). 
Magician, ponin (ponindet), pi. 

pon (ponik). 
Maize (corn), ipandia (ipandiat), 
pi. ipande (ipandek). 
(plant), mopcho (mopchot), pi. 
mop (mopek). 
Make, ai-te (pr. o-oi-toi-i, p.p. 
Make equal, like, &fc, ioiechin-e 
(pr. a-'oiechin-dos-i, p.p. ka- 

ikerke (pr. a-'kerke-i, p.p. 
Make for, ai-to-chi (pr. o-oi-to- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-ai-to-chi). 
Make haste, chok-chi (pr. a-chok- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-ehok-chi). 
Make metal things, itany (pr. a- 

'tony-i, p.p. ka-a-'tany). 
Make to go up, itoke (pr. a- 

'toke, p.p. ka-a-'toke). 
Make or take up a little at a 
time, mukut (pr. a-mukut-i, p.p. 
Make up afire, iyuok-chi mat. 
Make water, sulcus (pr. a-sukus-i, 
p.p. ka-a-sukus). 




Make well, isap (pr. a-'sop-i, p.p. 
Don't make a noise ! sis ! 
Male, kiruk (kh-kit), pi. kiruk 

muren (murenet), pi. muren 
Man, chii (chiito), pi. piich (piik). 
(warrior), muren (murenet), pi, 
muren (murenik). 
(old man), poiyo (poiyot), pi, 
poiisio (poiisiek). 
Mane (along the neck), urer (urer- 
yet), pi. urer (urerik). 
(falling between the ears), songo- 
nyo (songonyet), pi. songonyai 
Mantis, chepkoima (chepkoimet), 

pi. chepkoimoi (chepkoimok). 
Many, chang or che-chang. 
Mark, tisia (tisiet). 

perut. (See Scar.) 

Markings on a shield, siro (siret). 

Markings on the sword, spear, 

and body of a warrior who has 

killed an enemy, kamaro (kama- 

ret), pi. kamaros (kamarosiek). 

Market-place, kapwalio (kap- 


kapsiro (kapslret). 
Place of meeting for trade pur- 
poses, kesimo (kesimet), pi. 
kesimos (kesimosiek). 
Marrow, amsa (amset), pi. amsoi 

Marry, itun (pr, a-'tun-i, p.p. 

Massage, imoi (pr. a-'moi-i, p.p. 

Matter (pus), purut (puru- 

A matter, figolio (Hgoliot), pi. 
ngal (Bgalek). 

What is the matter ? Mi-i ne 1 
Meal (food), omit (omdit), pi. 
omituag (omituagik). 

(flour), pusia (pusiat), pi. pusio 


Meaning : 

What is tlie meaning of this i 

Amu-ne 1 Ne kii-i ? Kii-i ne ? 

Measure, ikwa (pr. a-'kwa-i, p.p. 

Meat, peny (pendo), pi. pany 

Medicine, kericho (kerichot), pi. 
kerich (kerichek). 
Chief medicine man, orkoi} 7 o 

(orkoiyot), pi. orkoi (orkoiik). 
Lesser medicine man, kipsakeiyo 
(kipsakeiyot), pL kipsakein 

kipungu (kipungut), pL ki- 
pungun (kipungunik). 
Meet, o-nyor-u-ke (pr. ki-nyor- 
u-ke, p.p. ka-ki-nyor-u-ke). 
Meet with, nyor-u (pr. a-nyor-u, 

p.p. ka-a-nyor-u). 
Meet together with, tui-ye (pr. a- 

tui-tos-i, p.p. ka-a-tui-ye). 
Go to meet someone, torok-te (pr. 
a-torok-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-torok- 
Melt (act.), irot (pr. a-'rot-i, p.p. 

(neut.), chot (pr. a-chot-e, 
p.p. ka-a-chot). 

rot (pr. a-rot-e, p.p. ka-a-rot). 
Mend, ai-te (pr. o-oi-toi-i, p.p. 

Sto]) or fill up a hole, rich (pr. 
a-rich-e, p.p. ka-a-rich). 
Sew, nap (pr. a-nop-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Mend by sewing a piece on, kin 
(pr. a-kin-e, p.p. ka-a-kin). 
Menstruous person, sunon (su- 

Mention, itar (pr, a-'tor-i, p.p. 

Merchandise, olisio (olisiet). 
Merchant, makorio (makoriot), 

pi. mokore (mokorek). 
Merely, kitio. 

T 2 



Messenger, koioktoio (koioktoi- 

et), pi. koioktoi (koioktoiik). 
Middle, kwen(kwenut),pl. kwen- 

us (kwenusiek). 
Midge, sogoria (sogoriet), pi. 
sogor (sogorik). 

kipchakarario (kipchakarar- 
iet), pi. kipchakarar (kipcha- 
Midwife, kork'-ap-sikisis. 
Milk, che (cheko). 
A little milk, cheiyot totegin. 
Milk which has been allowed to 
stand, kasamot. 
Curdled milk, mursi (mursiik). 

(v.), ke (pr. a-ke, p.p. ka-a- 
Millet (corn), mosongio (mosong- 

iot), pi. mosong (mosongek). 
(stalk), tiafigia (tiangiat), pi. 

tiafigin (tianglnik). 
Millipede, chepchongo (chep- 
chonget), pi. chepchonges (chep- 
Mind (take care of), iro. (See 
irregular verbs, p. 224.) 
(bear in mind), ipwat (pr. a- 

'pwot-i, p.p. ka-a-'pwat). 
Never mind ! ma-uu kii ! 
Mind, mukulel. (See Heart.) 
Mine, nanyo, pi. chachoget. 
Mingle, itui-e (pr. a-'tui-tos-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'tui-e). 
(mingle together), o-'tui-eke (pr. 
ki-itui-tos-i-eke, p.p. ka-ki-itui- 
(mix), puruch (pr. a-puruch-i, 

p.p. ka-a-puruch). 
Be mingled (mixed), puruch-ke 
(pr. a-puruch-i-ke, p.p. ka-a- 
Miscarriage, figem moiet. 
Mislead, ipet (pr. a-'pet-i, p.p. 

Miss what is aimed at, ichilil 
(pr. a-'cbilil-i, p.p. ka-a-'ohilil). 
Mist, puret (pureto). 

kipurienge (kipurienget). 

Mistake, kachililo (kachililet), 
pi. kachililos (kachililosiek). 
Make a mistake, lei (pr. a-lel-e, 
p.p. ka-a-lel). 
Mix, puruch (pr. a-puruch-i, p.p. 

Modesty, konyit (konyit). 
Mole, pungungwa (pungufigwet), 
pi. pungungon (pungungonik). 
Money : 
Rupee, rupia (rupiet), pi. rupies 

Pice, pesaiya (pesaiyat), pi. pe- 
saiin (pesailnik). 
Cent, olkisoi (olkisoiyet), pi. ol- 
kisoiin (olkisoiinik). 
Mongoose, chepkusiro fchepku- 
siret), pi. chepkusirai (chepku- 
Monkey : 
Baboon, moso (moset), pi. moson 

Colobus guereza, koroiit (koroiit- 

yet), pi. koroiit (koroiitik). 
Cercopithecus albigularis, tisia 

(tisiet), pi. tisoi (tisok). 
C. griseo-viridis, cherere (chere- 
ret), pi. chereren (cheverenik). 
Month, arawa. (See Moon.) 
Moon, arawa (arawet), pi. araa 

More. (See p. 182.) 
Make more, give more, tes (pr. 
a-tes-e, p.p. ka-a-tes). 
Give more beer, res (pr. a-res-e, 

p.p. ka-a-res). 
To be more something (e.g. strong), 
tamne (pr. a-tamne, p.p. ka-a- 
Moreover, ko-keny. 
Morning (early), korirun (kori- 
(later), pet (petut). 
Every morning, mutai. 
Mortar (for pounding corn), ken 

(kenut), pi. kenus (kenusiek). 
Mosquito, tifigwich (tingwichet), 
pi. tingwich (tifigwichik). 



Moss, kurongur (kuronguriet), 

pi. kuronguris (kurongurisiek). 

Moth, tapurpur (tapurpuriet), 

pi. tapurpur (tapurpurik). 
Mother, kamet or kametit, pi. 
angut-kamet or angut-kamet- 
Own mother {woman or child 
speaking), eiyo, pi. angut-eiyo. 
{man speaking), korket, pi. an- 

Thy mother, koinit, pi. angut- 
komit or angut-komituak. 
So and so's mother, kopot anum. 
Mother-in-law (man's), karukin 
(woman's), pokir (pokirto). 
(man's own), karucho. 
(woman's oivn), pokir. 
Mound (in fields), kapsagun 

Mount, lany (pr. a-lony-i, p.p. 

Mountain, tulua (tuluet), pi. tu- 

luondoi (tuluondok). 
Mourn, arogen (pr. a-arogen-i, 
p.p. ka-arogen). 
People who mourn, or a house of 
mourning, kimnam-kut. 
Mouse, kinmgoris (kimngorisiet), 
pi. kimngorisoi (kimngorisok). 
Mouth, kut (kutit), pi. kutusua 

Move (hither), inok-u (pr. a-'nok- 
u, p.p. ka-a-'nok-u). 
(thither), inak-te (pr. a-'uok-toi- 

i, p.p. ka-a-'nak-te). 
(change place of dwelling), u (pr. 
a-u-e, p.p. ka-a-u). 
Cause to remove, iu (pr. a-'u-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'u). 
Much, mising; che-chang. 

Very much, kut. 
Mucus (from the nose), seper (se- 

Mud, lapcha (lapchat). 
(of river), ngatatia (ngatatiat), 
pi. ngatat (ngatatek). 

Multiply, ichangit (pr. a-'chong- 
it-i, p.p. ka-a-'changit). 
(increase), tes (pr. a-tes-e, p.p. 
Multitude, tuiyo (tuiyot), pi. 

tuiyos (tuiyosiek). 
Murder, par (pr. a-por-e, p.p. 


Murderer, porin (porindet), pi. 

por (porik). 

Murderer of a Nandi, rumin 

(rumindet), pi. rum (rumik). 

Mushroom, popa (popat), pi. pop 

Musical instruments : 
Horn, kuina (kuinet), pi. kuinai 

Greater kudu horn, ikondi (ikon- 
dit), pi. ikondis (ikondisiek). 
Wooden horn, serengwa (sereng- 
wet), pi. serengon (serengonik). 
indureru (indurerut), pi. in- 
durerus (indurerusiek). 
Bell, kipkurkur (kipkurkuriet), 
pi. kipkurkurai (kipkurkur- 
Lyre, kipokan (kipokandet), pi. 
kipokandin (kipokandlnik). 
Must, tai (followed by the sub- 

/ must go, tai a-wa. 
Mutilate, til (pr. a-til-e, p.p. 

My, nyo, pi. chok. 

Nail (of finger or toe), siiya 

(siiyet), pi. sioi (siok). 
Naked, puch, pi. puch. 
Name, kaina (kainet), pi. kainoi 

(v.), itar (pr. a-'tor-i, p.p. ka- 
(call), kur (pr. a-kur-e, p.p. ka- 

(give a name to), ikochi kainet. 
What is my name 1 ki-kur-en-6 ne 1 
What is thy name ? ki-kur-en- 
in ne 1 



Name : 

What is his (or her) name i ki- 
kur-en ne ? 

What is our name ? ki-kur-en- 
ech ue 1 

What is your name ? ki-kur-en- 
6k ne? 

What istheirname ? ki-kur-en ne 1 
Naming, kurso (kurset). 
Nape (of the neck), kimut (ki- 
mutit), pi. kumutis (kimutis- 
Narrow, tenden, pi. tendin. 
Navel (small), serumb(serumbet), 
pi. serumbon (serumbonik). 
(large), muk (muket), pi. mukes 
Near, negit. 

Neck, kat (katit), pi. katusua 


Nape of the neck, kimut (ki- 

mutit),pl.kimutis (kimutisiek). 

Necklace (of iron bound ivith 

small iron rings), asingai (asin- 

gaiit), pi. asingaiin (asingai- 


(of chains), sirimwagik. (See 

(of beads), anongoilnik, &c. (See 
(of chips of gourd), sepet (se- 
petiet), pi. sepetai (sepetaiik). 
Married women's necklace, me- 
renget-ap-tamok ; muit'-ap-so- 
Need, mach (pr. a-moch-e, p.p. 

Needle, kata (katet), pi. katoi 

Neglect, irokut (pr. a-'rokut-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'rokut). 
Neighbour, kokwa (kokwet), pi. 

kokwan (kokwanik). 
Neither —nor, annan(with nega- 
Nest, kot-ap-tarityet. 
Net (trap), mesto (mestet), pi. 
mestoi (mestok). 

Neutral land, surkwen (surk- 

wenet), pi. surkwenos (surk- 

Never, akut keny or kie-keny 

(with negative). 
I shall never forget, m-a-ntie nga 

kie-keny or m-o-tiny kie-keny. 
New, lei, pi. lelach. 
News, lokoiyo (lokoiyot), pi. lo- 

koiyua (lokoiyuek). 

ngolio (ngoliot), pi. ngal 

Nibble, nye (pr. a-nye, p.p. ka- 

Nice, mie, pi. miach. 

(sweet), anyiny, pi. onyinyin. 
Night, kemboi (kembaut), pi. 

kembaus (kembausiek). 

lakat (lakatut), pi. lakatus 

All night, kemboi kut koiech; 

kemboi koiech ; koiech. 
Nine, sokol. 

Nineteen, taman ok sokol. 
Ninety, tomonuagik sokol. 
Ninth, ap-sokol. 
Nipple, kma (klnet), pi. kinai 

No, achecha. 
Nobody : 

There is nobody, ma-mi-i chii. 
Nobody's, mo pa-chii tukul. 
Noise, pol (polet), pi. polos (po- 

Great noise, polot (polotet). 
Shout, waka (wakat). 

Make a noise, pol (pr. a-pol-e, 

p.p. ka-a-pol). 
Nonsense, perperio (perperiet) ; 

apusan (apusanet). 
Nose, ser (serut), pi. serun (ser- 

Not, m (prefixed to the verb). 
Not yet, torn ; toma. 
Notice, iro. (See irregular 

verbs, p. 224.) 
Nourish, iak-e (pr. a-'ok-i, p.p. 




Now, nguno ; rani {to-day) ; 

nguni (at once). 
Just now, a short while ago, 

Nowadays, 6kosie-chu. 
Nullah, marin (marinda), pi. 

marinua (marinuek). 
Number, ilt (pr. a-'it-i, p.p. ka- 

Nurse, cheplakwa (cheplakwet), 

pi. cheplakoi (cheplakok). 
(v.), tiny (pr. a-tiny-e, p.p. 

{feed), pai (pr. a-poi-e, p.p. ka- 


Oath, mumia (mumiat), pi. mnna 
Take an oath, make peace, try 
by ordeal, par mumek. 
Obstinate, ui-met, pi. uen-met. 
Obstinate man, kimnyonyiyo 
(kimnyonyiyot), pi. kimnyo- 
nyiin (kimnyonyilnik). 
Obstinate woman, chemnyonyiyo. 
Obtain, sich (pr. a-sich-e, p.p. 

Offspring, iio (iiot). 
Often, ekosiek che-chang; ko- 

sakta che-chang. 
Oil, mwai (mwaita), pi. mwan 

Old. (of persons or things), os, pi. 
Old age, oin (o'indo). 
Old person (m.), poiyo (poiyot), 
pi. poiisio (poiisiek). 

(f.), chepioso (chepioset), pi. 
chepiosoi (chepiosok). 
Old thing, old cow, <$•&, os (osit), 
pi. osua (osuek). 
Omen (striking the foot against 
something), kanokut (kanokut), 
pi. konokut (konokutik). 
Lucky omen, tailil (taililiet), pi. 
taililoi (taililok). 
Unlucky omen, sigoran (sigoran- 
et), pi. sigoranoi (sigoranok). 

turio (turiet), pi. turionoi 
On, parak; eiig. 
Once, petun-ak. 

At once, nguni ; nguni-to. 
One, akenge. 
One by one, akenge-akenge. 
One-sided, kimosak. 
Only, ineke, &c. (See p. 187.) 

Ooze, robon-u ; pun ; sa-u. 
Open {uncover), ngany (pr. a- 
figony-e, p.p. ka-a-ngany). 
(unfasten, act.), yat (pr. a-yot-e, 
p.p. ka-a-yat). 

(neut.), yat-ak-e (pr. a-yot-ot, 
p.p. ka-a-yat-ak-e). 
(make wide), ipara (pr. a-'paro-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'para). 
Open the eyes, ichil-u (pr. a- 

'chil-u, p.p. ka-a-'chil-u). 
Open place, t-i 111 (tililiet), pi. 
tililoi (tililok). 

(adj.), isengengat, pi. isenge- 
Oppress, inyalil (pr. a-'nyolil-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'nyalil). 
Order (command), ngat (pr. a- 
figot-e, p.p. ka-a-figat). 
(threaten), ker kong. 
Arrange in order, tet (pr. a-tet-e, 

p.p. ka-a-tet). 
Put in good order, ai-te (pr. 

o-oi-toi-i, p.p. ka-ai-te). 
In order that, si (followed by 
the subjunctive). 
Orderly, mutio. 

Ostrich, nyirot (nyirotiet), pi. 
nyirotoi (nyirotok). 
Ostrich feather, songolia (songol- 
iat), pi. songol (songolik). 
Ostrich feather head-dress, sombe 
(sombet), pi. sombenut (sombe- 
Box for keeping ostrich feathers 
in, olgitong (olgitongit), pi. ol- 
gitongai (olgitongaiik). 



Ostrich : 

Box for keeping ostrich feathers 
in, kap-songolik. 
Other, ake, pi. alak. 

The other (L.), ingo, pi. iko. 
Ought to, cham si (followed by 
the subjunctive). 
7" ought to go, chom-e si a-wa. 
Our, nyo, pi. chok. 
Ours, nenyo, pi. checbok. 
Out, saang. 

Outside, saaSg (saangut). 
Outside the hut, saangut-ap-kot 
or kot saang. 
Over, parak. 

Over the mountain, tuluet parak. 
Overcome, ipel (pr. a-'pel-i, p.p. 

Overeat oneself, uiren (pr. a- 

uiren-i, p.p. ka-a-uiren). 
Overfeed, iuiren (pr. a-'uiren-e, 

p.p. ka-a-'uiren). 
Overlooker (overseer), konortoiin 
(konortoiindet), pi. konortoi 
Overturn, iwech (pr. a-'wech-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'wech). 
Owner (m.), cbiit'-ap-kopo, pi. 
piik-ap-kopo ; ehii-chepo. 

(f.), korket-ap-kopo, pi. korus- 
Be part owner, am-de. (See Eat 
Ox, tany (teta), pi. tieh (tuka). 
Ox-hide, mui (muito), pi. muiua 
Ox with marks cut in its ears, 

(m.), ki-masas, (f.), che-parit. 
Ox with brand marks, (m.), kip- 

serat, (f.), cbep-serat. 
Black, (m.), ki-mlso, (f.), che- 

Black and white, koroiit. 
Black with white markings on 
the sides, (m.), kip-kepe, (f.), 
Black with coloured head, motoi- 

White, (m.), kip-sirue, (f.), chep- 


(m.), kip-lelyo, (f.), chep- 


White with brown head, (m.), ki- 

pirir-met, (f.), pirir-met. 

With white marks round the eyes, 

(m.), kim-naria, (f.), cbem-naria; 

Red-brown, (m.), kip-sitye, (f.), 

Partially brown, (m.), ki-mukye, 

(f.), che-mukye. 
Dapple grey, (m.), kipsamo, (f.), 

Light grey, (in.), ki-porus, (f.), 

Hornless, (m.), kip-karai, (f.), 

With horns erect, (ra.), kim-ngati- 

met, (f.), chem-Hgati-met. 
With horns pointing in front, 

(m.), ki-puruk, (f.), puruk. 
With crumpled horns, (m.), kip- 
seta, (f.), cbep-seta. 

(m.), kim-ngele-met,(f.), fige- 

With horns that point inwards, 

(m.), kip-kuluny-met, (f.), chep- 

One-eyed, (m.), ki-makong, (f.), 

Shy, (m.), kim-ngosos, (f.), cbem- 

Thin, (ra.), kip-tenden, (f.), chep- 


Well-fed (sleek), sambu. 
Cow tohose calf has died, arak 

Cow given for wife, che-mwai 

(che-mwaita), pi. che-inwan 

Cow that has been ransomed, ke- 

lengeyuo (kelengeyuot), pi. ke- 

lenge (kelengeyuek). 
Cow that has been looted in war, 

koiyo (koiyet), pi. koiyos (koi- 





Cow paid by murderer, iri-ngot 

Old cow, os (osit), pi. osua 


Pack, maman (pr. a-rnomon-i, 
p.p. ka-a-maman). 
{fasten), rat (pr. a-rot-e, p.p. 
Pad {of grass), ingatia (ingatiet), 

pi. ingatai (ingataiik). 
Pain, am. (See Ache.) 
Paint {brown), ingaria (ingariet), 
pi. iDgarioi (ingariok). 
{white), eorio (eoriot), pi. eor 

{any colour, but especially red), 
chesoleyua (chesoleyuat), pi. 
chesole (chesoleyuek). 

(v.), sal (pr. a-sol-e, p.p. ka-a- 

sir ingariet ; sir eoriot, &c. 
Paint a shield, imar or sir 
Palm {of the hand), rubei (rubei- 

to), pi. rubeiuag (rubeiuagik). 
Palm. (See Appendix I.) 
Fruit of palm, pak ap sosik ; pak 
ap tironik, &c. 
Palm wine, porok (porokek). 
Pant, isieny (pr. a-'sieny-i, p.p. 

Pare {with the hands), ipony (pr. 
a-'pony-i, p.p. ka-a-'pony). 

ichur (pr. a-'chur-i, p.p. ka- 

ichirmit (pr. a-'chirmit-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'chirmit). 
{with a knife), iai (pr. a-'oi-e, 
p.p. ka-'ai). 
Parish, sirit (siritiet), pi. siritai 

Parry, t6ch (pr. a-tlch-e, p.p. 

Part {portion), kipeperia (kipe- 
periat), pi. kipeperua (kipe- 

Part out, ipche (pr. a-ipche, p.p. 

chwe (pr. a-chwe, p.p. ka-a- 
Pass, pun (pr. a-pun-e, p. p. ka- 
Pass by, sir-te (pr. a-sir-toi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-sir-te). 
Pass along, over, ichut-ke (pr. 
a-'chut-i-ke, p.p. ka-a-'chut-ke). 
Pass over {a river), lan-de (pr. 

a-lon-doi-i, p.p. ka-a-lan-de). 
Make to pass, ipun (pr. a-'pun-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'pun). 
Pastoral people, poropcho (po- 

ropchot), pi. porop (poropek). 
Pasture, iak-e (pr. a-'ok-i, p.p. 

Path, or (oret), pi. ortinua (or- 

Pay, mshaharen (mshaharenik). 
Pay thither, yak-te (pr. a-yok- 

toi-i, p.p. ka-a-yak-te). 
Pay hither, yak-u (pr. a-yok-u, 

p.p. ka-a-yak-u). 
Pay to or for, yok-clii (pr. a- 

yok-chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-yok-chi). 
Pay a fine, pas (pr. a-pas-e, p.p. 
Peace, tilia (tiliet), pi. tilionut 
Make peace, ai-te tiliet ; par 
be Peaceful, tala-itu (pr. a-tala, 

p.p. ka-a-tala-itu). 
Pebble. (See Stone.) 
Peel. (See Pare.) 
Peep, iit (pr. a-'it-e, p.p. ka-a-'it). 
Peep in, iit-u (pr. a-'it-u, p.p. 
P©g {for pegging out skins), ket 
(ketit), pi. ket (ketik). 
{for hanging utensils on), ireu 
(ireut), pi. ireus (ireusiek). 
Pelt, wir-chi (pr. a-wir-chi-ni, 

p.p. ka-a-wir-chi). 
Penetrate, chut (pr. a-chut-e, 
p.p. ka-a-chut). 



Penis (circumcised), pirit (pirtit), 
pi. pirit (piritik). 
(uncircumcised), monyis (mony- 
iset), pi. monyisos (monyisos- 
People, piich (piik). 
Other people's, ap-piik. 
People like us, (m.), akut-achek, 
(f.), angut-achek. 
Perceive, iro. (See irregular 

verbs, p. 224.) 
Perhaps, iiyo ; apeie. 

Perhaps it is thus, apere noto. 
Permission, pan (panda). 
Permit, cham-chi ; ikochi panda. 
I permit him to go, a-cham-chi- 
ni kwa or a-'kochi panda kwa. 
Perpetually, kwe-keny. 
Person, cbii (chiito), pi. piich 
A groum person, chiito ne-mukul. 
Perspiration, kaot (kaotik). 
Pestle, mosi (mosit), pi. mosin 


Phlegm, figurureyuo (ngurur- 


To bring up phlegm, iigurur (pr. 

a-nguiur-i, p.p. ka-a-ngurur). 

Physic, kericho (kerichot), pi. 

kerich (kerichek). 
Physician, kipkericho (kipkeri- 
chot), pi. kipkerichin (kipkeri- 
Pick (gather), put (pr. a-put-e, 
p.p. ka-a-put). 
Pick out, letye (pr. a-letye-i, 

p.p. ka-a-letye). 
Pick up one thing, inem-u (pr. 

a-'nein-u, p.p. ka-a-'nem-u). 
Pick up several things, one by 
one, kwe (pr. a-kwe, p.p. ka-a- 
Pick up several things in a hand- 
ful, samat (pr. a-samot-i, p.p. 
(lift), sut (pr. a-sut-i, p.p. ka-a- 

Piece, kipeperia (kipeperiat), ph 

kipeperua (kipeperuek). 
Pierce, rut (pr. a-rut-e, p.p. ka- 
Pierce with a knife or spear, dec, 
tor (pr. a-tor-e, p.p. ka-a-tor). 
Pierce the lobe of the ear, parpar 
(pr. a-porpor-i, p.p. ka-a-par- 
Pig, tora (toret), pi. toroi (torok). 
Wart-hog, putie (putieto), pi. 
putieua or putiei (putieuek or 
Giant pig, turn (tumda), pi. 
tumua (tumuek). 
Pimple, tigoi (tigoiik). 
(itch), koiicha (koiichat), pi. 

koiich (koiichek). 
(rash), ingosen (ingosenik). 
Pinch, komot (pr. a-komot-i, 
p.p. ka-a-komot). 

mokot (pr. a-mokot-i, p.p. 
Pipe (tobacco), teret-ap-tumatet. 
Pipe-stem, rokor (rokoret), pi. 
rokoros (rokorosiek). 
Pit, kering (keringet), pi. ke- 

ringon (keringonik). 
Place, oii (olto), pi. oltos (oltos- 

(v.), konor (pr. a-konor-i, p.p. 
Plain, ongata (ongatet). 
(valley), otepwa (otepwet), pi. 
otepwos (otepwosiek). 
Plan, lokoiyo (lokoiyot), pi. lo- 

koiyua (lokoiyuek). 
Plant, kol (pr. a-kol-e, p.p. ka- 

Plantain. (See Banana.) 
Plantation, imbar (imbaret), 

pi. imbaren (imbarenik). 
Plaster (huts), mal (pr. a-mol-e, 

p.p. ka-a-mal). 
Plate (men's), muit'-ap-kok. 
(women's), muit'-ap-koi. 
Dish, tapo (tapet), pi. tapoi 



Play, ureren (pr. a-ureren-i, p.p. 

Please (v. imp.), inyol-chi. 
The thing has pleased me, ka- 
'nyol-cho kii. 
Pleasure, kakaso (kakaset). 
Plenty, chang. 

Pluck {gather), put (pr. a-put-e, 
p.p. ka-a-put). 
Pluck out feathers, cut off sheep's 
wool, <J-c, sul (pr. a-sul-e, p.p. 
Plug, tiro (pr. a-tim-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Plug up a hole, rich (pr. a-rich-e, 
p.p. ka-a-rich). 
Plunder, chor (pr. a-chor-e, p.p. 

Pocket, lol (lolet), pi. lolotinua 

Point, kiplitua (kiplituet), pi. 
kiplitoi (kiplitok). 
Cut to a point, lit (pr. a-lit-e, 

p.p. ka-a-lit). 
Point at, ngwerer (pr. a-iig werer-i, 

p.p. ka-a-ngwerer). 
Point out, ipor-chi (pr. a-'por- 
chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-'por-ehi). 
Pointed, ngatip, pi. Bgotipen. 
Poison, ngwan (ngwanet), pi. 
ngwanos (ngwanosiek). 
(v.), ikochi ngwanet. 
Pub poison on an arrow, inyul 
(pr. a-'nyul-i, p.p. ka-a-'nyul). 
Pole {stout), lumeyua (lumeyuot), 
pi. lume (lumeyuek). 
{slender), roteyua (roteyuot), pi. 
rote (roteyuek). 
{stout and long, used for roofs of 
houses), kureyua (kureyuot), pi. 
kure (kureyuek). 
{slender, used for roofs of houses), 
chokeyua (chokeyuot), pi. choke 
Central pole of a house, toloi 
(toloita), pi. toloiua (toloiuek). 
Polish (by rubbing), ipuch (pr. 
a-'puch-i, p.p. ka-a-'puch). 

{by scraping with a knife), ngoi- 
ngoi (pr. a-ngoingoi-i, p.p. ka- 
Pond, tolll (tolllet), pi. tolilon 

Cattle-pond, sukut (sukutek). 
Ponder, kerer met (pr. a-kerer-i 

met, p.p. ka-a-kerer met). 
Poor, pan an, pi. ponon. 
Poor man {no relations and no 
property), panan (pananet), pi. 
ponon (pononik). 
{no property), kapsuretin (kap- 
suretindet), pi. kapsuret (kap- 
Porcupine, chepswerer (chep- 
swererit), pi. chepswereren 
Porcupine quill,sabitia,{sabitisA), 
pi. sabiten (sabitenik). 
Porridge, kimnyio (kimnyiet), 
pi. kimoi (kimoiik). 
Lump of porridge, kererut (ke- 
rerutiet), pi. kererut (kere- 
To stir porridge, kwany kim- 
To cook porridge, chul kimnyiet. 
Porter, otuag. (See Slave.) 
Portion, kiperperia (kiperperiat), 
pi. kiperperua (kiperperuek). 
{Jmlf), matua (matuet), pi. ma- 
tes (matuasiek). 
Possessions, tukun (tukuk). 
Possessor (m.), chiit'-ap-kopo, 
pi. piik-ap-kopo. 

(f.),korket-ap-kopo, pi. korus- 
Possibly, iiyo ; apere. 
Post, lumeyuo (lumeyuot), pi. 

lume (lumeyuek). 
Pot {cooking-pot, jar), ter (teret), 
pi. teren (terenik). 
Bake pots, kwang (pr. a-kwang-e, 
p.p. ka-a-kwaSg). 
Potato, roboonio (robooniot), pi. 
roboon (roboonik). 



Potato : 

{rotten), metonga (metonget), pi. 
metongoi (metongok). 
Potsherd, rokcho (rokchet), pi. 

rokchonoi (rokchonok). 
Potter, chepterenio (chepteren- 
iot), pi. chepterenin (chepteren- 
Potter's clay, men (menet). 
Poultry, ingok (ingokiet), pi. 

ingokai (ingokaiik). 

Pound {clean corn by pounding), 

tu-i (pr. a-tu-e, p.p. ka-a-tu-i). 

Pour {hither), rong-u (pr. a- 

rofig-u, p.p. ka-a-rong-u). 

{thither), ran-de (pr. a-ron-doi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-ran-de). 
Pour for, rong-ji (pr. a-rong- 
ji-ni, p.p. ka-a-rong-ji). 
Pour away, tar-te (pr. a-tor- 
toi-i, p.p. ka-a-tar-te). 
Pour away a little, ingir-te (pr. 
a-'ngir-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-'ugir- 
Pour out, apuk-te (pr. a-apuk- 

toi-i, p.p. ka-apuk-te). 
Pour water on a person's hands, 
kir-chi (pr. a-kir-chi-ni, p.p. 
Powder, pusio (pusiek). 

Gunpowder, pusaru (pusaruk). 
Power, kimnat (kimnatet). 

Health, strength, uin (uindo). 
Prairie, oflgata. (See Plain.) 
Pray, sora (pr. a-som-e, p.p. ka- 
Beseech (act.), sa (pr. a-so-e, p.p. 

(neut.), sa-ise (pr. a-so-ise-i, 
p.p. ka-a-sa-ise). 
Beseech fervently, saisai (pr. a- 
soisoi-e, p.p. ka-a-saisai). 
Prayer, somo (somet), pi. somos 

samso (samset). 
sao (saet). 
Precede, indoi (pr. a-'ndoi-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'ndoi). 

Prefer, cham (pr. a-chom-e, p.p. 

be Pregnant, manach (pr. a- 

manoch-i, p.p. ka-a-manach). 
Pregnant woman, tomono (to- 

monet), pi. tomonos (tomonos- 

Pregnant girl, chesorpucho (che- 

sorpuchot), pi. chesorpuchon 

Prepare, ai-te (pr. o-oi-toi-e, 

p.p. ka-ai-te). 
Present, melek (raelekto), pi. 

melekua (melekuek). 
(v.), ikochi. (See irregular 

verbs, pp. 222-3.) 
Presently, toma-kitegin. 
Press, ikich (pr. a-'kich-i, p.p. 

Press out, iiny (pr. o-'iny-i, p.p. 

Press heavily upon, irurun-ji 

(pr. a-'rurun-ji-ni, p.p. ka-a- 

Prevent, rany (pr. a-rony-e, p.p. 

{refuse to), imelel (pr. a-'melel-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'melel). 
Prick, tor (pr. a-tor-e, p.p. ka- 

Prisoner of war, cheplongio 

(cheplongiot), pi. cheplongin 

Privy, kapia (kapiat). 
To go to, pi (pr. a-pi-e, p.p. ka- 

Proceed, ui. (See irregular 

verbs, pp. 220-1). 
Procure for, sik-chi (pr. a-sik- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-sik-chi). 
Prod, iur (pr. a-'ur-i, p.p. ka-a- 

Prohibit, ete (pr. a-ete, p.p. ka- 

Prop up, ti (pr. a-ti-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Properly, ko-mie. 
Property, tukun (tukuk)i 



Prophesy, ngor (pr. a-ngor-e, 

p.p. ka-a-ngor). 
Prostitute, chepkumeio (chep- 
kumeiot),pl. chepkumein (chep- 

chemarat sainet ; makerko 
kere kwet. 
Protect, rip (pr. a-rip-e, p.p. ka- 

iuit (pr. a-'uit-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Proverb, atindio (atindiot), pi. 
atindon (atindonik). 
aina. (See River.) 
Puff, kut (pr. a-kut-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Be puffed up, men (pr. a-men-e, 
p.p. ka-a-men). 
Pull, ichut (pr. a-'chut-i, p.p. ka- 
Pull out, itut (pr. a-'tut-i, p.p. 
Pull out hairs, fyc, put (pr. a- 
put-e, p.p. ka-a-put). 
Pull or take out teeth, ot (pr. a- 
ot-e, p.p. ka-a-ot). 
Pumpkin, chepololo (chepololet), 

pi. chepololin (chepolollnik). 
Punishment, peluku (pelu- 
Punishment of God, ngokis (ngo- 
Pure, tilil, pi. tililen. 
Purgative, seketet (seketetik). 
Purge, ikor-ke (pr. a-'kor-i-ke, 

p.p. ka-a-'kor-ke). 
Purpose (do on purpose), kwet-yi 
(pr. a-kwet-yi-ni, p.p. ka-a- 
Pursue, isup (pr. a-'sup-i, p.p. 
(hunt), mwog (pr. a-mwog-e, p.p. 
(seek for), cheng (pr. a-cheng-e, 
p.p. ka-a-cheng). 
Pus, purut (purutek). 
Push, riep (pr. a-riep-e, p.p. ka- 

Push away, och (pr. a-och-e, p.p. 

Put, konor (pr. a-konor-i, p.p. 

Put across (a river), ilan-de 

(pr. a-'lon-doi-i, p.p. ka-a-'lan- 

Put a pot on the fire, korkot (pr. 

a-korkot-i, p.p. ka-a-korkot). 
Put a pot near ihefire, kwany (pr. 

a-kwony-i, p.p. ka-a-kwany). 
Put down (e. g. a load), itu (pr. 

a-'tu-i, p.p. ka-a-'tu). 
Put down by oneself itu-ke (pr. 

a-'tu-i-ke, p.p. ka-a-'tu-ke). 
Put in a line (join), rop (pr. a- 

rop-e, p.p. ka-a-rop). 
Put in a row, tet (pr. a-tet-e, 

p.p. ka-a-tet). 
Put into, put on, in-de (pr. a-'n- 

doi-i, p.p. ka-a-'n-de). 
Put in the sun, ma (pr. a-mo-i, 

p.p. ka-a-ma). 
Put on clothes, ilach (pr. a- 

'loch-i, p.p. ka-a-'lach). 
Put out, inem-u (pr. a-'nem-u, 

p.p. ka-a-'nem-u). 
Put out fire, par (pr. a-por-e, 

p.p. ka-a-par). 
Put out fire by water, tis (pr. 

a-tis-e, p.p. ka-a-tis). 
Put thus, ile-chi (pr. a-'le-chi- 

ni, p.p. ka-a-'le-chi). 
Put to (shut), is-chi (pr. a-is-chi- 

ni, p.p. ka-a-is-chi). 
Put to flight, ilapat (pr. a-'lopot- 

i, p.p. ka-a-'lapat). 
Put to rights, ai-te (pr. o-oi-toi-i, 

p.p. ka-ai-te). 
Put together, iom-e (pr. a-'om- 

dos-i, p.p. ka-'om-e). 
Put up, itoke (pr. a-'toke, p.p. 

Put ivood on a fire, iyuok-chi 


Quake, p6tan (pr. a-poton-i, p.p. 



Quarrel {fight, battle), porio (por- 
iet), pi. porios (poriosiek). 
{shouting, noise), wakutio (waku- 

(v.), o-por-ie (pr. ki-por-tos-i, 
p.p. ka-ki-por-ie). 
{strike), pir (pr. a-pir-e, p.p. ka- 

Cause to quarrel with, ipe (pr. 
a-'pe-i, p.p. ka-a-'pe). 

iul-ie (pr. a-'ul-dos-i, pp. ka- 
Don't quarrel ! ket ! 
Quarrelsome, ap-wakutiet; ap- 

Quell, isis (pr. a-'sis-i, p.p. ka-a- 

Quench {fire), tis (pr. a-tis-e, 

p.p. ka-a-tis). 
Question, tepo (tepet), pi. tepos 

(v.), tep (pr. a-tep-e, p.p. ka- 


Question people to ascertain v:ho 

has committed a crime, kin (pr. 

a-kin-e, p.p. ka-a-kin). 

Questions, questioning, tepso 

be Quick, do Quickly, chok- 
chi (pr. a-chok-chi-iii, p.p. ka- 
Come quickly, chok-u (pr. a- 

chok-u, p.p. ka-a-chok-u). 
Go quickly, chak-te (pr. a-chok- 
toi-i, p.p. ka-a-chak-te). 
Quiet, isis (pr. a-'sis-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Become quiet, sis (pr. a-sis-e, p.p. 

Quietly, mutio. 
Quit, man-de (pr, a-mon-doi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-man-de). 
Quite, kwe-keny. 
Quiver {full of arrows), moot 
(mootiet), pi. mootoi (moot- 
{empty), songo (songet), pi. son- 
gos (songosiek). 

Quiver for the longnet arrows, 
kaplofigin (kaplonginit), pi. 
kaplofiginin (kaplonginlnik). 

To quiver, p6tan (pr. a-poton-i, 
p.p. ka-a-potan). 

Babbit {hare), kiplengwai (kip- 
lengwet), pi. kiplengonoi (kip- 

Race, o-maimai-ye (pr. ki-mai- 
mai-tos-i, p.p. ka-ki-maimai- 


Rafter, lumeyuo (lumeyuot), pi. 

lume (lumeyuek). 
Rag, akwo (akwot), pi. akwai 

Raid, lug (luget), pi. lugos (lu- 
(v.), set (pr. a-set-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Raider, kipset. 

Rain, rob (robta), pi. robua (rob- 
(v.), robon. 
It rains, robon-i or robon-i robta. 
Cause to rain, irobon (pr. a-'rob- 
on-e, p.p. ka-a-' robon). 
Rainbow {inner), chemngisir 
(chemiigisiriet), pi. chemngisir- 
oi (chemngisirok). 
{outer), kwapal (kwapaliet), pi. 
kwapaloi (kwapalok). 
Rainmaker, uin (uindet), pi. ui 
Rainmaker's medicine, kiptakcha 
(kiptakchat), pi. kiptaken (kip- 
Raise, sut (pr. a-sut-e, p.p. ka- 
Make to rise, itoke (pr. a-'toke, 
p.p. ka-a-'toke). 
Ransom, itiaoh (pr. a-'tiach-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'tiach). 

keleny (pr. a-keleny-i, p.p. 
Rap {with the knuckles), ikong- 
gony (pr. a-'kofiggony-i, p.p. 




luch (pr. a-luch-e, p.p. ka- 
Rash, ingosen (ingosenik). 
Sat, muria (muriat), pi. mur 

There are several kinds of 
rats : — 
House-rat, kipkoiyo (kipkoi- 
yot), pi. kipkoiin (kipkoi- 

kipkeu (kipkeut), pi. kip- 
keun (kipkeunik). 

(moM««),kimngoris (kimngoris- 
iet), pi. kimngorisoi (kimngor- 
Field-rat, isundu (isundut), pi. 
isundus (isundusiek). 

kipsukuchuchu (kipsukuchu- 
chut), pi. kipsukuchuchun (kip- 

masiroria (masiroriat), pi. 
masirorin (masirorlnik). 

{mole), pungungwa (pungung- 
wet), pi. pungungon (pung- 
Bather (preferably), kaikai. 
Rations, omit (otndit), pi. omit- 

uag (omituagik). 
Saw (uncooked or inexperienced), 
tuon, pi. tuonen. 
Be made raw, ichur(pr. a-'chur-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'chur). 

isindit (pr. a-'sindit-i, p.p. 

Be made raw by fire, tiol (pr. 
a-tiol-i, p.p. ka-a-tiol). 
Razor, murunyo (murunyet), pi. 

murunyoi (murunyok). 
Reach (arrive at), it (pr. a-it-e, 
p.p. ka-a-it). 
Reach a person, it-yi (pr. a-it-yi- 

ni, p.p. ka-a-it-yi). 
Cause to reach, iit (pr. a-'it-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'it). 
Ready. (See Mnish.) 
It is ready, ka-ko-rok. 
/ am ready, ka-a-plt-u. 

Reap, kes (pr, a-kes-e, p.p. ka- 

(break off the heads of eleusine 

corn), pach (pr. a-poch-i, p.p. 

(break off the heads of millet), hi 

Rear (a child), tiny (pr. a-tiny-e, 

p.p. ka-a-tiny). 
Rearguard, oltim (oltimdo), pi. 

oltimwag (oltimwagik). 
Receive, tach (pr. a-toch-e, p.p. 

(take), nam (pr. a-nom-e, p.p. 

(accept), cham (pr. a-chom-e, 

p.p. ka-a-cham). 
Receive for some one else, v&m- 

chi (pr. a-nom-chi-ni, p.p. ka- 

Reckon, iit (pr. a-'It-i, p.p. ka- 

Recline, liel-de (pr. a-liel-dos-i, 

p.p. ka-a-liel-de). 
(rest), imuny (pr. a-'muny-i, p.p. 

Recognize, inyit (pr. a-'nyit-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'nyit). 
Recollect, ipwat (pr. a-'pwot-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'pwat). 
Recover, sap (pr. a-sop-e, p.p. 

Rectum, kimesto (kimestoet). 
Red, pirir, pi. piriren. 
Redeem, keleny (pr. a-keleny-i, 

p.p. ka-a-keleny). 
Reduce, ingir-te (pr. a-'ngir-toi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'ngir-te). 
(e.g. to the ranks), mining-itu 

(pr. a-mining, p.p. ka-a-mining- 

Reed, kirondo (kirondet), pi. 

kirondos (kirondosiek). 
Bulrush, cherungu (cherungut), 

pi. cherungus (cherungusiek). 
Reed used for drinking through, 

rogor (rogoret), pi. rogoron (ro- 




Reflect (consider), ipwat (pr. a- 

'pwot-i, p.p. ka-a-'pwat). 
Reflect a glare, lil (pr. a-lil-e, p.p. 

Befuse, esie (pr. a-esie-i, p.p. 

Cause to refuse, iete (pr. a-'ete, 

p.p. ka-a-'ete). 
(deter, forbid), ete (pr. a-ete, p.p. 

(•prohibit), ias (pr. a-'os-e, p.p. 

Befuse to (withhold from), imelel 

(pr. a-'melel-i, p.p. ka-a-'me- 

Befute, tii-ye (pr. a-tii-tos-i, p.p. 

Reject, esie (pr. a-esie-i, p.p. ka- 
Bejoice, ikas-ke (pr. a-'kos-i- 

ke, p.p. ka-a-'kas-ke). 
Belate, mwa-chi (pr. a-mwo-chi- 

ni, p.p. ka-a-mwa-chi). 
Belation, relative, tilia (tiliet), 

pi. tilionut (tilionutik). 
be Relaxed {loose, slack), 

nyelnyel-itu (pr. a-nyelnyel, 

p.p. ka-a-nyelnyel-itu). 
Relish, sutio (sutiot), pi. sut 

(v.), iro ngw-anyiny. 
Remain (stay), tepi (pr. a-tepi-e, 

p.p. ka-a-tepi). 
(stay for a time), peni (pr. a- 

peni-e, p.p. ka-a-peni). 
Be left, nget-u (pr. a-nget-u, 

p.p. ka-a-Sget-u). 
Remain over, ituch (pr. a-'tuch-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'tuch). 
Remainder, katukia (katukiat), 

pi. katuken (katukenik). 
Remember, ipwat (pr. a-'pwot-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'pwat). 
Remind, ipwot-chi (pr. a-'pwot- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-'pwot-chi). 
Remorse, ndara (ndarait). 
Remove, is-te (pr. a-is-toi-i, p.p. 


Rend, kerer (pr. a-kerer-i, p.p. 

murmur (pr. a-murmur-i, 
p.p. ka-a-murmur). 
Repair, ai-te (pr. o-oi-toi-i, p.p. 

Eepay, yak-te-ohi (pr. a-yok- 
toi-i-chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-yak-te- 
Beply(gw<? an answer), twek-u (pr. 
a-twek-u, p.p. ka-a-twek-u). 
am lokoi. 
Reply to, twek-chi (pr. a-twek- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-twek-chi). 
(answer when called), iten (pr. 
a-iten-i, p.p. ka-iten). 
Bepresentative : 
Chief medicine man's representa- 
tive, maotio (maotiot), pi. maot 
People's representative, kiruog 
(kiruogindet), pi. kiruog (kiru- 
Bequest (wish), mach (pr. a- 
moch-e, p.p. ka-a-mach). 
(pray), som (pr. a-som-e, p.p. 
Resemble, ioiechin-e (pr. a-'oie- 

chin-dos-i, p.p. ka-'oiechin-e). 
Reservoir, tokom (tokomda), pi, 

tokomwa (tokomwek). 
Respire, ipus (pr. a-'pus-i, p.p. 

Rest (neut.),imuny (pr. a-'muny-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'muny). 
(act.), imuny-ji (pr. a-'muny-ji- 
ni, p.p. ka-a-'muny-ji). 
Rest, lat (latit). 
Ten and the rest (i. e. more than 
ten), taman ak latit. 
Retire (go back), ket-ite-ke (pr. 
a-ket-itoi-i-ke, p.p. ka-a-ket- 
(come back), ket-u-ke (pr. a-ket- 
u-ke, p.p. ka-a-ket-u-ke). 
Return (neut.), we-i-ke (pr. a- 
we-ch-i-ke, p.p. ka-a-we-i- 




wek-e (pr. a-wek-se-i, p.p. 


(go alone and, return), we-chi-ke 

(pr. a-we-chi-ni-ke, p.p. ka-a- 


(act.), iwech (pr. a-'wech-i, p.p. 

Return hither, ket-u (pr. a-ket-u, 

p.p. ka-a-ket-u). 
Return thither, ket-ite (pr. a-ket- 

itoi-i, p.p. ka-a-ket-ite). 
Return cattle to their kraals, irot 
(pr. a-'rot-i, p.p. ka-a-'rot). 
Reveal, Sgany. (See Uncover.) 
Revenge, yak-u or yak-te. (See 

iker-te (pr. a-'ker-toi-i, p.p. 
Reverse, iwech (pr. a-'wech-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'wech). 
Rhinoceros, kipsirich (kipsirl- 
chet), pi. kipsirichai (kipsirl- 
Rib, karas (karasta), pi. korosua 

Riches, tukun (tukuk) ; karin 

Rich man, makorio (makoriot), 

pi. mokore (mokorek). 
Riddle, tangoch (tangochet), pi. 

tongoch (tongochik). 
Ride upon, lany (pr. a-lony-e, 

p.p. ka-a-lany). 
Ridicule, ias-e (pr. ai-'os-e, p.p. 

Right (hand, Sfc), ap-tai. 
Rind, morio (moriot), pi. mor 

Ring, tamokyo (tamokyet), pi. 
tamok (tamokik). 
Ear-ring : 

Iron-wire ear-ring (old men's), 
kimeiteitio (kimeiteitiot), pi. 
kimeiteitin (kimeiteitinik). 
Long iron-wire ear-ring (men's), 
injololio (injololiot), pLinjololen 

Small iron slabs (men's), engo- 

sholai (engosholaiit), pi. engo- 

sholai (engosholaiik). 

Ear-ring wornby junior warriors, 

chepolungu (chepolungut), pi. 

chepolungus (chepolungusiek). 

Chain ear-ring, worn by senior 

warriors, sirim (sirimdo), pi. 

sirimwag (sirimwagik). 

Married women's ear-ring, tae 

(taet), pi. taoi (taok). 
Old women's ear-ring, asuleyo 
(asuleyot), pi. asulein (asulein- 

Wooden ear-ring, ketit-ap- 
Boys' wooden ear-ring (orna- 
mented), kipalpalio (kipalpal- 
iot), pi. kipalpalin (kipalpal- 
Bead-ring worn by women in the 
upper part of the ear, chepuche- 
cho (chepuchechot), pi. chepu- 
chechai (chepuchechaiik). 
Reed worn by boys in the upper 
fart of the ear, solio (soliot), pi. 
sol (solik). 
Ring a bell, isach twoliot 
Rip, p§t (pr. a-pet-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Ripe, rurot, pi. rurotin. 
Ripen, rur (pr. a-rar-e, p.p. 

Rise (get up), Sglt (pr. a-nglt-e, 
p.p. ka-a-ng§t). 
(stand up), tonon (pr. a-tonoc-i, 

p.p. ka-a-tonon). 
(of the sun), iech (pr. a-'ech-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'ech). 

chor-u (pr. a-chor-u, p.p. 
River, aina (ainet), pi. ainos 

Rivulet, kereru (kererut), pi. 

kererus (kererusiek). 
Road, or (oret), pi. ortinua (or- 
Main road, kibongbong (ki- 




boiigbongit), pi. kibongbongen 

Side road, path leading off the 

main road, kamasan (kama- 

sanet), pi. kamasanoi (kama- 

Hoar, moror (pr. a-moror-e, p.p. 

{of waters), imut (pr. a-'mut-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'mut). 
(of waters at night time), isoi-ye 

(pr. a-'soi-tos^i, p.p. ka-a-'soi- 


Boast {grain, meat, Sfc), isus (pr. 

a-'sus-i, p.p. ka-a-'sus). 

Boast meat by a slow fire, watan 

(pr.a-waton-i, p.p.ka-a-watan). 

Roast meat with the hair on, imel 

(pr. a-'mel-i, p.p. ka-a-'mel). 
Roast fat, kor (pr. a-kor-e, p.p. 

Bake meat, pel (pr. a-pel-e, p.p. 

Make biltong, imerur (pr. a- 
'merur-i, p.p. ka-a-'merur). 
Rob, chor (pr. a-chor-e, p.p. ka- 
(take by force), rep (pr. a-rep-e, 
p.p. ka-a-rep). 

ipe (pr. a-ipe-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Robber, chorin (chorindet), pi. 

chor (chorlk). 
Roll up, maman (pr. a-momon-i, 

p.p. ka-a-maman). 
Roof, kesiok (kesiokut), pi. 
kesiokun (kesiokunik). 
(ceiling), taput (taputet), pi. 
taputon (taputonik). 
Room (apartment), ko or ka. (See 
Is there room here t para yu 1 
Make room / o-para ! 
Root, tlkltio (tikltiot), pL tikit 

Root out, itut (pr. a-'tut-i, p.p. 

Rope, porowa (porowet), pi. 

poroon (poroonik). 
Rot, pul (pr. a-pul-e, p.p. ka-a- 

nun (pr. a-nun-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Rotten, nunat, pi. nunotin; som- 
som, pi. somsomin; pulot, pi. 
pulotin ; games, pi. somis. 
Be very rotten, nunanun (pr. a- 
nunanun-e, p.p. ka-a-nunanun). 
Round, mukul, pi. muknlen. 
Row (put in row), tet (pr. a- 

tet-e, p.p. ka-a-tet). 
Rub, siny (pr. a-siny-e, p.p. ka- 

parpar (pr. a-porpor-i, p.p. 
Bub the skin off, isindlt (pr. a-'sin- 
dlt-i, p.p. ka-a-'sindit). 

icbur (pr. a-'chur-e, p.p. ka- 
Bub on, inyul (pr. a-'nyul-i, p.p. 

Bub in ointment, iil (pr. a-'il-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'il). 
Bub to pieces (e. g. corn), pur 
(pr. a-pur-e, p.p. ka-a-pur). 
Rubbish, meketiwen (meketi- 

pures (puresik). 
Rump, sukulum (sukulumdo), pi. 

sukulumwag (sukulumwagik). 
Run, lapat (pr. a-lopot-i, p.p. 

toromben (pr. a-toromben-i, 

p.p. ka-a-toromben). 

Outstrip by running, ngwen-itu 

(pr. a-ngwen, p.p. ka-a-ngwen- 


Bun away, mwe (pr. a-mwe, p.p. 

(of several people), o-rua (pr. ki- 

rua-i, p.p. ka-ki-rua). 
(escape), chilil (pr. a-chilil-e, p.p. 

Make to run away, ilapat (pr. 
a-'lopot-e, p.p. ka-a-'lapat). 




Run after, awen-ji (pr. a-awen- 
ji-ni, p.p. ka-awen-ji). 
{seek after), sor (pr. a-sor-e, p.p. 

Run down (e. g. like water), chor- 
te-ke (pr. a-chor-toi-i-ke, p.p. 
Run hard, lapat raising ; inem- 
u figwek; ngwen-itu mlsing; 
Runaway, lapatin (lapatindet), 

pi. lopot (lopotik). 
Runner, chepchepiD (chepchep- 
indet), pi. chepckep (chep- 

figwenin (figwenindet), pi. 
ngwen (figwenik). 
Rupee, rupia (rupiet), pi. rupies 

Rust, keruoti (keruotito). 

Saliva, ngul (ngulek). 
Salt, munyu (munyuk). 
Salt for tobacco, makat (makatit), 
pi. makatin (makatlnik). 

munyo (munyot), pi. muny 

(v.), kerecb (pr. a-kerech-i, p.p. 
Cook without salt, itupan (pr. 
a-'tupon-i, p.p. ka-a-'tupan). 
Salt-lick, ngefig (figenda), pi. 

figengwa (ngefigwek). 
Salute, ikat (pr. a-'kot-i, p.p. 
{embrace), toroch (pr. a-toroch-i, 
p.p. ka-a-toroch). 
Sand, figufigunya (nguBgunyat), 

pi. ngunguny (Bgufigunyek). 
Sandal, kweyo (kweyot), pi. 

kweon (kweonik). 
Sandfly, tifigwich (tingwichet), 

pi. tingwich (tingwichik). 
be Satisfied, mie-itu (pr. a-mie, 
p.|>. ka-a-mie-itu). 
Satisfy with food, ipiiy-e (pr. a- 
'piiy-onye, p.p. ka-a-'piiy-e). 

Be satisfied with food, piiy-e 
(pr. a-piiy-onyi, p.p. ka-a- 
Savage, korom, pi. koromen. 
Save, sar-u (pr. a-sar-u, p.p. ka- 
Save up, pas (pr. a-pas-e, p.p. 
Say, mwa (pr. a-mwo-i, p.p. ka- 

figalal (pr. a-ngolol-i, p.p. 
Say bad things of a person, chot 

(pr. a-chot-e, p.p. ka-a-chot). 
Say to, mwa-chi (pr. a-mwa-chi- 

ni, p.p. ka-a-mwa-chi). 
Say thus, ile. (See irregular 

verbs, p. 225.) 
Say thus to, ile-chi (pr. a-'le-chi- 
ni, p.p. ka-a-'le-chi). 
Scabbard. (See Sheath.) 
Scald, pel (pr. a-pel-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Scar, perut (perutiet), pi. perut 

Scare, in-de nyokornan. 
Scarify, wat (pr. a-wot-e, p.p. 

Scatter, iser-te (pr. a-'ser-toi-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'ser-te). 
Be scattered, iser (pr. a-'ser-i, p.p. 

iser-te-ke (pr. a-'ser-toi-i- 
ke, p.p. ka-a-'ser-te-ke). 
Scatter about, iserser (pr. a-'ser- 
ser-i, p.p. ka-a-'serser). 
Scorch, mel (pr. a-mel-i, p.p. 
Scorch meat, imerur (pr. a-'me- 

rur-i, p.p. ka-a-'merur). 
{consume by scorching), lach (pr. 

a-loch-e, p.p. ka-a-lach). 
{be on fire), lal (pr. a-lol-i, p.p. 
Scorpion, melmel (melmeldo), pi. 

melmeluag (melmeluagik). 
Scour, siny (pr. a-siny-e, p.p. 

v 2 



Soout, ngoror (ngororet), pi. 
flgororos (ngororosiek). 
{spy), ngertimio (ngertimiot), 
pi. figertimin (ngertimlnik). 
Scowl at, injurur (pr. a-'njurur- 

i, p.p. ka-a-'njurur). 
Scrape, sit (pr. a-sit-e, p.p. ka- 
Clean by scraping, ngoifigoi 
(pr. a-ngoingoi-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Scrape off (husks), porpor (pr. a- 

porpor-i, p.p. ka-a-porpor). 
(peel) iai (pr. a-'oi-e, p.p. ka-'ai). 
Scraps (left after eating), katu- 
kania (katukaniat), pi. katu- 
kan (katukanik). 
(left during circumcision), to- 
lofigia (tolofigiat), pi. tolong 
Scratch, ingwar (pr. a-'ngwar-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'ngwar). 
Scratch like a hen, was (pr. a- 

wos-e, p.p. ka-a-was). 
Scratch with the claws, kut (pr. 

a-kut-e, p.p. ka-a-kut). 
Scratch a cow (similar to patting 
a horse), ingo (pr. a-'ngo-i, p.p. 
Scrotum, lato (latet), pi. latos 
(when castrated), kap-lat (kap-la- 
tit), pi. kap-latiu (kap-latmik). 
Scull, takungu (takungut), pi. 

takungus (takungusiek). 
Sea, nianja. (See Lake.) 
Search (look for), cheng (pr. a- 
cheBg-e, p.p. ka-a-chefig). 
Search everywhere, chengcheiig 
(pr. a-chengchefig-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Take a light to search for some- 
thing in the dark, ikweny (pr. 
a-'kweny-i, p.p. ka-a-'kweny). 
Season, oii (olto), pi. oltos (oltos- 
The rainy season (March to Au- 
gust), olt'-ap-iwot or iwotet. 

The dry season (September to 
March), olt'-ap-keme or ke- 
Seat, atep (atepet), pi. atepos 
(stool), figecher (figecheret), pi. 
ngecheroi (ngecherok). 
Second, ap-oieng. 
Section (of warriors), sirit (sirit- 

iet), pi. siritai (siritaiik). 
Seduce, sach (pr. a-soch-e, p.p. 

See, iro. (See irregular verbs, 
p. 224.) 

L., ker (pr. a-ker-e, p.p. ka- 
(meet), nyor-u (pr. a-nyor-u, p.p. 

See coming towards one, iang- 
anu (pr. a-'ang-anu, p.p. ka- 
See going away from one, iang- 
ate (pr. a-'ang-ati, p.p. ka- 
Seed, kesua (kesuot), pi. kesui 

Seek, mach (pr. a-moch-e, p.p. 
Seek for, cheng (pr. a-cheng-e, 

p.p. ka-a-cheng). 
Seek out for, cheng-ji (pr. a- 
cheiig-ji-ni, p.p. ka-a-cheng-ji). 
Seize, nam (pr. a-nom-e, p.p. ka- 
(take by force), ipe (pr. a-ipe-i, 
p.p. ka-a-ipe). 

rep (pr. a-rep-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Select, letye (pr. a-letye-i, p.p. 

Sell, al-te (pr. a-ol-toi-i, p.p. ka- 
Sell for, al-to-chi (pr. a-ol-to-chi- 

ni, p.p. ka-al-to-chi). 
Sell dear, klm (pr. a-klm-e, p.p. 
Seller, altoin (altoindet), pi. alto 



Send, imut (pr. a-'mnt-i, p.p. 

Send to a person, ip-chi (pr. a- 

ip-chi-ni, p.p. ka-ip-chi). 
Send a person, iok-te (pr. a-'ok- 

toi-i, p.p. ka-'ok-te). 
Send a person, to a person, iok- 

to-chi (pr. a-'ok-to-cki-ni, p.p. 

Send away, is-te (pr. a-is-toi-i, 

p.p. ka-is-te). 
Send away (dismiss), oon (pr. a- 

oon-e, p.p. ka-a-oon). 
Send back, retwrn, iwech (pr. 

a-'wech-i, p.p. ka-a-'wech). 
Sense, met (metit) ; figomnot 

He has no sense, ma-tinye figom- 
not ; ma-tinye met. 
Sentry, rlpin (rlpindet), pi. rip 

Separate (apart), loo. 
v. (set far apart), ilooit (pr. a- 

'looit-i, p.p. ka-a-'looit). 
(set apart), ipes-ie (pr. a-'pes- 

tos-i, p.p. ka-a-'pes-ie). 
Separate people who are fighting, 

ket (pr. a-ket-e, p.p. ka-a-ket). 
Servant, otuag. (See Slave.) 
Serve, poiisie-chi (pr. a-poiisie- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-poiisie-chi). 
ut (pr. a-ut-e, p.p. ka-a-ut). 
Be a servant, poiisie (pr. a- 

poiisie-i, p.p. ka-a-poiisie). 
Set, konor (pr. a-konor-i, p.p. 

(plant), kol (pr. a-kol-e, p.p. 

(of the sun), rorok-te(pr. a-rorok- 

toi-i, p.p. ka-a-rorok-te). 
Set (e.g. a dog) at somebody, ipe 

(pr. a-'p§-i, p.p. ka-a-'p§). 
Set a trap, tech (pr. a-tech-e, 

p.p. ka-a-tech). 
Set fire to, in-de mat ; ilal ; 
Set in order, tet (pr. a-tet-e, p.p. 

Set out on a journey, ru-te (pr. 

a-ru-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-ru-te). 
Set up, itelel (pr. a-'telel-i, p.p. 

Seven, tisap. 

Seventeen, taman ak tisap. 
Seventh, ap-tisap. 
Seventy, tomonuagik tisap. 
Sew, nap (pr. a-nop-e, p.p. ka- 

Sew on, kin (pr. a-kin-e, p.p. 

Shade, urua (uruet), pi. uruondoi 

(v.), in-de ururet. 
Shadow (of inanimate objects), 

urua (uruet), pi. uruondoi (uru- 
(of animate objects), tomirimir 

(tomirimiriet), pi. tomirimirai 

Shake, isach (pr. a-'soch-i, p.p. 

Shake out, lilich (pr. a-lilick-i, 

p.p. ka-a-lilich). 
Shake trees, itumtum (pr. a-'tum- 

tum-i, p.p. ka-a-'tumtum). 
Shake milk to make butter, saisach 

(pr. a-saisach-e, p.p. ka-a-Eai- 

Shake oneself (e.g. like a sheep), 

lele-ke (pr. a-lele-i-ke, p.p. ka- 

Shame, in-de konyit. 
Share, chwe (pr. a-chwe, p.p. 

Sharp, ngatip, pi. ngatipen. 
Sharpen, lit (pr. a-lit-e, p.p. ka- 

Shave, inem-u (pr. a-'nem-u, 

p.p. ka-a-'nem-u). 
Pull out the hairs, put (pr. a- 

put-e, p.p. ka-a-put). 
She, inendet; ine. 
Sheath (with sword in), chok 

(choket), pi. chokon (chokonik). 
Empty sheath, arak (araket), pL 

arakai (arakaiik). 



Sheath-belt, piren (pirenet), pi. 
pirenai (pirenaiik). 

pireyuo (pireyuot), pi. pire 


Strap of sheath-belt, torogeyuo 

(torogeyuot), pi. toroge (to- 


Sheath of ox, sasai (sasaita), pi. 

sasaiua (sasaiuek). 
Sheep, kechir (kechiriet), pi. 
kechir (kechlrek). 

ara (artet), pi. no (nlko). 
Earn, mengich (mengit), pi. 

menglch (menglchik). 
Castrated sheep, tesiim (tesiimiet), 

pi. tesiim (tesiimik). 
Spotted sheep, cheleke (chelekeit). 
Lamb, aruwet-ap-kechir. 
Shell (of fish, snail, <J-c), chemu- 
ruag (chemuruaget), pi. chemu- 
ruag (chemuruagik). 
Husk, morio (moriot), pi. mor 
Shell (beans, <J - c), ipuny (pr. 

a-'puny-i, p.p. ka-a-'puny). 
Shelter, in-de uruet. 
Small hut as shelter, kerio 

(keriet), pi. kerion (kerionik). 
Take shelter, tek-u (pr. a-tek-u, 
p.p. ka-a-tek-u). 
Shepherd, mistoa (mistoat), pi. 
mistoe (mistoek). 

koiokin (koiokindet), pi. 
koiok (koiokik). 
Shield, long (longet), pi. lofigo- 
tinua (longotinnek). 
Outside edge of shield, saanya (sa- 
anyat), pi. saanyas (saanyasiek). 
Midrib of shield, ketit-ap-longet. 
Raised portion on outside of 
shield, ketup (ketupet), pi. 
ketupos (ketuposiels). 
Leather protection for the hand on 
midrib of shield, rarai (raraita), 
pi. raraiua (raraiuek). 
Skin used for binding midrib on, 
to shield, tikiseyuo (tikiseyuot), 
pi. tikise (tikiaeyuek). 

Kavirondo shield, torkoch (fcor- 

kochet), pi. torkoch (torkochik). 
Shin, korok (korokta), pi. korok- 

wa (korokwek). 
Shine, lelit-u (pr. a-lelit-u, p.p. 

Shine on, lil (pr. a-lil-e, p.p. ka- 

Shiver, potan (pr. a-p6ton-i, p.p. 

Shoot, mwog (pr. a-mwog-e, p.p. 

Shoot into the jugular vein, 

char (pr. a-chor-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Shoot (e.g. as a plant), ingat(pr. 

a-'ngot-i, p.p. ka-a-'ngat). 
Short, nuach, pi. nuoken. 
Be short, nuak-itu (pr. a-nuak, 

p.p. ka-a-nnak-itu). 
Shorten, inuakit (pr. a-'nuakit-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'nuakit). 
Shoulder (human beings), tikik 

(tikikiet), pi. tikikai (tikik- 

Shoulder (animals), shoulder- 
blade (human beings), laiya 

(laiyet), pL laiyas (laiyasiek). 
Shout, waka (wakat). 
(v.), wach (pr. a-woch-e, p.p. ka- 

Shout with pain, ite (pr. a-'te-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'te). 
Show, ipor-chi (pr. a-'por-chi- 

ni, p.p. ka-a-'por-chi). 

iaror-chi (pr. a-'aror-chi-ni, 

p.p. ka-'aror-chi). 
Shower, kipines (kipinesit). 
Shrewd, ngom, pi. ngomen. 
Shrewd person, iigomin (ngom- 

indo), pi. ngominwag (figoni- 

Shudder, potan (pr. a-pdton-i, 

p.p. ka-a-potan). 
Shut, ker (pr. a-ker-e, p.p. ka- 

(close), isip-chi (pr. a-'sip-chi- 

ni, p.p. ka-a-'sip-chi). 



Sick, mioni, pi. miondos. 
Be sick or ill, mian (pr. a- 
mion-e, p.p. ka-a-mian). 
Sickness, mion. (See Illness.) 
Side (of a river, dec), tapan 
(tapanda), pi. tapanuag (tapan- 

komas (komasto), pi. komas- 
uag (komasuagik). 
Near the water, pit (pitit). 
The other side, plt6n-in. 
Side of the body, karas (karasta), 

pi. korosua (korosuek). 
Side by side, tapan -tapan. 
One-sided, kimosak. 
Sift grain (by shaking), nga (pr. 
a-ngo-i, p.p. ka-a-figa). 
(by tossing), ses (pr. a-ses-e, p.p. 
Silence, isis (pr. a-'sis-e, p.p. ka- 
Become silent, sis (pr. a-sis-i, p.p. 
iep iit. 
A silent person, siso (siset), pi. 
sis (sisek) ; kipsise (kipsise- 

")• . . . 

Silently, sison; sisonsison. 

Go silently, sis- ate (pr. a-sis-ati, 

p.p. ka-a-sis-ate). 
Come silently, sis-anu (pr. a-sis- 

anu, p.p. ka-a-sis-anu). 
Sin, chaluog (chaluogto), pi. 

choluogwa (choluogwek). 
(v.), chaluogen (pr. a-choluogen-i, 

p.p. ka-a-chaluogen). 
Since, akut-keny. 

Since then, otkote atkinye. 
Sing, tien (pr. a-tien-i, p.p. ka- 

Sing to a child, islch(pr. a-'slch-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'slch). 
Sing a solo, kur-u (pr. a-kur-u, 

p.p. ka-a-kur-u). 
Sink (act.), ilis (pr. a-'lis-i, p.p. 

(neut.), lis (pr. a-lis-e, p.p. ka- 


Sinner, chaluogin (chaluogindet), 

pi. choluog (choluogik). 
Sister, tupcho (tupchet), pi. 
angut-tupchet (or tupchosiek). 
chep-kamet, pi. angut-chep- 
kamet (or angut-chep-kamet- 
My sister, chep-eiyo, pi. angut- 
chep-eiyo ; lakw4n-ni, pi. lako- 
Thy sister, chep-komit, pi. angut- 
chep-komit (or angut-chep- 
Sister-in-law (wife's sister), pa- 
mur (pamurto). 
(husband's sister), kamati (ka- 
Ovm sister-in-law (man speaking) , 

(woman speaking), kamati. 
Sit, tepi (pr. a-tepi-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Sit upon (e.g. a stool), tepe (pr. 

a-tepe, p.p. ka-a-tepe). 
Move along in a sitting posture, 
like a child unable to walk, yech 
(pr. a-yech-i, p.p. ka-a-yech). 
Sit on eggs, &c, siep (pr. a-siep-e, 
p.p. ka-a-siep). 
Six, illo; kullo. 
Sixteen, taman ak illo. 
Sixth, ap-illo. 
Sixty, tomonuagik illo. 
Skeleton, k6woi (kowek). 
Skin (human beings), iririo (iri- 
riot), pi. iriren (irirenik). 
Ox-skin, goat's skin. (See Hide, 
(v.), eny (pr. a-eny-e, p.p. ka-a- 

kiny (pr. a-kiny-e, p.p. ka- 

To skin without cutting the hide, 
isindlt (pr. a-'sindlt-i, p.p. ka- 
Sky, parak. (See Heaven.) 
Sky-light, kutit-ap-taput. 
Slap, irapach (pr. a-'rapoch-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'rapaoh). 



Slash {with a knife), iep (pr. oi- 

'ep-e, p.p. ka-a-'ep). 
Slaughter, eny (pr. a-eny-i, p.p. 

Slaughter-house, ekor (ekorto), 

pi. ekorua (ekoruek). 
Slave, otuag (otuaget), pi. otuag 

Work as a slave, ut (pr. a-ut-e, 
p.p. ka-a-ut). 
Sleek, akwai, pi. akwoien. 
Sleep, ruon (ruondo). 

(v.), ru (pr. a-ru-e, p.p. ka- 
Sleep well, ru ko-mie. 
Sleep hungry, rukut (pr. a- 

rukut-i, p.p. ka-a-rukut). 
Be sleepy, inuich (pi-, a-'nuich-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'nuich). 
I am sleepy, a-'nuich-i or am-a 
Doze, pir-te met. 
Sleep on the back, tarngang-se 
(pr. a-tarngang-se-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Sleep in somebody else's house, 
ket (pr. a-ket-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Be unable to sleep, kelel (pr. a- 

kelel-i, p.p. ka-a-kelel). 
Sleeping-place, kap-ruon (kSp- 

Sleeping-place (camp) on the war- 
path, olpul (olpulit), pi. olpulis 
Slim, tenden, pi. tendin. 
Slip, chapai (pr. a-chapoi-i, p.p. 
Slip away, chilil (pr. a-chilil-i, 

p.p. ka-a-ohilil). 
Slip out of the hand, chirkwin 
(pr. a-chirkwin-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Slip off, ichewit (pr. a-'chewit-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'chewit). 
Slit, pit (pr. a-pgt-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Slowly, mutio. 

Slug, kimngeliek. (See Snail.) 
Small, mining, pi. mingech. 
Be small, mining-itu (pr. a- 
minirig, p.p. ka-a-mining- 
Be very small, nyarat-itu (pr. 
a-nyarat, p.p. ka-a-nyarat- 
Smear on, iil (pr. a-'il-i, p.p. 

Smell (act.), ingu (pr. a-'ngu-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'ngu\ 
(neut.), ngu-u (pr. a-ngu-u, p.p. 

ngu-te (pr. a-ngu-toi-i, p.p. 
Smith, kitofigin (kitongindet), 
pi. kitofig (kitongik). 
kutin. (See Tanner.) 
Smith's,kap-kitongin (kap- 
kitofigindet), pi. kap-kitong 
Smithy, kap-kitany (kap-kitan- 

Smoke, iyet (iyeto), pi. iyetwag 
(v.), mong-u iyeto. 
Smoke tobacco, kul tumatet. 
Smooth, tapulul, pi. tapululin. 
(v.), tapulul (pr. a-tapulul-i, 
p.p. ka-a-tapulul). 
Snail, kimfigeliek (kimngeliekut), 
pi. kimngeliekus (kimngeliek- 
Snake, eren (erenet), pi. erenoi 
Puff-adder, kipchuse (kipchu- 
seit), pi. kipchusein (kipchu- 
Python, indara (indaret), pi. in- 
daroi (indarok). 
Other kinds, kapseroiyo (kap- 
seroiyot), pi. kapseroiin (kap- 

kiptalelio (kiptaleliet), pi. 
kiptaleloi (kiptalelok). 
Snare, tech (pr. a-tech-e, p.p. 



Sneeze, irion (pr. a-'rion-i, p.p. 

Snore, tangurur (pr. a-tangurur-i, 

p.p. ka-a-tangurur). 
Snort, ifigir (pr. a-'ngir-i, p.p. 
(of oxen), tarar (pr. a-tarar-i, p.p. 

(of goats), ipir (pr. a-'pir-i, p.p. 
Snuff, chepkochut (chepkochut- 
it), pi. chepkoohutin (chepko- 
Snuff-box, kiprau (kipraut), pi. 
kipraus (kiprausiek). 

chepkirau (chepkiraut), pi. 

chepkirans (chepkirausiek). 

Snuff-box for liquid snuff (L.), 

kironges (kirongesiet), pi. ki- 

rongesoi (kirongesok). 

Soak, inur (pr. a-'nur-i, p.p. ka- 

Soft, tangus, pi. tangusin. 
Soften, itangus (pr. a-'tangus-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'tangus). 
Soften by putting into water, inur 
(pr. a-'nur-i, p.p. ka-a-'nur). 
Soldier, segein (segeindet), pi. 
sege (segeik). 

asikarin (asikarindet), pL 
asikari (asikarik). 
Sole (of the foot), keltepes (kelte- 
pesiet), pi. keltepesoi (kelte- 

Some, ake, pi. alak. 
Somebody, chiit' ake. 
Something, kiit' ake. 
Sometimes, katukul. 
Somewhere, olt' ake. 
Son, lakwa (lakwet), pi. lakoi 

figeta (figetet), pL nget 
My son (man speaking), wefr-i, 

lakwdn-ni, or apoiyo. 
My son (woman speaking), lak- 

Son-in-law, sandi (sandit). 
Own son-in-law, sandanaa, pi. 
Song, tien (tiendo), pi. tienuag 

Soon, toma kitegin. 

First of all, isi. 
Soot, Bgetetio (ngetetiot). 

nesio (nesiot), pi. nes (nesek). 
Soothe, sis-chi (pr. a-sis-chi-ni, 

p.p. ka-a-sis-chi). 
Sore, m6. (See Abscess.) 
Touch a sore place, ioch (pr. 
a-'och-i, p.p. ka-a-'och). 
be Sorry, arogen (pr. a-arogen-i, 

p.p. ka-arogen). 
Sough (of the wind), imut (pr. 

a-'mut-i, p.p. ka-a-'mut). 
Soul, mukulel (mukuleldo), pi. 

mukulelua (mukuleluek). 
Sound, pol (polet), pi. polos 

Sound (whole), mie, pi. miach ; 
mugul, pi. mugulen. 
(healthy), klm, pi. kimen. 
Soup, sut (sutek). 
Sour, ngwan, pi. figwonin. 
Sow seeds, kol (pr. a-kol-e, p.p. 
Sow seeds by scattering, let-te 
(pr. a-let-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-let-te). 
Space, para. 
There is space here, para yu. 
There is no space here, ma-rich. 
Speak, mwa (pr. a-mwo-i, p.p. 

figalal (pr. a-ngolol-i, p.p. 

ile. (See irregular verbs, 
p. 225.) 
(of a dying man), twek-u (pr. 

a-twek-u, p.p. ka-a-twek-u). 
Speak ! Speak out 1 amu ! mwa 
mlsing ! 

Not to speak, sis. 
Speaker, mwain (mwaindet), pi. 
mwai (mwaiik). 
Quick speaker, kiplepilep (kip- 



Speaker : 

lepilepit), pi. kiplepilepis (kip- 

Slow speaker, kipkones (kip- 

konesit), pi. kipkonesin (kip- 

Spear, figot (figotit), pi. Sgotua 

Long-shafted small-bladed spear, 

ndlri (ndirit), pi. ndiris (ndlris- 


atiat), pi. erengatin (erengat- 

Blade, melei (meleito), pi. me- 

leiua (meleiuek). 
Ridge of blade, surio (suriot), 

pi. surios (suriosiek). 
Edge of blade, ngotep (figotep- 

to), pi. ngotepua (ngotepuek). 
Handle, irumo (irumet), pi. iru- 

mai (irumaiik). 
Where the blade is fixed on to the 

handle, ko. (See House.) 
Iron butt, chileyuo (chileyuot), 

pi. chile (chileyuek). 
Leather ring on butt, tikiseyuo 

(tikiseyuot), pi. tikise (tiki- 

Spider, kiprorog (kiproroget), 

pi. kiprorogos (kiprorogos- 

Spill, tum-de (pr. a-tum-doi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-tum-de). 
Spinal column, oret-ap-patai. 
Spit (hither), ngut-u (pr. a- 

figut-u, p.p. ka-a-figut-u). 
Spit thither, ngut-u-te (pr. a- 

iigut-u-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-ngut-u- 

Spit at, figut-yi (pr. a-ngut-yi- 

ni, p.p. ka-a-ngut-yi). 
S])it out water or honey-wine, 

piit (pr. a-piit-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Spittle, ngul (figulek). 
Splash, was (pr. a-nas-e, p.p. 


{of rain), imut (pr. a-'mut-i, p.p. 

Spleen, nuak (nuakta), pi. nuok- 

oi (nuokok). 
Splice, rop (pr. a-rop-e, p.p. ka- 

Spoil, ngem (pr. a-ngem-e, p.p. 

Spokesman, kiruogin. (See Ad- 
Spoon, mukang (mukanget), pi. 

mukangan (mukanganik). 
kutere (kuteret), pi. kuterai 

seget (segetiet), pi. segetoi 

Spoor (footprints of animals), 

mukung (mukunget), pi. mu- 

kungon (mukungonik). 
Spotted, marmar, pi. mor- 

Spread (a shin), iit-te (pr. a-'it- 

toi-i, p.p. ka-'it-te). 
Spread out in the sun, ma (pr. 

a-mo-i, p.p. ka-a-ma). 
Spring (of water), sukutia (suku- 

tiat), pi. sukut (sukutek). 
Hot spring, p£k che-lepilep. 
Sprinkle, inak-e (pr. a-'nok-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'nak-e). 
(throw water on), is (pr. a-is-e, 

p.p. ka-a-is). 
Sprout, sororua (sororuet), pi. 

sororon (sororonik). 

ingat (pr. a-'ngot-i, p.p. ka- 

Spy (scout), ngertimio (ngerti- 

miot), pi. figertimin(ngertimln- 

Squabble, o-agut-ie (pr. ki-agut- 

tos-i, p.p. ki-agut-ie). 
Cause to squabble with some one, 

iul-ie (pr. a-'ul-dos-i, p.p. ka- 

Squeeze, iiny (pr. o-'iny-i, p.p. 

Squirrel, kiplanget (kiplanget- 



Squirrel : 

iet), pi. kiplangetoi (kiplanget- 
Stab, tor (pr. a-tor-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Stab in the jugular vein, un (pr. 
a-un-e, p.p. ka-a-un). 
Stalk, mopcho (mopchot), pi. mop 
(of millet), tiangia (tiangiat), pi. 
tiangin (tianginik). 
Stalk an animal, sap-chi (pr. a- 

sop-chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-sap-chi). 
Stand, tonon (pr. a-tonon-i, p.p. 

telel (pr. a-telel-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Stand on something, tonon-e (pr. 

a-tonon-e, p.p. ka-a-tonon-e). 
Make to stand, itonon (pr. a- 

'tonon-i, p.p. ka-a-'tonon). 
Make to stand against, itur (pr. 

a-'tur-i, p.p. ka-a-'tui). 
Stand on one side, yepen (pr. 

a-yepen-i, p.p. ka-a-yepen). 
Stand upright ! tonon ko-mie ! 
Star, kecheia (kecheiat), pi. ke- 
chei (kecheik). 
The milky way, poit'-ap-kechei. 
The evening star, kipokiot. 
The morning star, tapoiyot. 
The midnight star, kokeliet. 
Orion's belt and sword, kakip- 
The Pleiades, koremerik. 
Stare at, ickil-chi konda. 
Start (neut.), yepen (pr. a-yepen- 

i, p.p. ka-a-yepen). 
Startle, imu (pr. a-'mu-i, p.p. 

Starve, me eng-rubet. 
Stay, tepi (pr. a-tepi-e, p.p. ka- 
(wait), kany (pr. a-kony-e, p.p. 

{loiter), ikaa-ke ; tepi keny. 
Steal, chor (pr. a-chor-e, p.p. 

Steal from, chor-cM (pr. a-chor- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-chor-chi). 
Stick, kiruk (kirukto), pi. kiruk- 

wa (kirukwek). 

korok (korokto), pi. korokwa 

Swizzle stick, purpo (purpet), pi. 

purpos (purposiek). 
Fire stick, pion (pionet), pi. pion 

Women's walking-stick, sigilgilio 

(sigilgiliot), pi. sigilgil (sigilgil- 

Still, kc-keny. 
/ am still following him, ta-a- 

'sup-i ; ta-a-'sup-i ko-keny. 
Sting, ut (pr. a-ut-e, p.p. ka-a-ut). 
Stinging-nettle, siwo (siwot), pi. 

siwa (siwek). 
Stink, samis-itu (pr. a-samis, p.p. 

A person who stinks, (m.), kip- 

kopok ; (f.), chepkopok. 
Stir, korkoren (pr. a-korkoren-i, 

p.p. ka-a-korkoren). 
Stir porridge, kwany (pr. a- 

kwony-i, p.p. ka-a-kwany). 
Stomach, mo (moiet), pi. mootin- 

ua (mootinuek). 
Second stomach, kipkonyan (kip- 

konyanit), pi. kipkonyanis(kip- 

Third stomach, kipsager (kipsa- 

geriet), pi. kipsagerai (kipsa- 

Fourth stomach, kiminyor (ki- 

minyoriet), pi. kiminyorai (ki- 

Water stomach, imbojo (imbojet), 

pi. imbojai (imbojaiik). 
Stone, koii (koiita), pi. koiin 

A stone house, kot-ap-koiik ; ko- 

Stones used for divining pun "poses, 

parpar (parparek). 
Quartz, kiparkoii (kiparkoiita), 

pi. kiparkoiin (kiparkoiik). 



Stone : 

Obsidian, sengwet (sengwetiet), 
pi. sengwetai (sengwetaiik). 
Stool, figecher (ngecheret), pi. 

ngecheroi (ngecherok). 
Stoop, ripis (pr. a-ripis-e, p.p. 

inguru-ke (pr. a-'nguru-i-ke, 
p.p. ka-a-'figuru-ke). 
Stop (act.), rany (pr. a-rony-e, 
p.p. ka-a-rany). 
(neut.), telel (pr. a-telel-i, p.p. 

Stop up (a small hole, #c), tlm 
(pr. a-tim-e, p.p. ka-a-tfm). 

(a big hole, <$c), rich (pr. 
a-rich-e, p.p. ka-a-rich). 
Stopper, muko (muket), pi. mu- 
kon (mukonik). 

kereyuo (kereyuot), pi. kere 
Story, kapchemosin (kapchemo- 

Stout, nyikis, pi. nyikisen ; nerat, 

pi. nerotin. 
Straighten, ilitit (pr. a-'litit-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'litit). 
(stretch), chul (pr. a-chul-e, p.p. 

(be straight), chul-ak-e (pr. a- 
chul-at, p.p. ka-a-chul-ak-e). 
Stranger, too (toot or toondet), 

pi. toi (toiek). 
Strangle, iket (pr. a-'ket-i, p.p. 

Stray, pet (pr. a-pet-e, p.p. ka- 
An animal that has strayed, che- 
putio (cheputiot), pi. cheputin 
Stream, aina (ainet), pi. ainGs 

kereru (kererut), pi. kererus 
Strength, kimnon (kimnonet), 

kimnat (klmnatet). 
Stretch, chul (pr. a-chul-e, p.p. 

Stretch oneself, chul-ke (pr. a- 

chul-i-ke, p.p. ka-a-chul-ke). 
Stretch one's legs, iit-te keliek. 
Stretch a skin, ui-te (pr. a-ui- 
toi-i, p.p. ka-a-ui-te). 
Strew, iser-clii (pr. a-'ser-chi-ni, 

p.p. ka-a-'ser-chi). 
Strike, pir (pr. a-pir-e, p.p. ka- 
Strike once with a stick, kwer 
(pr. a-kwer-e, p.p. ka-a-kwer). 
mas (pr. a-mos-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Strike several times with a stick, 
kwerakwer (pr. a-kwerakwer-i, 
p.p. ka-a-kwerakwer). 
Strike a person who is not looking, 
luom (pr. a-luom-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Strike a person who is not look- 
ing, with a view to stealing his 
property, ke-chi (pr. a-ke-chi- 
ni, p.p. ka-a-ke-chi). 
Strike the foot against something, 
inach (pr. a-'nach-i, p.p. ka-a- 
Strike with the fist, luch (pr. a- 

luch-e, p.p. ka-a-luch). 
Strike with the foot (kick), itiar 
(pr. a-'tiar-i, p.p. ka-a-'tiar). 
String, porowa (porowet), pi. 

poroon (poroonik). 
String (beads, $-c), yua (pr. a- 

yua-i, p.p. ka-a-yua). 

Strip oflF, ipony (pr. a-'pony-e, 

p.p. ka-a-'pony). 

Strip off branches, leaves, fyc, 

tur (pr. a-tur-e, p.p. ka-a-tur). 

Stripe, siro (siret), pi. sireyua 

Striped, sirat, pi. sirotin. 
Strive (together), o-pir-ke (pr. 
ki-pir-i-ke, p.p. ka-ki-pir-ke). 
(make an effort), inet-ke kut. 
Stroke, sapsap (pr. a-sopsop-i, 

p.p. ka-a-sapsap). 
Stroll about, wend-oteola-tukul. 
Strong, klm, pi. kimen. 



Strongly, eng-go wo; eng-gimnon. 
Stubble, ror (roret), pi. roro- 

tinua (rorotinuek). 
Stumble, teteri-ote (pr. a-teteri- 

oti, p.p. ka-a-teteri-ote). 
Stupid, periper, pi. periperen. 
(n.), apusan (apusanet), pi. apus- 

an (apusanik). 
Stutterer, kipuikut (kipuikutit), 

pi. kipuikutin (kipuikutinik). 
Subdue, ipel (pr. a-'pel-i, p.p. 

Succeed (follow), isup (pr. a- 

'sup-i, p.p. ka-a-'sup). 
Succeed in doing, sich (pr. 

a-sich-e, p.p. ka-a-sich). 
Such and such (people), (piik) 

Suck (human beings), chuchun 

(pr. a-cbuchun-i, p.p. ka-a- 

(animals), reri (pr. a-reri-e, p.p. 

Suck fruits udth stones in them, 

ngunngul (pr. a-ngunngul-i, 

p.p. ka-a-ngunngul). 
Suckle (human beings), chuchun- 

ji (pr. a-ckuchun-ji-ni, p.p. ka- 

(animals), reri-chi (pr. a-reri- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-reri-chi). 
Suffice, yam (pr. a-yam-e, p.p. 

Sugar {honey), kumia (kumiat), 

pi. kumin (kumlk). 
sukaio (sukarok). 
Sugar-cane, mopcho (mopchot), 

pL mop (mopek). 
Suit, iam (pr. ai-'am-i, p.p. ka- 

Summit, parak (parakut). 
Sun, asis (asista), pi. asisua (asis- 

Support, ti (pr. a-ti-e, p.p. ka- 

Suppose, apere noto. 
Surpass, sir-te (pr. a-sir-toi-i, 

p.p. ka-a-sir-te). 

oon (pr. a-oon-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Surprise, tangany (pr. a-tongo- 

ny-i, p.p. ka-a-tangany). 
Surround, ikem (pr. a-'kem-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'kem). 
(go round), iraut (pr. a-'mut-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'mut). 
Swallow, lukui (pr. a-lukui-i, 

p.p. ka-a-lukui). 
Swamp, tolil (tolllet), pi. tolllon 
Large swamp, rlro (rlret), pi. 

rlron (rironik). 
Sheet of water, peiyo (peiyot), pi. 
pei (pSk). 
Swear, par mumek. 
Swear at, chup (pr. a-chup-e, 
p.p. ka-a-chup). 
Sweat, kaot (kaotik). 
(v. imp.), inget-yi kaot. 
Ihave sweated, ka-'nget-y-o kaot. 
Sweep, ipuoh (pr. a-'puck-i, p.p. 

Sweet, anyiny, pi. onyinyin. 
Sweetheart (man), saanya 
(saandet), pi. saan (saanik). 
(girt), murer (mureret), pi. 
mureren (murerenik). 
Sweet potato, roboonio (roboon- 

iot), pi. roboon (roboonik). 
Swell, ipwan-e (pr. a-'pwan-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'pwan-e). 
Swine, tora (toret), pi. toroi 

Switch, kiruk (kirukto), pi. 

kirukwa (kirukwek). 
Sword, rotua (rotuet), pi. rotoi 
(rotok) ; rotuet-ap-chok. 
Handle of sword, kungit-ap- 

Tail, katut (katutiet), pi. katutai 
Tail of sheep, sarur (saruriet), pi. 
sarurai (earuraiik). 
Tail of an ewe, kiskis (kiskisto), 
pi. kiskisua (kiskisuek). 



Tail : 

End of a ram's tail, kipwal 

(kipwalit), pi. kipwalis (kip- 

Hair at the end of a tail, museyuo 

(museyuot), pi. muse (muse- 

Tailor, napin (napindet), pi. nap 

Take, nam (pr. a-nom-e, p.p. 

(receive), tach (pr. a-toch-e, p.p. 

Take a person, imut (pr. a-'mut-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'mut). 
Take to a person, ip-chi (pr. a-ip- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-ip-chi). 
Take to a place, ip (pr. a-ip-e, 

p.p. ka-ip). 
Take a path, pun (pr. a-pun-e, 

p.p. ka-a-pun). 

ker-te (pr. a-ker-toi-i, p.p. 

Take a walk, wend-ote (pr. a- 

wend-oti, p.p. ka-a-wend-ote). 
Take across, ilan-de (pr. a-'lon- 

doi-i, p.p. ka-a-'lan-de). 
Take as spoil, par-u (pr. a-par-u, 

p.p. ka-a-par-u). 
Take away, is-te (pr. a-is-toi-i, 

p.p. ka-is-te). 
Take away cattle, ngel (pr. a- 

figel-e, p.p. ka-a-ngel). 
Take beads off' a string, chiruk- 

te (pr. a-chiruk-toi-i, p.p. ka- 

Take a load from a person, itu- 

chi (pr. a-'tu-chi-ni, p.p. ka- 

Take from a person, inem-chi 

(pr. a-'nem-cni-ni, p.p. ka-a- 

Take by force, rep (pr. a-rep-e, 

p.p. ka-a-rep). 

ipe (pr. a-ipe-i, p.p. ka-a- 

Take care, iro. (See irregular 

verbs, p. 224.) 

Take care of, rip (pr. a-rip-e, 

p.p. ka-a-rlp). 

ikun (pr. a-'kun-i, p.p. ka-a- 

Take down, irek-u (pr. a-'rek-u, 

p.p. ka-a-'rek-u). 
Take leave of, ikat (pr. a-'kat-i, 

p.p. ka-a-'kat). 
Take off (clothes, beads, Sfc), 

irek-u (pr. a-'rek-u, p.p. ka-a- 
Take off (the fire), sut-u (pr. a- 

sut-u, p.p. ka-a-sut-u). 
Take one's revenge, yak-te ; 

yak-u ; yok-chi, &c. 
Take out, inem-u (pr. a-'nem-u, 

p.p. ka-a-'nem-u). 
Take out of a trap, itiach (pr. 

a-'tioch-i, p.p. ka-a-'tiach). 
Take out of the sun or rain, inur 

(pr. a-'nur-i, p.p. ka-a-'nur). 
Take out of the pot, pol-u (pr. 

a-pol-u, p.p. ka-a-pol-u). 
Take to pieces, irarach (pr. a- 

'raroch-i, p.p. ka-a-'rarach). 
Take up, inem-u (pr. a-'nem-u, 

p.p. ka-a-'nem-u). 
Take up a load, sut (pr. a-sut-e, 

p.p. ka-a-sut). 
Take up (e.g. grain) a little at 

a time, mukut (pr. a-mukut-i, 

p.p. ka-a-mukut). 
Take up (e.g. grain) with both 

hands, ram (pr. a-ram-e, p.p. 

Take up with the finger tips, 

suruch (pr. a-surucn-i, p.p. ka- 

Take up a handful, samat (pr. 

a-somot-i, p.p. ka-a-samat). 
Take up a handful of grain, 

irop (pr. a-'rop-i, p.p. ka-a- 

Tale, kapchemosin (kapchemo- 

Talk, mwa (pr. a-mwo-i, p.p. ka- 


Talk about, at, of, &c, mwo-chi 




(pr. a-mwo-chi-ni, p.p. ka-a- 
Talk in one's deep, be delirious, 
riewen (pr. a-riewen-i, p.p. ka- 

Talk behind a person's back, 
cham (pr. a-chom-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Tall, koi, pi. koiin. 
Talon, silolio (siloliot), pi. silolen 

Tan (skins), kut (pr. a-kut-e, p.p. 

Tanner, kutin (kutindet), pi. kut 

Tarry, tepi (pr. a-tepi-e, p.p. ka- 

Taste, chamcham (pr. a-chom- 

chom-i, p.p. ka-a-chamcham). 
Teach, inSt (pr. a-'net-i, p.p. ka- 

ngat (pr. a-ngot-e, p.p. ka-a- 
Tear, p6k-ap-kong. 
Tear, p§t (pr. a-p6t-e, p.p. ka-a- 

pach (pr. a-poch-i, p.p. ka- 

kerer (pr. a-kerer-i, p.p. ka- 
Tease, kwekwe (pr. a-kwekwe-i, 

p.p. ka-a-kwekwe). 
Tell, mwo-chi (pr. a-mwo-chi-ni, 
p.p. ka-a-mwo-chi). 

am-chi (pr. a-om-chi-ni, p.p. 

figalal-chi (pr. a-ngolol-chi- 
ni, p.p. ka-a-ngalal-chi). 
Tell thus, ile-chi (pr. a-'le-chi-ni, 
p.p. ka-a-'le-chi). 
Tell a tale, mwa kapchemos- 
Tell me ! am-u ! 
Temper, atep (atepet). 
Tempt, tiem (pr. a-tiem-e, p.p. 

Ten, tamau. 

(n.), taman (tamanut), pi. 

tomonuag (tomonuagik). 
Tend (sheep, 4~c-), iak-e (pr. a- 

'ok-i, p.p. ka-'ak-e). 
Tender (of meat), tandus, pi. 

Tendon, kwario (leg or arm) ; 

met (back) ; segerua (neck) ; 

Terrify, iyue-chi (pr. a-'yue-chi- 

ni, p.p. ka-a-'yue-chi). 
(startle), imu (pr. a-'mu-i, p.p. 

Testicles, mukuio (mukuiot), pi. 

mukui (mukuik). 
Testicles of ox, ketio (ketiot), pi. 

ketin (ketik). 
Tether, rat (pr. a-rot-e, p.p. ka- 

Thank, ile-chi kongoi. 
Thank you, thanks, kongoi; 

That, nin or in. 
Thatch, snsuek-ap-kot. 

(v.), siep kot. 
The, def. article. (See p. 160.) 
Thee, inye. 

Theft, chorso (chorset). 
Their, nywa, pi. chwak. 
Theirs, nenywa, pi. chechwak. 
Them, icheket ; ichek. 
There, yun. 
Therefore, amn. 
These, chu. 
They, icheket; ichek. 
Thick, nyikis, pi. nyikisin. 
Thickness, nyikisin (nyikis- 

Thief, chorin (chorindet), pi. 

chor (chorik). 
Cattle-thief kipisoiyo (kipisoi- 

yot), pi. kipisoiin (kipisoiinik). 
Person who steals Nandi cattle, 

kongeldoin (kongeldoindet), pi. 

kofigeldo (kofigeldoik). 
Thigh, kupes (kupesto), pi. ku- 

pesua (kupesuek). 
Thin, tenden, pi. tendin. 



Thine, nengung, pi. chekuget. 
Thing, kii (kiito), pi. tukun (tu- 

Thing of no valice, pures (pu- 

I have done nothing, ma-ai kii. 
Think (consider, remember, think 

of), ipwat (pr. a-'pwot-i, p.p. 

(suppose), apere noto ; ile. 
Think deeply, iro-ke. 
Thirst, melel (melelda). 

I am thirsty, am-a melel. 
Thirteen, taman ok somok. 
Thirty, sosom; tomonuagik so- 
This, ni or i. 
Thong, rlke (rikeito), pi. rikeyua 

Thorn, thorn-tree, kata (katet), 

pi. katoi (katok). 
Those, chun. 
Thou, inye. 
When calling a person (male), 

ingwe ! 
When calling a person (female), 

Thousand, pokolaiik che-chang ; 

pokolaiik taman. 
Thread, porowa (porowet), pi. 

poroon (poroonik). 
Thread (beads, #c), yua (pr. 

a-yua-i, p.p. ka-a-yua). 
Threaten, ker kong. 
Three, sotnok. 
Thresh (corn), pur (pr. a-pur-e, 

p.p. ka-a-pur). 
Throat, mook(mookto), pi. mook- 

wa (mookwek). 

cheporor (chepororet), pi. 

chepororos (chepororosiek). 
Throb, itiar-u (pr. a-'tiar-u, p.p. 

Throttle, iket (pr. a-'ket-i, p.p. 

Throw (throw away), met-te (pr. 

a-met-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-met-te). 
lak-te ; wir-te ; pakak-te. 

Throw hither, met-u (pr. a-met-u, 
p.p. ka-a-met-u). 
Throw down, wir-te (pr. a-wir- 
toi-i, p.p. ka-a-wir-te). 
Throw down to, ser-ohi (pr. a- 

ser-chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-ser-chi). 
Throw at, wir-chi (pr. a-wir-chi- 
ni, p.p. ka-a-wir-chi). 
Throw water at, is-chi (pr. a-is- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-is-chi). 
Throw in different places (scatter), 
iser-te (pr. a-'ser-toi-i, p.p. ka- 
Throw a piece of wood as from 
a sling, tim (pr. a-tim-e, p.p. 
Thumb, mornet ne-oo. 
Thunder, Hat (llet), pi. ilot 

(v.), che. 
It thunders, che-i. 
Thus, noto ; kunoto ; ko-parkio ; 

ole; kule. 
Thy, figuiig, pi. kuk. 
Tick (small), kerepes (kerepes- 
iet), pi. kerepes (kerepesik). 
(large), talus (talusiet), pi. talus 
Tickle, kitkit (pr. a-kitkit-i, p.p. 

Tie, rat (pr. a-rot-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Tie up an ox, rich (pr. a-rich-e, 
p.p. ka-a-rlch). 
Tie a knot, uch (pr. a-uch-e, p.p. 
Tighten, kwilil (pr. a-kwilil-i, 

p.p. ka-a-kwilil). 
Till, kut; akut; ong. 
Till now, akut nguni ; ong ni ; 
Time, oii (olto), pL oltos (oltos- 

What time is it ? ti-a asis % 
(reply), te asis, ' the sun is thus ' 
(pointing to the sun). 
be Tipsy, p6kit (pr. a-p6kit-i, 
p.p. ka-a-pokit). 



be Tipsy : 

Make tipsy, ipokit (pr. a-'p&kit-e, 
p.p. ka-a-'pokit). 
be Tired, nget (pr. a-figet-e, p.p. 

To, eng. 

When to is used in English 
as the sign of the infinitive, the 
subjunctive or narrative is em- 
/ want to go, a-moch-e a-wa. 
Tell him to go, ile-chi kwa. 
Tobacco, tumato (tumatet), pi. 
tumatoin (tumatomik). 
Tobacco for chewing, chepure 
(chepuret), pi. chepures (che- 
Cake of tobacco, mangatia (mafiga- 
tiat),pl. mangatin(mangatlnik). 
Large cake of tobacco, ipero (ipe- 
ret), pi. iperai (iperaiik). 
Tobacco-pouch (made out of the 
scrotum of a goat), olpesieny 
(olpesienyet), pi. olpesienyai 
(made out of the horn of an ox), 
kiprau (kipraut), pi. kipraun 
To-day, rani. 
Toe, mornet-ap-keldo. 
Together, tukul; ak. 
Both together, towae kwoiefig. 
Be together, o-tet-ke (pr. ki-tet- 
i-ke, p.p. ka-ki-tet-ke). 
Tomb (dung-hill), kap-ngotot. 
To-morrow, mutai ; tun-mutai. 
The day after to-morrow, tun- 
Tongs, kanameyuo (kaname- 
yuot), pi. kaname (kaname- 
Tongue, figelyep (rigelyepta), pi. 

ngelyepua (figelyepuek). 
Tooth, kelda (keldet), pL kelat 

Eye-tooth, keldet-ap-seset. 
Middle incisor tooth, keldet-ap- 

Back tooth, kipkermet (kipker- 
metiet), pi. kipkermetai (kip- 
Hole where front teeth of lower 
row have been extracted, oto 
(otet); kapioto (kapiotet). 
Hole where one or more of the 
middle incisor front teeth of the 
upper row have been knocked, or 
have fallen, out, kapketiofig 
Hole where other teeth have been 
knocked out, mununua (munu- 
Slit between two upper molars 
through which to spit, kap- 
singil (kapsingilit). 
To extract the two middle incisors 
of the lower jaw, ot (pr. a-ot-e, 
p.p. ka-a-ot). 
To extract other teeth, nem-u (pr. 

a-nem-u, p.p. ka-a-nem-u). 
Tooth-stick for cleaning teeth, 
siito (siitet), pi. siitoi (siitok). 
Top, parak (parakut). 
Tortoise, chepkoikoch (chepkoi- 
kochet), pi. chepkoikoches 
Toss (of oxen, Sfc), luch (pr. a- 
liich-e, p.p. ka-a-luch). 
(of sheep), tirir (pr. a-tirir-i, p.p. 
Total, tukul. 
Totally, kwekeny. 
Totter, potan (pr. a-poton-i, p.p. 
Totter in one's walk, terteri-ote 
(pr. a-terteri-oti, p.p. ka-a-ter- 
Touch, tua (pr. a-tua-i, p.p. ka- 
Touch gently, sapsap (pr. a-sop- 
sop-i, p.p. ka-a-sapsap). 
Town, ka or ko; ngasana, &c. 

(See Kraal.) 
Track (of one person or animal), 
kel (keldo), pi. kelien (kel- 



Track : 

(of several persons or animals), 
marandu (marandut), pi. ma- 
randus (marandusiek). 
(v.), isup marandut; isup keliek. 
Trade, olisio (olisiet); olio (oliot). 
Place of meeting for trade pur- 
poses, kesimo (kesimet), pi. 
kesimos (kesimosiek). 
Trade, melekon (pr. a-melekon-i, 
p.p. ka-a-melekon). 
ai-te olisiet. 
Trample, tiech (pr. a-tiech-e, 
p.p. ka-a-tiech). 
Trample under foot, tiechatiech 
(pr. a-tiechatiech-i, p.p. ka-a- 
be Transparent, sengelel (pr. 
a-sengelel-i, p.p. ka-a-sengelel). 
Trap, mesto (mestet), pi. mestoi 

Trap, tech (pr. a-tech-e, p.p. ka- 

Travel, ru-te (pr. a-ru-toi-i, p.p. 
Travel in order to raid, set (pr. 
a-set-e, p.p. ka-a-set). 
(move), u (pr. a-u-e, p.p. ka-a-u). 
Traveller, unonio (unoniot), pi. 
unon (unonik). 
(visitor), ruto (rutoet), pi. rutoi 
Tread, tiech (pr. a-tiech-e, p.p. 
Tread on (crush), nyinyir (pr. a- 
nyinyir-i, p.p. ka-a-nyinyir). 
Tree, ket (ketit), pi. ket (ketik). 
Stump of tree, musuk (musukiet), 

pi. musuk (musukik). 
Tree marked to show oumership, 
kuketua (kuketuet), pi. ku- 
ketai (kuketaiik). 
Tremble, p6tan (pr. a-poton-i, 
p.p. ka-a-p6tan). 
Tremble with cold, kutkut (pr. a- 
kutkut-i, p.p. ka-a-kutkut). 
Tremble with fear, topot (pr. a- 
topot-i, p.p. ka-a-topot). 

Tribe, em (emet), pi. emotinua 

Of vjhat tribe are you ? I chii lie 

inye 1 or Emen-ngung gwatio 1 
Agricultural tribes, mee (meek). 
Pastoral tribes, porop (poropek). 

Names or Teibes. 
Buret, Puretin (Puretindet), pi. 

Puret (Puretik). 
Dorobo, Okio (Okiondet or Okiot), 

pi. Oki (Okiek). 
Mgeyo,Keyo (Keyoiidet orKeyot), 

pi, Keyu (Keyek). 
Elgonyi, Konyin (Konyindet), 

pi. Kony (Konyek). 
European, Asungio (Asungiot), 

pi. Asungu (Asunguk). 
Kamasia, Tukenin (Tukenindet), 

pi. Tuken (Tukenek). 

Kamasyain (Kamasyaindet), 

pi. Kamasya (Kamasyaek). 
Kavirondo, Lemin (Lemindet), 

pi. Lem (Lemek). (See Boy.) 
Lumbwa, Kipsikisin (Kipsikis- 

indet), pi. Kipsikls (Kipsikls- 

Marahwet, Merekwetin (Mere- 

kwetindet),pl. Merekwet(Mere- 

Masai, Ipuapcho (Ipuapchot), 

pi. Ipuap (Ipuapek). 

Masaein (Masaeindet), pi. 

Masae (Masaeek). 
Mbai, Mbaiin (Mbaiindet), pi. 

Mbai (Mbaiek). 
Mutei, Mutein (Muteindet o» - Mu- 

teiyot), pi. Mutei (Muteik). 
Nandi, Nandiin (Nandiindet), 

pi. Nandi (Nandiek). 
(old name), Chemwalin (Chem- 

walindet), pi. Chemwal (Chem- 

Nyangori, Terikin (Terikindet), 

pi. Terik (Terikek). 
Sabaut, Sabautin (Sabautindet), 

pi. Sabaut (Sabautik). 
Save, Sapeinyin (Sapeinyindet), 

pi. Sapeiny (Sapeinyek). 



Tribe : 

Sotik, Sootin (Sootindet), pi. 

Soot (Sootik). 
Sviahili (man), Chumbin (Chum- 
bindet), pi. Chumba (Chum- 

(woman), Chepcbumbia (Chep- 
chumbiat), pi. Chepohumbin 
Triumph, ipel (pr. a-'pel-i, p.p. 

Trot, lapat (pr. a-lopot-i, p.p. ka- 

Trouble, nyalil (nyalildo), pi. 

nyalilua (nyaliluek). 
Trough (for calves), moing (mo- 
inget), pi. moingon (moingon- 
True, ap-iman. 
Truly, iman. 

Trunk (of tree), saborio(saboriot), 
pi. saborin (saborlnik). 
The human trunk, por (porto), 
pi. porua (poruek). 
Elephant's trunk, e (eut), pi. 
eun (eunek). 
Truth, iman (imanet). 
Try (aim, endeavour), imu-chi 
(pr. a-'mu-chi-ni, p.p. ka-a- 
(e. g. a spear), tiem (pr. a-tiem-e, 
p.p. ka-a-tiem). 
Try by ordeal, par mumek. 
Try by ordeal for theft, saise (pr. 
a-soise-i, p.p. ka-a-saise). 
Tumble, iput (pr. a-'put-i, p.p. 
Tumble into, iput-yi (pr. a-'put- 
yi-ni, p.p. ka-a-'put-yi). 
Turf, tindinyo (tindinyot), pi. 

tindiny (tindinyek). 
Turn, Turn over, (act.), iwech 
(pr. a-'wech-i, p.p. ka-a-Vech). 
(neut.), we-ke (pr. a-we-i-ke, 
p.p. ka-a-we-ke). 
Turn over from side to side, we- 
wech-ke (pr. a-wewech-i-ke, 
p.p. ka-a-wewech-ke). 

Turn out (e. g. of a house), 
ifiget-te (pr. a-'figet-toi-i, p.p. 
Turn inside out, iluch (pi 1 , a- 
'luch-i, p.p. ka-a-'luch). 
Turn round something else, imut 
(pr. a-'mut-i, p.p. ka-a-'mut). 
Turn up, itoke (pr, a-'toke, p.p. 
Turtle, chepkoikochet-ap-p6k. 
Twelve, taman ok oieng. 
Twenty, tiptem. 
Twenty-one, tiptem ak akenge. 
Twice, &konesiek oiefig; kosakt' 

oieng ; ko-nyil oieng. 
Twig, sikorio (sikoriot), pi. sikor 

simamia (simamiat), pi, si- 
mam (simamik). 
Twin, Earamia (saramiat), pi. 

saram (saramek). 
Twist, iiny (pr. o-'iny-i, p.p. ka- 

Twist two pieces of rope, 6,c, 
together, ilet (pr. a-'let-i, p-P- 
Two, oieng. 

Udder, murungu (murungut), 

pi. murungus (murungusiek). 
Ulcer, chepserkech (chepser- 

kechet), pi. chepserkecb (chep- 

Umbilical cord, kapwal (kap- 

walda), pi. k4pwalua (kapwal- 

Umbrella(»ia<t'ue), aoiyo (aoiyot), 

pi. aoin (aoinik). 
(European), mwamvuli (mwam- 

Uncle (father's brother), ne- 

tupche-ap-papa ; akijt-che- 

(mother's brother), imam (imam- 

Uncleanness, Cgwon (ngwon- 

ik); ker(kerek); simwa (sim- 





Uncover, ngany (pr. a-ugony-i, 
p.p. ka-a-ngany). 
Uncover something heavy, keleny 
(pr. a-keleny-i, p.p. ka-a-kel- 
Under, inguny. 
Under the house, kot inguny or 
Underneath, inguny (ingunyut). 
Underdone, tuon, pi. tuonen. 
Understand, kas (pr. a-kos-e, 

p.p. ka-a-kas). 
Understanding, met. (See 

Undo, yat (pr. a-yot-e, p.p. ka- 
Untie a knot, itiach (pr. a-'tioch-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'tiach). 
Undress, iiek-u (pr. a-'rek-u, 

p.p. ka-a-'rek-u). 
Unfasten, yat (pr. a-yot-e, p.p. 

Unfasten cattle, itiach (pr. a- 
'tioch-i, p.p. ka-a-'tiach). 
Unfold, iit-te (pr. a-'it-toi-i, p.p. 

Unite, rop (pr. a-rop-e, p.p. ka- 

Unless, ngut-ko, followed by the 

Unless he does it, ngut-ko-ma-ai. 
Unlucky omen, sigoran(sigoran- 

et), pi. sigoranoi (sigoranok). 
Unripe, tuon, pi. tuonen. 
Unsew, tur (pr. a-tur-e, p.p. ka- 

tender (pr. a-tender-i, p.p. 
Unthatch {uncover), ngany (pr. 

a-figony-i, p.p. ka-a-ngany). 
Unthread, chiruk-u or chiruk-te. 
Untie, yat (pr. a-yot-e, p.p. ka- 

Untie a knot, itiach (pr. a-'tioch- 
i, p.p. ka-a-'tiach). 
Until, kut ; akut ; ong. 
Until now, akut nguni ; ofig-ni. 
Up, parak. 

(the upper part), parak (parakut). 
Uproar, polot (polotetV 
Upset (persons), tu-i (pr. a-tu-e, 
p.p. ka-a-tu-i). 
(things), turur-te (pr. a-turur- 
toi-i, p.p. ka-a-turur-te). 
Urinate, sukus (pr. a-sukus-i, 
p.p. ka-a-sukus). 

A person who urinates at 
night-time, or from fear, is 
caiiledpoldamui. Small children 
are frequently given the hoof of 
a young ox or goat (putuldo) 
to chew before going to bed. 
Us, achek. 

Use (make use of), am (pr. a- 
om-e, p.p. ka-am). 
(be of use), mie-itu (pr. a-mie, 
p.p. ka-a-mie-itu). 
Use (accustom), inai-te (pr. a- 
'noi-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-'nai-te). 
(become used to), nai-te (pr. a- 
noi-toi-i, p.p. ka-a-nai-te). 
Utter, wal-u (pr. a-wal-u, p.p. 

Utterly, kwekeny. 

Vagina (human beings), mokol 
(mokolet), pi. mokolon (mokol- 

kusa (kuset), pi. kusas 
(animals), let (letut), pi. letus 
Vainly, puch. 

Valley, otepwa (otepwet), pi. 
otepwos (otepwosiek). 

kulua (kuluet), pi. kulonoi 
Value : 
What is it worth 1 Ti-a oliot ? 
It is worth an ox, ol-e teta. 
Vanguard, figaimet (ngaimetiet). 
Vegetable, ingua (inguot), pi. 

ingui (inguek). 
Veil. (See Head-dress.) 
Venture, kany (pr. a-kony-e, 
p.p. ka-a-kany). 



Very, mlsing. 

Vex, inerech (pr. a-'nerech-e, 

p.p. ka-a-'nerech). 
Be vexed, nerech (pr. a-nerech-i, 

p.p. ka-a-nerech). 
Vigorously, eng-gowa ; eng- 

Village, ko or ka, &c. (See 

Violence, kimnon (kimnonet). 

With violence, eng-gimnon. 
Violent, kirn, pi. kimen. 
be a Virgin, iper-ke (pr. a-'per- 

e-ke, p.p. ka-a-'per-ke). 
Visitor, ruto (rutoet), pi. rutoi 

Voice, twekuno (twekunet), pi. 

twekunos (twekunosiek). 
Vomit, ingung-u (pr. a-'figung-u, 

p.p. ka-a-'ngung-u). 
Give a person medicine to cause 

vomiting, tap (pr. a-top-e, p.p. 


Waist, suwe. (See Loin.) 
Bind something round the waist, 
iu-ke (pr. a-'u-i-ke, p.p. ka-a- 
Wait, wait for, kany (pr. a- 
kony-e, p.p. ka-a-kany). 
Wait a little, kany ko-rok ; kany 
Wake (neut.), nget (pr. a-fig^t-e, 
p.p. ka-a-ng^t). 
(act.), ifigSt (pr. a-'nget-i, p.p. 

Wake in the night, iochi (pr. a- 
'ochi-i, p.p. ka-a-'ochi). 
Wake with a start, sir-u (pr. 
a-sir-u, p.p. ka-a-sir-u). 
Be awake, kas-u (pr. a-kos-u, 
p.p. ka-a-kas-u). 
Walk (gait), pan (panda), pi. 
ponua (ponuek). 
(v.), ui eng-geliek. 
Take a walk, wend-ote (pr. a- 
wend-oti, p.p. ka-a-wend-ote). 

Walk lame, ingwal (pr. a-'ngwol- 
i, p.p. ka-a-'iigwal). 
Wall (outer), kiter (kiterut), pi. 
kiterus (kiterusiek). 
(inner), inat (inatut), pi. inatun 

Partition in huts, tot (totet), pi. 
totoB (totosiek). 
Want, mach (pr. a-moch-e, p.p. 

War, porio (poriot), pi. porios 
(raid), luk (luket), pi. lukos 

Go to war, set luket. 
Ward off, t6ch (pr. a-t6ch-e, 

p.p. ka-a-tecli). 
make Warm, ilalany (pr. a-'la- 

lony-i, p.p. ka-a-'lalany). 
Warmth, ma (mat). 
Warn, ite-chi (pr. a-'te-chi-ni, 

p.p. ka-a-'te-chi). 
Warner, kotein (koteindet), pi. 

kote (koteik). 
Warrior, muren (murenet), pi. 
muren (murenik). 

segein (segeindet), pi. sege 

Warrior who is poor and hunts, 
kiplagotio (kiplagotiot), pi. 
kiplagotin (kiplagotmik). 
Wart, kaimion (kaimionet), pi. 

kaimionoi (kaimionok). 
Wart-hog, pntie (putieto), pi. 
putieua or putiei (putieuek or 
Wash, iun (pr. a-'un-i, p.p. ka- 

Wash somebody (e.g. a child), 
tindiny (pr. a-tindiny-i, p.p. 

Wash clothes (intr.), mwet-isie 
(pr. a-mwet-isie-i, p.p. ka-a- 

Wash by dabbing gently, mwet 

(pr. a-mwet-e, p.p. ka-a-mwet). 

Wash the hands at circumcision, 

lap (pr. a-lop-i, p.p. ka-a-lap). 



{soak), inur (pr. a-'nur-e, p.p. 
Watch, kany (pr. a-kony-e, p.p. 

Watch over, keep watch, rip (pr. 
a-rlp-e, p.p. ka-a-rip). 
Water, pei (pek). 
Slieet of water, swamp, peiyo 

(peiyot), pi. pei (pek). 
Fresh or cold water, pek che- 
Hot water, pSk-am-ma. 
Warm water, p§k che-lepilep. 
Dirty water (i. e. water stirred 

up by cattle), turur (tururik). 
Clean water, p§k che-tililin. 
Water used at circumcision 
ceremonies to shave boys vjith, 
tanduio (tanduiet). 
Water cattle, inak-e (pr. a-'nok-i, 
p.p. ka-a-'nak-e). 
Water (of the eyes), toltol-u (pr. a- 
toltol-u, p.p. ka-a-toltol-u). 
Make water, sukus (pr. a-sukus-i, 
p.p. ka-a-sukus). 
Waterfall, asurur (asururiet), pi. 

asururai (asururaiik). 
Water jar, ter, &c. (See Jar.) 
Waver, mongoiigen (pr. a-mofigo- 

figen-i, p.p. ka-a-mongongen). 
Wax, temen (temenyet), pi. 

temenai (temenaiik). 
Way, or (oret), pi. ortinua 
The shortest way, oret ne-til-e. 
Out of the way I is-te-ke ! 
We, achek. 

Wealth, tukun (tukuk). 
Weapon, karin. (See Iron.) 
Wear, ilach (pr. a-'loch-i, p.p. 

in-de-ke (pr. a-'n-doi-i-ke, 
p.p. ka-a-'n-de-ke). 
be Weary, Sget (pr. a-nget-i, 
p.p. ka-a-nget). 
Make weary, inget (pr. a-'nget-e, 
p.p. ka-a-'nget). 

Weather, oii (olto). 

Weed, susuo (susuot), pi. susua 

Heap of dried weeds, rimborio 

(rimboriot), pi. rimboron (rim- 

To weed an eleusine field, put im- 

To weed a millet field, sember im- 

Weep, rir (pr. a-rir-e, p.p. ka- 

(sob), inguinguny (pr. a-'ngui- 

nguny-i, p.p. ka-a-'nguinguny). 
Weigh, ker (pr. a-ker-e, p.p. 

Try the weight of something, 

tiem (pr. a-tiem-e, p.p. ka-a- 

Well (adv.), wei ; ara. 
Well (healthy), mukul, pi. mu- 


Well-done (cooked), rurot, pi. 

be Well, cham-ke (pr. a-cham- 

i-ke, p.p. ka-a-cham-ke). 
Wet, ap-pek. 
(v.), in-de pek. 
(dip in water), irok-te p6k. 
What? ngo? nel 

What do you want ? i-mocM ne ? 

What tree is it ? ne ket 1 

What man ? chii ng6 ? chii ne 1 

What sort of? ang? 
When ?au! 
(adv.), ole. 
Whence ? ono 1 

(adv.), ole. 
Where P figoro ? pi. ngocho 1 ; 


Where is he 1 mi-i ono ? 

Where is the man f ngoro chii- 


Where are the men ? ngocho 

piik ? 
(adv.), ole. 
Wherefore, amu ; amu ne. 
Wherever, ola-tukul. 



Whetstone, litei (liteito), pi. 

liteiua (liteiuek). 
Which P figo? 
Whisper, cham (pr. a-chom-e, 

p.p. ka-a-cham). 
Whistle, marian (pr. a-marion-i, 

p.p. ka-a-marian). 
White, lei, pi. lelach. 
White ant, toiya (toiyat), pi. 

toi (toiik). 

White ant in flying stage, kong- 

aiya (kongaiyat), pi. kongai 

Whither? ono ? 

(adv.), ole. 
Who (rel. pron.), ne, pi. che. 

(See pp. 187-8.) 
(int. pron.), Sg6 1 pi. figo-figo ? 

akut-ngo 1 ! or angut-ng6? (See 

pp. 188-9.) 
Whole, mukul, pi. mukulen. 
Whose P po-fig6 1 pi. pakut-Sgo ? 

or pangut-flgo ? 
Why P kalia ? amu-ne ? 
Wide, tepes, pi. tepesen ; marlch, 

pi. mariken. 
Widow, mosog (mosoget), pi. 

mosogon (mosogonik). 
Wife, kwany (kwando), pi. 

kwanyin (kwanyik). 
Own wife, ka (kaita), pi. korusio 

Co-wife, siyo (siyet), pi. siyon 

Wild, ap-tim; ap-tim-in. 
Wild animal, tiony (tiondo), 

pi. tiongin (tiongik). 
Wilderness, kewo (kewet), pi. 

kewos (kewosiek). 
Will, mukulel (mukuleldo), pi. 

mukuleluag (mukuleluagik). 
Win (a wager), 16t (pr. a-16t-e, 

p.p. ka-a-16t). 
{obtain), sich (pr. a-sich-e, p.p. 

Wind, usoon (usoonet), pi. 

usoonai (usoonaiik). 

{breeze), chepusoon (ohepusoon- 

et), pi. chepusoonai (chepu- 

Wind-devil, kipchurchur (kip- 

churchuriet), pi. kipchurchurai 

Anything blown about by the 

wind, kimnyelnyel (kimnyel- 

Wind-pipe, cheporor (cheporor- 

et), pi. chepororon (cheporor- 

Wing, kepep (kepepchet), pi. 

kepepai (kepepaiik). 
Wink, figwech (pr. a-figwech-e, 

p.p. ka-a-ngwech). 
{blink), mismis (pr. a-mismis-i, 

p.p. ka-a-mismis). 
Wipe, ipuch (pr. a-'puch-i, p.p. 


Wipe the nose, ipuch seperik. 
Wish, mach (pr. a-moch-e, p.p. 

Witch, ponin (ponindet), pi. pon 

Witch's medicine, ponit (pond- 

Witchcraft, ponisio (ponisiet). 
With, eng. 
Wither, res (pr. a-res-e, p.p. ka- 

Withhold from, imelel (pr. a- 

'melel-i, p.p. ka-a-'melel). 
Within, oriit. 
Without, saafig. 
Witness, paorio (paoriot), pi. 

paorin (paonnik). 

(v.), tiiye-chi (pr. a-tiiye- 

chi-ni, p.p. ka-a-tiiye-chi). 
Wizard, ponin. (See Witch.) 
Woman, korko (korket), pi. kor- 
usio (korusiek). 

L., korko (korkot), pi. korusio 

A young woman, melia (meliat), 

pi. melias (meliasiek). 
A married woman, osotio (osot- 

iot), pi. osot (osotik). 



Woman : 

An old woman, chepios (chepios- 
et), pi. chepiosoi (chepiosok). 
Woman who gave birth to a child 
before marriage, chesorpucho 
(chesorpucbot), pi. chesorpu- 
chon (chesorpuchonik). 
Womb, ruand'-am-mo. 
Wonder, tangany (pr. a-tong- 

ony-i, p.p. ka-a-tangany). 
Wood (forest), tim (tiindo), pi. 
timuag (timuagik). 
(tree), ket (ketit), pi. ket (ketik). 
Dry wood, cheptamya (cheptam- 

yat), pi. cheptam (cheptamik). 
Firewood, kwendo (kwendet), pi. 
kwen (kwenik). 
Word, ngolio (ngoliot), pi. ngal 

Work, poiisio (poiisiet), pi. poi- 
ision (poiisionik). 
(v.), ai poiisiet. 
Work for, ot (pr. a-ot-e, p.p. ka- 

Work in metal, itany (pr. a-'tony- 
i, p.p. ka-a-'tany). 
World, kia (kiet), pi. kias (kias- 

Worry, iim (pr. a-'im-i, p.p. ka- 

Worth. (See Value.) 
What is it worth I ti-a ? ti-a 
oliot 1 
Wound, mo. (See Abscess.) 
Old wound, scar, perut (perutiet), 
pi. perut (perutik). 

(v.), tor (stab) ; kwer (strike); 
iep (slash), &c. 
WTap(fold), aruny (pr. a-aruny-i, 

p.p. ka-aruny). 
Wrestle, o-kwet-ke (pr. ki-kwet- 

i-ke, p.p. ka-ki-kwet-ke). 
Wriggle, yem-ak-e (pr. a-yem-at, 

p.p. ka-a-yem-ak-e). 
Wring out (e.g. water), iiny (pr. 
o-'iny-i, p.p. ka-a-'iny). 

Wrinkle, siriny (pr. a-siriny-i, 

p.p. ka-a-siriny). 
Wrist, walel (waleldo), pi. walel- 

uag (waleluagik). 
(word used by children), kimnya 

(kimnyet), pi. kimoi (kimoiik). 
Write, sir (pr. a-sir-e, p.p. ka- 

Writhe, nyulnyul-ke (pr. a-nyul- 

nyul-i-ke, p.p. ka-a-nyulnyul- 


imelmel-ke (pr. a-'melmel-i- 

ke, p.p. ka-a-'melmel-ke). 

Yam, akania (akaniat), pi. akau 

Yawn, ime (pr. a-'me-i, p.p. 

Year, keny (kenyit), pi. kenyls 

This year, kenyln nitok. 
Next year, kenylt-ap-tun. 
Last year, kenyit konye. 
Year before last, kenyit kinye. 
Yearly, kenyit ak kenyit. 
Yes, wei; weis. 
Yesterday, ainut; amt. 

The day before yesterday, oiin. 
You, okwek. 

Young (of goats, sheep, &c), 
aruwa (aruwet), pi. are (arek). 
Younger, mining, pi. mingech. 
Your, ngwang, pi. kwok. 
Yours, nengwang, pi. cliekwok. 
Youth (uncircumcised), kare- 
manin (karemanindet), pi. ka- 
reraan (karemanik). 
(circumcised), kipkelel (kipkel- 
eldet), pi. kipkelelai (kipkel- 

Zebra, oloitigo (oloitiget), pi. 
oloitigos (oloitigosiek). 

sigirio-ap-tim (sigiriet-ap- 
tirn), pi. sigiroi-ap-tim (sigir- 




sp., kerundu (kerundut), pi. kerundun (kerunduuik). 

sp., motos (motosiet), pi. mot5s (motosik). 

Abutilon indicum, leltonge (leltonget), pi. leltonges (leltongesiek). 

JDombeya sp., silip (silipchet), pi. silipai (silipaiik). 

Hibiscus gossypinum, cheputio (cheputiot), pi. cheputin (ohepu- 

sp., kipsepua (kipsepuet), pi. kipsepon (kipseponik). 

Greuna sp., nokiruo (nokiruet), pi. nokiron (nokironik). 

Turraea sp. (near T. Mombasana), sitiyo (sitiyot), pi. sitiin 

Ximenia americana, lamaiyuo (lamaiyuet), pi. lamaou (lamaonik). 

sp., koipeyo (koipeyot), pi. koipein (koipelnik). 

Indigo/era sp., nyonyoyo (nyouyoyot), pi. nyonyo (nyonyoek). 

Indigofera sp., menjeiyuo (menjeiyuet), pi. menjeon (menjeonik). 

Trifoliwm africanum, ndapipi (ndapipit), pi. ndapipin (nda- 

Cassia didymobotrya, senetwo (senetwet), pi. seneton (sene- 

Acacia robusta, kata (katet), pi. katoi (katok). 

Acacia sp., kapkutuo (kSpkutuet), pi. kapkuton (kapkutonik). 

Eryihrina tomentosa, kakorua (kakoruet), pi. kakoron (kako- 

Bavhinia reticulata, kipsakcha (kipsakchat), pi. kipsaken (kip- 

Rubus rigidus, momoiiio (momoniot), pi. momon (momonik). 

Sedurn sp., kuseruo (kuseruet), pi. kuseron (kuseronik). 

Melothria sp., ckeptendere (cheptenderet), pi. cheptenderai (ckep- 



Foeniculum capillaceum, kirondo (kirondet), pi. kirondon (kiron- 

Vangueria edulis, kimoluo (kimoluet), pi. kimolon (kimolonik). 

sp., chepturo (chepturot), pi. chepturon (chepturonik). 

Vernonia sp., sekut (sekutiet), pi. sekut (sekutik). 

Emilia integrifolia, tepengwa (tepengwet), pi. tepengon (tepeDg- 

Senecio sp., kitungut (kitungutiet), pi. kitungutai (kitungutaiik). 

Bidens pilosa, kipkole (kipkoleit), pi. kipkolein (kipkolelnik). 

Sonchus sp., kipkata (kipkatet), pi. kipkatoi (kipkatok). 

Ardisia sp., usuo (usuet), pi. uson (usonik). 

Olea chrysophylla, emit (emdit), pi. emit (emitik). 

Landolphia sp., ngingick (figingichet), pi. ngingichoi (ngifigichok). 

Carissa edulis, legetetuo (legetetuet), pi. legeteton (legetetonik). 

Acokanihera Schimperi, kelio (keliot), pi. kelio (keliek). 

sp., chemfigombo (chemBgombet), pi. chemngomboi (eliemngom- 

Asclepias sp. (near A. Kaessneri), chepinoporokcho (chepinoporok- 
chot), pi. chepinoporokchon (chepinoporokchonik). 

Myosotis abyssinica, cheserim (cheserimdo), pi. cheserimwag 

Solatium campylanthum, lapotuo (lapotuet), pi. lapoton (lapo- 

Solarium sp., isocho (isochot), pi. isocho (isochek). 

Orobanche minor, rungu-mistoe. 

Dolichandrone platycalyx, mopo (mopet), pi. mopon (moponik). 

Kigelia aethiopica, rotinuo (rotinuet), pi. rotinon (rotinonik). 

Spathodea sp. (near S. nilotica), septa (septet), pi. septai (sep- 



Acanthus arboreus, indakario (indakariot), pi. indakar (inda- 


Lantana salvifolia, p6k-ap-tarit. 

Lippia sp., mokio (mokiot), pi. mokin (moklnik). 

Lippia sp., chemosorio (chemosoriot), pi. chemosorin (chemoso- 

Clerodendron Neumayeri, kipsamis (kipsamisiet), pi. kipsamisoi 


Ocimum suave, lumbeyo (lumebot), pi. lunibein (lumbelnik). 
Ocimum sp., chepkoicho (chepkoichot), pi. chepkoichin (chepkoi- 

Leonotis Elliottii, chuohunio (chuchuniot), pi. chuchun (chu- 

Ajuga bracteosa, kelyemoi (kelyemoit), pi. kelyemois (kelye- 

Chenopodiaceae . 

Ghenopodium sp., kipiros (kipirosit), pi. kipirosin (kipiroslnik). 
Chenopodium sp., oroiyo (oroiyot), pi. oroi (oroiek). 

Polygonum senegalense, masiriv (masiririet), pi. masiriroi (masir- 


Euphorbia candelabrum, kures (kuresiet), pi. kuresoi (kuresok). 
Croton Elliottianus, cbepkelel (chepkeleliet), pi. chepkelelai 

Croton sp., tepeswa (tepeswet), pi. tepeson (tepesonik). 
Ricinus communis, imanya (imanyat), pi. iman (imanek). 

Ficus sp., mokoiyuo (mokoiyuet), pi. mokoon (mokoonik). 

Ficus sp., sinende (sinendet), pi. sinendai (sinendaiik). 

Ficus sp., teldo (teldet), pi. teldon (teldonik). 

Ficus sp. (near F. elegans), simotua (somotuet), pi. simoton 

Girardinia condensata, siwo (siwot), pi. siwa (siwek). 

Brunsvigia Kirkii, chemngotioto (chemngotiotet), pi. chemfigot- 

iotoi (chemngotiotsk). 



Musa Ensete, sasur (sasuriet), pi. sasur (sasuret). 


Scilla sp., sengolit (sengolitiet), pi. sengolit (sengolitik). 

Asparagus sp., chasipaiyo (chasipaiyot), pi. chasipaiin (chasi- 


Aloe Schweinfurthii, tangarotuo (tangarotuet), pi. tangaroton 


This aloe is also called mokol-am-mistoet. 

Dracaena sp., lepekwa (lepekwet), pi. lepekon (lepekonik). 


Commelina zambesica, loblobit (loblobitiet), pi. loblobit (lob- 



Juncus sp., eseiyai (eseiyaiit), pi. eseiyaiin (eseiyaiinik). 


Phoenix reclinata, ) . 

„ , „. , . > sosio (sosiot), pi. sos (sosik). 

Hyphaene thebaica, J N ' r v ' 

Borassusflabellifer, tir (tiret), pi. tiren (tirenik). 

Garex sp., purpuret (purpuretiet), pi. purpuret (puipuretik). 

Garex sp., saos (saoset), pi. saoson (saosonik). 

sp., pembia (pembiat), pi. pembin (pembinik). 

sp., kipriche (kipricheit), pi. kipricheis (kipricheisiek). 

sp., manguang (manguangiet), pi. manguangai (manguangaiik). 

sp., punyerio (punyeriot), pi. punyer (punyeriek). 

sp., kipsaramat (kipsaramatiet), pi. kipsaramatai (kipsaramat- 

sp., mbokcha (mbokchat), pi. mbok (mbokek). 

Andropogon Sorghum, mosongio (mosongiot), pi. mosong (mo- 

Pennisetum sp., kipoheio (kipoheiot), pi. kipchein (kipchelnik). 

Sporobolus sp. (near Indicus), segut (segutiet), pi. segut (segutik). 

Chloris sp., chemoru (chemorut), pi. chemorus (cbemorusiek). 

Eleusine coracana, paiyua (paiyuat), pi. pai (pak). 

Arundinaria alpina, teka (tekat), pi. tek (tekik). 

Juniperus procera, \ tarakwa (tarakvi'et) , pi. tarakon (tarak- 

Podoearpus falcata, ) onik). 



All the clan-names mentioned on page 5 have meanings. A few 
of them are obvious, but they are mostly so obscure that my 
endeavour to work them out proved unsuccessful, and I was 
obliged to abandon the task. 

The principal name of the clan is occasionally employed for the 
totem itself; thus, Kipamwi can be used for Cheptirgich, 'a duiker'; 
Tungo for Kimaket, ' a hyena '; Kipaa for Eren, ' a snake ', &c. The 
three most obvious names are Kipkenda, Kipkokos, and Kipasiso, 
the totems being respectively Segemya ('bee '), Chepkokosio ('buzzard'), 
and Asis (' sun '). Toiyoi is used for ' thunder ' (see pp. 9 and 99) ; 
Moi means 'calf, and doubtless has allusion to the clipping of the 
calves' ears as the distinctive mark of this clan (see p. 10); and 
Kipkoiitim, which means ' the stones of the forest ', is equally 
applicable to the two totems, the elephant and the chameleon. 

Of the names used by women, Kapongen means ' the country of 
the person who knows', and may have reference to the elephant's 
superior knowledge, whilst Kiram-gel refers to the elephant's foot 
(kel). Maram-gong refers to the bee's eye (kong). Kami-pei means 
* those who eat waters ', in allusion to the habits of frogs. Kipya-kut 
and Tule-kut refer to the lion's jaws (kut = ' mouth '), and Pale-kut 
to the bush-pig's tusks. Earewa means ' heifer ', and is also used 
as a name for the crested crane (see p. 25, n. 2). Korapor has 
regard to the hyena's droppings (see also pp. 7 and 110), „ and 
Pale-pet means ' those who retire in the morning ', a suggestion of 
the hyena's habits. Koros is sometimes used for Koroiit (' Colobus 
monkey '), and Kaparakok means ' the country of those who live 
above', i.e. the sun. 


Adoption, 30 ; forbidden, 

Adultery, 76. 

African pheasant, 25, 109. 

Ages (social division), 
11 sqq. ; subdivision of 
ages into fires, 12, 62 sq., 
69, 76, 77, 80. 

Agreements, spitting at 
making of, 78 sq. 

Agriculture, agricultural 
people (see also Corn and 
Harvest), 2 n. 1, 17 sqq., 
126 pr. 17, 137 e. 20. 

Amulets, 49, 68, 87. 

Animals, sayings of, 109 

Ant, article of food, 24, 
133 e. 3; totem, 5, 9. 

Ant-hills, superstition re- 
garding, 19, 78 ; at peace 
ceremony, 84. 

Apron, warriors', 28 ; girls', 
27 ; prohibition for men 
to wear, 27 n. 

Arithmetic, 88 sq. 

Arm-clamp, 28, 124 pr. 3. 

Armlet (see Ornament). 

Arrow, 25, 33 sq. ; men- 
tioned in folk-tales, 107, 
108, 112, 123; mentioned 
in enigmas, 141 e. 38 ; for 
bleeding cattle, 22 sq., 30, 
62, 65 ; word used for 
'knife', 43. 

Ashes, 19 ; used during 
thunderstorm, 9, 99, 

Assault, 75. 

Assemblies, places of as- 
sembly, 49, 76, 86, 149 e. 

Astonishment, spitting as 
sign of, 78. 

Axe, kinds in use, 18 
value of, 76 ; use of dur- 
ing thunderstorm, 9, 99 
mentioned in enigmas, 
139 e. 28. 

Baboon (see Monkey). 
Back-bone, 147 e. 60. 

Bamboo, 49, 87. 

Banana, 18 ; wild banana, 
138 e. 22; leaves of , 26. 

Banks of a river, 141 e. 37. 

Bantu people, 1, 3, 84. 

Barren women, 68; made 
fruitful, 49, 55, 87 : in- 
heritance of cattle lent 
to, 73. 

Basket, 39 ; cut after death 
of owner, 72 ; mentioned 
in enigmas, 145 e. 50, 
147 e. 57, 149 e. 67. 

Beads, 27 sqq. ; ceremony 
of the red bead, 84 sq. 

Bean, 18. 

Bed, description of, 15 ; 
during sickness, 69 ; 
broken after death, 72 ; 
superstition regarding 
snakes and women's beds, 

Bee, domestication of, 25 ; 
as totem, 5 sqq., 8 ; men- 
tioned in enigmas, 135 e. 
11 and 12. 

Beehive, 25, 38, 79, 135 e. 
12, 143 e. 44. 

Beer, method of brewing, 
25 sq. ; superstitions re- 
garding, 20 ; used as liba- 
tion, 15, 43 sq., 48, 69 
sq. ; bride and bride- 
groom sprinkled with, 
63 ; placed in the graves 
of old men, 72 ; men- 
tioned in folk-tales, 98. 

Beer-pots, 15 sq., 35. 

Beeswax, 25. 

Beetle, 102. 

Bell, 87 ; warriors', 28 ; 
prohibition to wear in 
corn-fields, 20 ; worn by 
girls, 58, 88 ; mentioned 
in folk-tales, 106 ; men- 
tioned in enigmas, 146 e. 
54 ; calf bell worn by 
girls, 60, 62, 88. 

Bellows, 37. 

Belly, 134 e. 8, 135 e. 9. 

Belt, warriors', 33 ; wo- 

men's, 28, 64 ; knots tied 
in, 42; used at peace 
ceremony, 84 ; mentioned 
in enigmas, 138 e. 25. 

Bhang, 26. 

Biceps, 136 e. 14. 

Bill-hook, 19. 

Birds, as food, 25 ; as to- 
tems, 5, 8 sqq. ; shot by 
boys during the circum- 
cision ceremonies, 56 ; 
warriors referred to as 
birds, 43 ; charms against, 
19, 86 sq. ; sayings of, 
109 sqq. ; mentioned in 
folk-tales, 104, 105; men- 
tioned in proverbs, 129 
pr. 38 ; mentioned in 
enigmas, 135 e. 9, 142 e. 
41, 146 e. 55, 151 e. 76. 

Birth, 64 sqq. ; deformed, 
unlucky and illegitimate 
children, 30, 68, 76 ; knots 
tied to facilitate delivery, 
90 ; uncleanness of mother 
after birth, 65, 91 sq. 

Blankets, 29 n. 

Blessing, spitting as form 
of, 78 sq. 

Blood, as food, 22, 52, 68, 
116 sqq. ; as libation, 22; 
as purifier, 24, 74 ; of 
person slain, 27 ; men- 
tioned in folk-tales, 106, 
110 ; mentioned in pro- 
verbs, 126 pr. 16, 127 pr. 

Blood-brotherhood, 84. 

Blood-money, 51, 74 sq. 

Blood-stains, how to be re- 
moved, 23, 27. 

Bow, 23, 33 sq. ; used in 
peace ceremonies, 78 n. ; 
carried by boy recently 
circumcised, 56 ; men- 
tioned in folk-tales, 107, 
108, 112 ; mentioned in 
enigmas, 150 e. 73. 

Bow-string, 84. 

Bracelet, 27 sqq. ; used as 
1 musical instrument, 26, 



40 ; mentioned in enig- 
mas, 145 e. 49. 

Branding of stock, 22 ; 
irons, 83. 

Brass wire, 10, 28, 136 e. 

Bridge, 134 e. 5. 

Broom, 134 e. 7. 

Brother, girl's conception 
by, 9 ; part taken during 
sister's circumcision, 58 ; 
duty during sickness, 69 ; 
seized when a person is 
accused of witchcraft, 71 ; 
-widows become property 
of, 73 ; greetings of, 91 ; 
names of, 92 sqq. 

Buffalo, as totem, 5, 10 ; 
word used for ' cattle ', 
56; mentioned in folk- 
tales, 103, 108; mentioned 
in proverbs, 124 pr. 1. 

Buffalo-hide, used for 
shields, 32. 

Bull, Bullock (see Cattle). 

Bull-roarer, 9, 40, 56 sq. 

Buret tribe, 2. 

Burial, 55, 72. 

Bush, 19. 

Bush-buck, 80 ; prohibition 
to wear skin as garment, 

Butter, 22, 116 sqq. 

Buzzard, as totem, 5, 8 ; 
as bird of omen, 80. 

Calabash, 21, 26, 36; 
method of cleansing, 21 ; 
used to eat from, 55, 59, 
70, 92 ; used in marriage 
ceremonies, 62 ; used for 
washing the hands in, 66 ; 
used at peace ceremony, 
84; mentioned in pro- 
verbs, 125 pr. 9 ; men- 
tioned in enigmas, 134 e. 
6, 137 e. 19, 143 e. 45, 149 
e. 69. 

Calabash-chips, used as 
ornament, 9, 29. 

Calf, rearing, herding, dec, 
21 ; compartment in 
houses for, 13, 16 sq. ; 
mentioned in proverbs, 
127 pr. 20. 

Cannibalism, 27. 

Cap (see Head-dress). 

Carrion birds, prohibition 
to eat, 25. 

Castor-oil leaves, use of, 69. 

Cat, as totem, 5, 11 ; men- 
tioned in folk-tales, 109. 
Caterpillar, 127 pr. 22, 140 
e. 33. 

Cattle, herding and work 
in connexion with, 20 
sqq., 45, 73 ; bleeding of, 
9, 11, 22, 78 sq. ; milking 
of, 21 sq. ; branding and 
marking of, 10, 22 ; twist- 
ing horns of, 22; occasions 
when cattle are slaugh- 
tered, 12, 57, 64, 65, 71, 
74 sqq., 80; method of 
butchering, 22, 75 ; distri- 
bution and inheritance of, 
68, 72 sq. ; distribution of 
raided cattle, 43 sq. ; cere- 
monies performed when 
misfortune has befallen 
cattle, 45 sq. ; when cattle 
are struck by lightning, 9, 
99 ; seizure of criminal's 
cattle, 74 sqq. ; supersti- 
tion regarding grass and 
cattle, 77 sq. ; counting 
cattle, 89 ; effect of the evil 
eye on cattle, 90 ; prohibi- 
tion to mention cattle by 
name, 56 ; prohibition to 
go near cattle, 56, 60, 92 ; 
myth regarding origin of 
cattle, 98 ; mentioned in 
folk-tales, 101, 106, 107, 
114 sq., 116 sqq., 123; 
mentioned in proverbs, 
124 pr. 1, 125 pr. 8, 126 
pr. 16, 130 pr. 45, 132 pr. 
52 and 53 ; mentioned in 
enigmas, 134 e. 4, 136 e. 
17, 141 e. 36, 150 e. 72 
and 73. 

Cattle-kraals, 10, 16 sq., 44, 
134 e. 6 ; door of, 16, 47 ; 
prohibition to enter, 56, 
60, 68, 74 ; burial of old 
people and children near, 
72 ; halo likened to, 100. 

Caves, 17. 

Chains, as ornament, 26, 
27 sq. 

Chameleon, 79 ; as totem, 
5, 8. 

Charms, 87 ; for house or 
kraal, 16 ; at weddings, 
11 ; in corn-fields, 19 ; to 
avert sickness and death, 
29, 69 ; to avert the evil 
eye, 90 ; worn by twins, 
29 ; worn by women when 

pregnan t for the first time, 
64 ; ring used as charm, 
12, 46, 63, 87; claw or 
piece of hide used as 
charm, 29. 

Chicken, when sick, 38. 

Child, birth of, 64 sqq. ; 
naming of, 66 sq. ; dress 
of, 27 ; teeth of, 30 ; hair 
of, 29 ; instruction of, 6, 
66,125pr. 7; burial of, 72; 
when sick, 38 ; charms 
against sickness, evil eye, 
&c, 29, 87, 90 ; spat on 
as sign of greeting and 
blessing, 78 sq. ; fate of 
deformed, unlucky and 
illegitimate children, 30, 
68, 76 ; prohibition for 
child and father to touch 
one another, 66 ; children 
permitted to do things 
which may not be done 
by others, 11, 23, 24, 56 ; 
mentioned in folk-tales, 
102, 103, 105, 107, 116 
sqq., 120 sq., 122, 123; 
mentioned in proverbs, 
125 pr. 7 and 12, 131 pr. 
50 ; mentioned in enig- 
mas, 134 e. 6 and 7, 135 
e. 10, 11, 12 and 13, 140 
e. 34. 

Cicatrice, 31. 

Circumcision, of boys, 52 
sqq. ; of girls, 57 sqq. 
kireku leget ceremony, 10 
kdponyony ceremony, 53 
55 ; kimusanyit cage, 54 
kimasop ceremony, 54 
lapat-ap-eun ceremony, 55. 

59, 92 ; kdpkiyai cere 
mony, 11, 56, 60; rlkset 
ceremony, 9, 40, 56, 60 ; 
kaandaet songs, 56, 59 ; 
kdpteriot kraal, 59 ; nge- 
tunot feast, 57 ; kirie ko- 
rokon feast, 57 ; prohibi- 
tion to regard persons 
recently circumcised, 55, 
59 ; prohibitions imposed 
on and ceremonial un- 
cleanness of persons re- 
cently circumcised, 56, 

60, 91 sq. ; password of 
persons circumcised, 57 ; 
operator, 54, 59 ; knives, 
53, 59 ; punishment of 
cowards, 55, 59; moral 
instruction given to per- 



sons recently circumcised, 
57, 60 ; names used after 
circumcision, 67 ; cere- 
mony termed ' branding ' 
by children, 83 ; myth 
regarding origin of cir- 
cumcision, 99. 

Clans (Nandi), 5 ; inter- 
marriage of, 6, 45, 61 ; 
prohibitions, peculiarities 
and traditions of, 7 sqq , 
16, 36, 62, 66 n., 98, 99 ; 
marks for cattle, 22 ; 
murder of member of, 74. 

Claw, used as charm, 29. 

Clay, 33 n., 142 e. 41. 

Cloth, used as dress, 28 ; 
spat at when seen, 79. 

Club, warriors', 81, 33, 39 ; 
carried by girls, 58 sq. ; 
old men's, 33 ; boys', 82 ; 
of rhinoceros horn, 33, 74 ; 
handed by chief medicine 
man to war-party, 49. 

Colours, 33, 149 e. 67. 

Comet, 79, 81, 100. 

Cooking, methods of, 27. 

Cooking-pots (see Pottery). 

Cooking-stones, 143 e. 43. 

Corn, kinds grown in 
Nandi, 18 ; work con- 
nected with sowing, har- 
vesting, &c, 19 sq., 46; 
omens when sowing, 80 ; 
implements used in con- 
nexion with, 18 sq., 38 
sq.; destruction by vermin 
of, 19; imitating grinding 
of in dances, 26 ; when 
considered unfit for use, 
7, 11 ; when considered 
unfit for sowing, 20 ; pro- 
hibition to regard or ap- 
proach, 17, 60, 76, 92; 
prohibition to plant mil- 
let, 8; eleusine grain used 
as offering, 46, 69 ; eleu- 
sine grain allowed to fall 
in fire, 46, 54, 70 ; use of 
millet stalks, 69 ; corn of 
criminal destroyed, 75 sq. ; 
mentioned in folk-tales, 
102, 105, 320 sqq.; men- 
tioned in proverbs, 126 pr. 
17, 128 pr. 29 ; mentioned 
in enigmas, 133 e. 1, 141 
e. 38, 143 e. 42. 

Corn-fields, houses built in 
or near, 13, 17 ; supersti- 
tions regarding, 20 ; pro- 

hibition to work in, 20 ; 
inheritance of, 73 ; men- 
tioned in folk-tales, 102, 
105, 120 sqq. ; mentioned 
in proverbs, 132 pr. 57 ; 
mentioned in enigmas, 
141 e. 35, 142 e. 40. 

Corpse, disposal of, 70 sqq. ; 
when not taken by hyenas, 
11, 71 ; ceremonies to be 
observed by persons hand- 
ling, 70 sq., 91 sq. 

Counties, 4, 86 ; different 
implements and weapons 
used in, 18, 81 ; men- 
tioned in enigmas, 145 e. 
49, 147 e. 59. 

Counting, 88 sq. 

Cousin, maternal uncle's 
representative, 58 ; bro- 
ther's representative, 71 ; 
punishment for inter- 
course with, 76 ; names 
of, 93 sq. 

Cow (see Cattle). 

Cow dung, used for build- 
ing purposes, 18, 16 sq. ; 
used at the saket-ap-eilo 
ceremony, 12; used dur- 
ing the circumcision festi- 
vals, 54 sq. ; used for 
cleansing house, 65, 92 ; 
placenta and umbilical 
cord buried in, 65 ; chil- 
dren buried in, 68, 72 ; 
old men and women bur- 
ied in, 72 ; mentioned in 
enigmas, 149 e. 69. 

Cow urine, use of, 21, 63. 

Coward, during circum- 
cision, 55 sq., 59 sq. 

Cowry, used as ornament, 
27 sq., 88, 86. 

Crested crane, prohibition 
to eat, 25 ; as totem, 5, 10. 

Crime (see Punishment). 

Criminal, detection of, 51, 

Crops (see Corn). 

Crow, 151 e. 76. 

Crutch, used by devil, 41. 

Cup, 36; chipped after 
death of owner, 72. 

Cupping, 70. 

Curses, 86, 87, 69, 85, 94. 

Dances, during preparation 
of beer, ; 26; warriors' 
dances, 44, 47 ; circum- 

cision dances, 53, 55 sq., 
58; marriage dances, 62 
sq. ; old men's dance, 144 
e. 46 ; prohibition to at- 
tend children's dances, 55. 

Days, names of, 95 sq. ; 
divisions of, 96 sq. 

Death, 70 sqq. ; of old peo- 
ple, 72, 123 ; steps taken 
to prevent death of chil- 
dren, 7, 29, 38 ; steps 
taken to prevent death of 
adults, 29, 55, 58 n. 3, 87 ; 
superstition regarding 
death and corn, 20 ; mys- 
terious death attributed 
to witchcraft, 51, 71 ; 
myth regarding origin of 
death, 98 ; mentioned in 
proverbs, 129 pr. 34 and 
36 ; mentioned in enig- 
mas, 136 e. 18, 144 e. 48. 

Devil (Chemosit), 41; men- 
tioned in folk-tales, 106 sq. 

Dew, 100. 

Divination, methods em- 
ployed, 49 sqq., 71, 81; 
mentioned in proverbs, 
124 pr. 5. 

Divorce, 68 sq. 

Dogs, trained to hunt, 24 ; 
connected with bleeding 
of cattle, 22 ; omens con- 
nected with dogs, 80 sq. ; 
at peace ceremony, 84 ; 
myth regarding origin of 
death, 98 ; mentioned in 
folk-tales, 109, 114 sq. 

Donkeys, 22 ; prohibition 
to touch, 10; mentioned 
in folk-tales, 104. 

Door (of hut), 39 ; prohibi- 
tion to sit by, 17 ; omens 
connected with, 81. 

Door-posts, embraced by 
children, 17 ; erected at 
harvest festival, 47. 

Dorobo (people), 1 n. 2, 2, 
17, 100; mentioned in 
folk-tales, 98, 107, 108 sq., 
Ill sqq. ; (language), 2. 

Dove, 109. 

Draught (in houses) , cause 
of, 16. 

Dreams, 81 sq. ; prayer 
after a bad dream, 41 sq. ; 
interpretation by medi- 
cine men of, 49. 

Dress (see Garments, Head- 
dress, Ornaments, &c. 



Drought, ceremonies ob- 
served during, 48. 
Drum, 40; friction drum, 

9, 40, 57, 60. 
Drunkenness, 81 sq. ; imi- 
tated by women and chil- 
dren, 26. 

Duiker, as food, 8sqq., 24; 
as totem, 5, 8 ; word used 
instead of 'goat', 56; 
mentioned in folk-tales, 
108; mentioned in pro- 
verbs, 124 pr. 6. 

Duiker-skin, as garment, 

10, 28. 

Eagle, 123. 

Ear, boring of lobe, 73, 
94 ; stretching of lobe, 27 ; 
hole in upper part of, 27. 

Ear-rings, 27 sqq. ; of mar- 
ried women. 28 n. 3, 62, 72. 

Earth, myths regarding, 

97 sq., Ill sqq. ; as form 
of oath, 85 ; mentioned in 
enigmas, 141 e. 36. 

Earthenware (see Pottery). 

Earthquake, myth regard- 
ing, 100 ; superstition in 
connexion with corn, 20 ; 
superstition in connexion 
with people recently cir- 
cumcised, 91. 

East, the home of the Sun, 

98 ; hair thrown towards, 
30, 51, 53, 62, 65; teeth 
thrown towards, 30 ; spit- 
ting towards, 42 sq., 46, 
56, 60, 78 sq. 

Eggs, 25. 

Eland-hide, shields of, 32. 

Elephant, as food, 24 ; as 
totem, 5, 6, 8 ; mentioned 
in folk-tales, 98, 101, 111 
sqq., 120 sqq. ; mentioned 
in proverbs, 125 pr. 7, 131 
pr. 48 ; mentioned in enig- 
mas, 145 e. 49, 146 e. 56. 

Eleusine grain (see Corn). 

Elgeyo (Keyu) tribe, 2, 5, 
39; prohibition to settle 
in country of, 9. 

Elgon (Mount), 2, 5, 137 e. 
21; tribes allied to the 
Nandi, 2. 

Entrails (see Intestines). 

Evil eye isee Eye). 

Excrement (human), cover- 
ed with grass, 51 sq., 78 ; 
thrown at an enemy as 

sign of submission, 74 ; 
in a house, 91. 

Execution, methods of, 50, 
74, 75. 

Eye, watching a dying per- 
son's, 70 ; scrutinizing 
during the circumcision 
festival, 53 ; detection of 
criminals by regarding, 
90; mentioned in enig- 
mas, 145 e. 51 ; one-eyed 
person or cow, 80; evil 
eye, 87, 90. 

Fainting, 82. 

Families (Nandi), 6 ; in- 
termarriage of, 6, 61 ; 
cattle marks of, 22. 

Fat, eaten raw, 23 ; used 
for anointing, 47, 61, 70 
sqq., 146 e. 56. 

Father, prayer when sons 
have gone to the wars, 
42 sq., 89 ; part played by 
during circumcision fes- 
tivals, 52, 57 sq. ; during 
marriage, 60 sqq. ; father 
forbidden to touch his 
child, 66 ; name of father 
given to his son, 66, 68 ; 
mourning for, 71 ; in- 
heritance from and of, 
72 sq. ; spitting on chil- 
dren as sign of blessing, 
79 ; mentioned in folk- 
tales, 103 ; mentioned in 
enigmas, 140 e. 33, 151 e. 75. 

Feasts (see also Circum- 
cision, Dances, Marriage, 
&c.) held by men only, 12, 
57, 64; held by women 
only, 63, 65 sq. 

Feathers (see also Ostrich), 
28, 34, 123, 132 pr. 53. 

Fingers, used for count- 
ing, 88 ; mentioned in 
folk-tales, 107. 

Fire (see also Ages), 85; 
sprinkling water on, 11 ; 
throwing grain on, 46, 
54, 70; prohibition to go 
near, 60, 92 ; sacred fires, 
44 sqq., 63, 85 sq. ; men- 
tioned in folk-tales, 106, 
107, 120 sqq. ; mentioned 
in proverbs, 127 pr. 23 and 
25, 128 pr. 30, 129 pr. 39, 
132 pr. 53. 

Fire-sticks, 10, 33, 85; used 
forcauterizing wounds, 70. 

Firewood, 86, 139 e. 28. 

Fish, 24. 

Flea, 137 e. 20, 144 e. 46. 

Flies, 143 e. 44. 

Folk-tales, 101 sqq. 

Food, 22 sqq. ; scarcity of, 
17, 48 ; prohibition to eat 
certain foods, 8 sqq. ; pro- 
hibition to eat food from 
broken pots, 36 ; prohibi- 
tion to touch food, 55, 59, 
65, 70, 92 ; prohibition to 
cook food, 82 ; disposal of 
food left by persons re- 
cently circumcised, 56 ; 
food placed in graves of 
old men, 72 ; mentioned 
in folk-tales, 101, 102, 105, 
107, 108. 

Foot, striking against stone, 
79, 150 e. 70. 

Footprints, people bewitch- 
ed by, 51. 

Forests, 17, 86 ; prohibi- 
tion to build near, 9 sq. 

Fowls, 25, 38. 

Francolin (see Partridge). 

Free love (see Sexual inter- 

Frog, as totem, 5, 8 ; in 
games, 83. 

Fruit, 127 pr. 24, 133 e. 2, 
147 e. 58. 

Gallas, 1. 

Game, as food, 8, 24, 79 ; 
prohibition to drink milk 
after eating game, 11, 24 

Game-pits (see Hunt). 

Garment, 27 sqq. ; prohibi- 
tion to wear certain gar- 
ments, 8 sqq. ; occasions 
when garments are not 
worn, 45, 76 ; warriors' 
garment worn by girls, 
58 sq. ; women's garment 
worn by girls, 59 sq. ; 
girls' garment worn by 
boys, 53; women's gar- 
ment worn by boys, 
55 sqq. ; old men's gar- 
ment worn by warriors, 
13, 62 ; garment used to 
cover corpse, 70 ; garment 
worn inside out as sign of 
mourning, 71 ; garment 
exchanged with enemy as 
sign of submission, 75 ; 
garment tied on to sheep's 



back, 48; omens connected 
with garments, 80 ; men- 
tioned in proverbs, 127 pr. 
22 ; mentioned in enig- 
mas, 187 o. 22, 140 e. 88, 
151 o. 76. 

Garment-barrel, 40 ; used 
as friction drum, 40 ; used 
as divining box, 49. 

Genealogical divisions (aee 

Generosity, 181 pr. 48. 

Geographical divisions (aee 
also Counties), 4, 47, 
48 sq., 180 pr. 48 ; mark- 
ings on shields of, 82 ; 
harvest festivals of, 46; 
land tenure of, 86. 

Goats, 20 sq. ; meat, milk, 
and blood taken as food, 
22 sq. ; method of butcher- 
ing, 28 ; method of 
marking, 22 ; compart- 
ment in houses for, 18, 61, 
69, 1 47 e. 57 ; occasions on 
which goats are slaugh- 
tered, 7, 8, 47, 56, 68, 65, 
71, 75 ; anointing before 
slaughtering, 68, 65 ; 
punishment meted out to 
goats that steal, 75 sq. ; 
goat castrated at peace 
ceremonies, 84 ; omens 
connected with goats, 20, 
79 sqq., 89 ; myth re origin 
of goats, 98 ; mentioned 
in folk-tales, 102, 104 ; 
mentioned in proverbs, 
182 pr. 52 ; mentioned in 
enigmas, 189 e. 27, 141 e. 
85, 148 o. 48, 147 e. 57. 

Goats' dung, teeth buried 
in, 80, 52 ; mentioned in 
folk-tales, 128. 

Goat-skin, used as gar- 
ment, 27 sq. ; used for 
friction drum, 40 ; used as 
covering for bellows, 87 ; 
mentioned in proverbs, 
125 pr. 9; mentioned in 
enigmas, 188 o. 25. 

God (aee Sun and Thunder). 

Godfather, 52 sqq. 

Godmother, 58 sqq., 61 sqq. 

Gourd (see Calabash). 

Government, 48. 

Grain (aee Corn). 

Granary, 16 ; may not be 
looked into by woman 
who conceived before 

marriage, 17, 76 ; pobblo 
plaoed in granary after 
harvest, 47 ; granary of 
thief burnt, 75 ; mention- 
ed in folk-tales, 105. 

Grandmother, at naming 
of children, 66 ; mention- 
ed in games, 88 ; men- 
tioned in enigmas, 1 89 e. 
80, 147 e. 57, 149 o. 67. 

Grass, roofs of houses made 
of, 18 sqq., 78 ; wot grass 
said to be good for cattle, 
21 ; donkeys said to spoil 
grass, 22 ; considered sa- 
cred, 77 sq. j used as 
charm, 15, 62, 78, 89; 
hair, exorement, &c, hid- 
den in grass, 80, 51 sq., 
78 ; used to cover corpses, 
70, 78 ; used when blood 
money is paid, 74 ; used 
at trial by ordeal, 77 ; as 
sign of peace, 74, 78 ; as 
form of oath , 85 ; thrown 
on ant mounds, 19, 78 ; 
used when cattle are blod, 

Grasshopper, 80. 

Grazing grounds, 16, 20. 

Grindstone, 148 e. 42. 

Grubs, as food, 25. 

Guardian (aee Father). 

Guinea fowl, 19, 110. 

Hail, 20. 

Hair, rules regarding wear- 
ing and disposal of, 29 sq., 
51 ; shaving as sign of 
mourning, 80, 70 sq. ; 
shaving as sign of adop- 
tion and defeat, 80, 75 ; 
shaving during circum- 
cision, 58, 58, 92; shav- 
ing during marriage cere- 
monies, 61 sq. ; shaving 
of mother after birth, 
65 ; cord usod by warriors 
for binding hair, 87 ; 
mentioned in enigmas, 

Halo, 100. 

Hands, prohibition to eat 
with, 56, 69, 66, 70, 92 ; 
prohibition to touch body 
with, 92. 

Handshaking, 80, 90 sq. ; 
forbidden, 82. 

Hare, mentioned in folk- 
tales, 101, 102 sq., 109 ; 

montioned in proverbs, 
125 pr. 7. 

Harvest, work In connexion 
with, 19; ceremonies, 40 ; 
superstition regarding the 
Pleiades, 100. 

Hawk, as totem, 5, 10 ; 
foathor worn as orna- 
ment, 29. 

Head, prohibition to strike, 
9; of chief medicineman, 
50, 88, 91 ; montioned in 
enigmas, 151 o. 75. 

Head-dress, of warriors, 
28, 76, 150 o. 72 ; prohl- 
bition to wear, 9 ; of old 
men, 29 ; of persons re- 
cently circumcised, 56, 
59 sq, ; of brides, 58, 60, 

Heart, of person killed, 
27; of animal killed, 28. 

Herdsman, 20 sq., 61 sqq. ; 
mentionod in enigmas, 
150 e. 72 and 78. 

Hiccoughs, 81. 

Hide (am also Goat-skin 
and Thong), as dress, 
27 sqq., 61 n. 4, 68. 141 
e. 86 ; usod at burial of 
old men, 72; piece of hide 
fastened on to gourds, 57 ; 
prohibition to sleep on 
now px-hido, 25, 52 ; su- 
perstition regarding hides 
and corn-iields, 20 ; rings 
of hide, 12, 46, 68, 87. 

Hill, feast hold on top of, 
47; Tindiret Hill, 48; 
Chopoloi Hill, 100 ; mon- 
tioned in enigmas, 146 e. 

Hoe, kinds in use, 18 ; 
value of, 76 ; superstition 
regarding breaking of, 20; 
mentioned in folk-tales, 

Homicide (aee Murder). 

Honey, as food, 25, 188 e. 
24 ; prohibition to collect, 

Honey -barrel, 7, 26, 88, 86; 
value of, 76 ; used to eat 
from, 65; mentioned in 
folk-tales, 108. 

Honey-bird, 26 n. 8, HI. 

Honey-comb, 25, 187 o. 21. 

Honey wine, method of 
preparing, 25. 

Horn, usod as musical in- 



strument, 88, 40 ; usod by 
chief medicine man, 49 ; 
used during circumcision 
festivals, 55 ; hung in hut, 
67 ; hung outside hut, 64; 
mentioned in enigmas, 
151 e. 74. 

Hornbill (ground), 104 sq., 
Ill; prohibition to men- 
tion name of, 16. 

Hornet, used during oir- 
oumoision festival, 54. 

Hornets' nest, 100. 

Hospitality, 77, 125 pr. 10, 
128 pr. 81 and 88, 180 pr. 
40, 149 e. 68. 

Houses, 18 sqq., 85, 87, 
52 sqq., 61 sqq., 64 sqq., 
69 sq. ; furniture and 
central pole of, 14 sq., 72 ; 
partition between rooms, 
18, 61, 69, 72, 150 e. 71 ; 
prohibitions regarding 
erection of, 8 sqq. ; pro- 
hibition for women to en- 
ter, 16, 87 ; prohibition 
for men to enter, or to 
touch anything in, house, 
85, 66, 74 ; prohibition for 
child to enter, 7 ; prohi- 
bition for mother of twins 
to enter, 68 ; prohibition 
for murderer to enter, 74 ; 
superstitions regarding in- 
terior of houses, 17, 61, 
66, 68, 69 sqq., 140 e. 84; 
snakes in houses, 90 ; 
houses struck by light- 
ning, 9, 100 ; charm 
for houses, 16 ; houses 
sprinkled with beer, 43 ; 
houses spat upon, 46 ; 
houses of thief destroyed, 
75; omens connected with 
houses, 80 sq. ; circum- 
oision houses that catch 
Are, 91 ; mentioned in pro- 
verbs, 128 pr. 26 ; men- 
tioned in enigmas, 145 
e. 51, 147 e. 61. 

Hunt, Nandi as hunters, 
8 sqq., 17, 24, 120 sq., 
125 pr. 11 ; dogs used for 
hunting, 24 ; superstitions 
of hunters, 24 ; hunter 
killed by wild animals, 

Hut (see House). 

Hyena, as totem, 5, 7, 11 ; 
regarding killing of, 7, 

80; punishment for imi- 
tating cry of, 7, 91 ; re- 
garding droppings of, 7 ; 
flicking of ox-hide covers 
by women during howl- 
ing of, 7, 11 ; prohibi- 
tion for persons recently 
circumcised to be out of 
doors during howling of, 
56, 60 ; called to eat 
corpse, 70 ; turning of 
corpse when not taken by, 
11, 71 ; holding commu- 
nication with spirits of 
the dead, 7; mentioned 
in folk-tales, 108, 104 sq., 
109 ; mentioned in pro- 
verbs, 124 pr. 2, 128 pr. 
28, 180 pr. 42 and 46; 
mentioned in enigmas, 
189 e. 27. 
Hyrax (skin), as garment, 
8 sqq., 28. 

Illness (see Sickness). 

Incest, punishment for, 76. 

Industries, 85 sqq. 

Infanticide, 80, 68. 

Inheritance, 72 sq. 

Insects, sayings of, 111. 

Intestines, eaten raw, 28 ; 
inspected, 45, 49, 68, 81 ; 
prayer to, 65. 

Intoxication (see Drunken- 

Iron, smelting and forging 
of, 36 sqq. ; mentioned in 
proverbs, 127 pr. 25. 

Iron wire, as ornament, 
27 sqq. ; used as payment, 

Jackal, as totem, 5, 8 ; 

mentioned in enigmas, 

189 e. 27. 
Judge, 11. 
Jumping, 88. 

Kamasia (Tuken) tribe, 2, 
5, 7, 86, 52, 99, 184 e. 5 ; 
prohibition to go to or set- 
tle in country of, 8 sqq. 

Kavirondo tribe, 24, 26 sq., 
80, 50, 82, 189 e. 29 ; pro- 
hibition to go to or to set- 
tle in country of, 8 sqq. 

Kidneys, eaten raw, 28. 

Kikuyu tribe, 1 n. 2. 

Kissing, 91. 

Knives, 25 ; prohibition to 
Y. 2 

mention by name, 43 ; 
bequeathed by father, 73 ; 
ciroumoision knives, 53, 
59, 88 ; mentioned in pro- 
verbs, 129 pr. 85, 181 pr. 
50 ; mentioned in enig- 
mas, 142 e. 40. 

Knot, 89 sq. ; of feathers, 
81 ; tied by mothers, 42, 
89 ; prayer regarding, 48, 
89 ; as record, 89. 

Kosowa tribe, 5. 

Kraal(seeHouseand Cattle- 

Land tenure, 86. 

Lark, 111. 

Laughing, at naming of 
children, 66. 

Leglet, 27 sqq. ; warriors' 
leglet worn by girls, 58 sq. 

Leopard, tail worn by 
warriors, 28; claw worn 
as charm, 29; name for 
friction drum, 40; men- 
tioned in folk-tales, 104. 

Lightning, myths regard- 
ing, 99 sq., Ill ; huts 
struck by, 9, 100; cattle 
struck by, 9, 45, 99 ; trees 
struck by, 86 n. 5, 126 pr. 
18; land struck by, 132 
pi - . 57 ; ceremonial un- 
cleanness of person eating 
meat of animal struck by, 
92, 99 ; may not be seen 
by women, 99. 

Lion, as totem, 5, 9 ; claw 
or strip of skin worn ns 
charm, 29 ; name for fric- 
tion drum and bull roarer, 
40 ; mentioned in folk- 
tales, 104, 109; mentioned 
in proverbs, 124 pr. 2. 

Lion-skin head-dress, 28 ; 
prohibition to wear, 9; 
worn during the circum- 
cision festivals, 54. 

Liver, eaten raw, 28; men- 
tioned in enigmas, 136 e. 

Lizard (tree), 111 ; (house), 
140 e. 84. 

Locusts, as food, 24, 92 ; 
charm against, 19, 86, 87 ; 
mentioned in folk-tales, 

Louse, 128, 187 e. 20, 189 e. 

Lumbwa (Kipsikls) tribe, 



2, 5 ; prohibition to settle 
in country of, 8 aqq. ; 
swords of, 33 ; liquid snuff 
used by, 26; chief medi- 
cine man of, 49, 64 n. 2 ; 
mentioned in enigmas, 
145 e. 52. 
Lyre, 39. 

Madness, 81 sq., 106. 

Magic, 51 sq., 71, 75, 132 
pr. 52, 147 e. 61. 

Magician, 51 sq., 71, 124 
pr. 5. 

Maize, 18. 

Man, origin of, 98. 

Manure, 19, 138 e. 26. 

Marokor tribe, 5, 51. 

Marriage, 60 sqq. ; inter- 
marriage of clans and 
families, 6, 8 sqq., 61 ; 
conception before mar- 
riage, 8 sqq., 17, 68, 76 ; 
marriage portion, 11, 61, 
68, 69, 73 ; marriage by 
capture, 10 sq., 61 n. 2 ; 
marriage charm, 11, 62 
sq. ; slaughtering of goat 
at marriage, 8, 63 ; dress 
worn by bridegroom, 62 ; 
dress worn by bride, 61, 
63 ; dress worn by women 
after marriage, 28 ; moral 
instruction given to bride 
and bridegroom, 62 ; con- 
summation of marriage, 
63 ; eif-ap-muket cere- 
mony, 64 ; hospitality to 
married people, 77 ; spit- 
ting when marriages are 
arranged, 79 ; superstition 
regarding stumbling of 
bride, 62, 91 ; mentioned 
in folk-tales, 105, 108, 114 

Marrow, 116 sqq. 

Masai tribe, 1 sqq., 5, 12 n. 
2, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 41, 
44, 48 n. 8, 88, 90 n., 106 ; 
Segella Masai, 5, 49 ; 
TJasin Gishu Masai, 36. 

Meat, rules regarding eat- 
ing of, 22 sq. ; mixing of 
meat and milk, 24, 55, 
110 ; prohibition to eat 
certain meats, 25, 57, 64, 
74 ; prohibition to eat 
alone, 48 ; ceremonial un- 
cleanness after eating cer- 
tain meats, 92; meat men- 

tioned in games and folk- 
tales, 83, 101, 102. 

Medicine, 24, 53, 58, 70, 
74, 89, 92. 

Medicine man (chief), 48 
sqq. ; at Saket-ap-eito cere- 
mony, 12 ; consulted be- 
fore sowing corn, 19, 49; 
consulted before holding 
harvest festival, 47 ; con- 
sulted regarding war and 
welfare of warriors, 43, 49 
sq. ; consulted by barren 
women, 68 ; donkeys of, 
22 ; share of captured 
cattle, 43 sq. ; wives of, 
51, 64 n. ; children of, 
51, 83 ; representatives of, 
43, 48 sq., 86; methods 
of divining, 49, 82, 89 ; 
prohibition to touch head 
of, 50, 91 ; mentioned in 
folk-tales, 103, 104 sq., 108. 

Medicine men (lesser), 51, 
71 ; share of captured cat- 
tle, 44 ; methods of divin- 
ing, 51, 89. 

Menstruation, 82, 92. 

Midwife, 64 sq. 

Milk, as food, 22, 24, 68, 
116 sqq. ; as libation, 15, 
22, 44, 45, 69; used for 
anointing, 53, 58, 63, 65 ; 
mixing milk and meat, 
24, 55, 110 ; mixing milk 
and game, 11, 24 sq. ; 
mixing milk and blood, 
22, 52, 74 ; milking done 
by boys and girls, 21 ; 
milk compartment in 
houses, 14 sq. ; milk given 
to the dying, 70 ; milk 
put in graves of old men, 
72 ; goat's milk as puri- 
fier, 74 ; prohibition to 
drink milk, 70, 74 ; milk 
given to snakes, 90 ; milk 
given to dog, 98 ; men- 
tioned in proverbs, 125 
pr. 11 ; mentioned in 
enigmas, 137 e. 19, 149 e. 

Milk-vessel (see Calabash). 

Millet (see Corn). 

Miscarriage, superstitions 
regarding, 20, 90. 

Mole, as food, 24 ; methods 
of trapping, 19 ; as totem, 
5, 11 ; mentioned in enig- 
mas, 146 e. 54. 

Monkey (Cercopithecus griseo- 
mridis), as totem, 5, 10. 

(Colobus guereza var. Cauda- 
tus), as totem, 5, 11 ; skin 
used as dress or ornament, 
28, 29 ; objection to kill- 
ing, 80 ; mentioned in 
enigmas, 146 e. 55. 

(Baboou), as food, 24 ; 
as totem, 5, 9. 

Months, names of, 94 sq. 

Moon, phases of, 95 sq. ; 
myths connected with, 97 
sq. ; new moon, 79, 122 
sq. ; eclipse of, 79, 100 ; 
halo round, 100 ; building 
poles cut during waning 
of, 15 ; mourning during 
waning of, 71 ; planting 
of corn during waxing of, 
19; circumcision festivals 
started during waxing of, 
52 ; marriage ceremonies 
during waxing of, 60 ; 
mentioned in enigmas, 
151 e. 74. 

Mortar, 38, 65 ; mentioned 
in folk-tales, 102. 

Mother, prayer for ab- 
sent warrior sons, 42 ; 
children of chief medicine 
man taken from, 51 ; 
duty during circumci- 
sion festivals, 52 sqq., 59 
sq. ; part played during 
marriage,60sqq.; at birth, 
64 sqq., 92 ; mourning for, 
71 ; inheritance from, 73 ; 
answering greetings for 
children, 91 ; mentioned 
in folk-tales, 101 sq., 103, 
107 ; mentioned in enig- 
mas, 140 e. 31 and 32. 

Mourning, 71 sq. ; prohibi- 
tion to mourn, 56, 60. 

Moving house or kraal, 10, 
143 e. 43, 44 and 45, 144 
e. 46 and 47. 

Murder, 27, 73 sqq., 91 sq. 

Mushroom, 146 e. 53. 

Musical instruments, 39 sq. 

Mutton, prohibition to eat, 
25, 74. 

Myths, 97 sqq. 

Nail, 142 e. 40. 
Nail-parings, 51. 
Nakedness, shame regard- 
ing, 27, 132 pr. 55. 
Names, 52 n. 3, 54 n., 55, 



57, 66 sqq., 85, 110 n. ; of 
twins, 68; naming of 
children of the Toiyoi and 
Kipasiso clans, 10 sq. ; 
prohibition to mention 
•warriors by name, 43 ; 
prohibition for persons re- 
cently circumcised to call 
anybody by name, 56, 60 ; 
prohibition to mention 
dead person by name, 71. 

Nandi tribe, history and 
origin of, 1 sqq., 5 ; old 
name for, 99 ; divisions 
of, 4 sq., 11 sq. ; tribal 
mark of, 27 ; representa- 
tives of, 48 sq., 86, 142 e. 

Nandi country, 1 ; old 
name for, 99; the Saket- 
ap-eito ceremony, 12 sq. 

Neck, nape of, 22, 118 sq., 
124 pr. 4. 

Necklaces, 9, 27 sqq. ; girls' 
necklaces worn by boys 
during the circumcision 
ceremonies, 53, 55 ; neck- 
laces worn to guard against 
the evil eye, 90. 

Needle, 30, 33 ; teeth liken- 
ed to and extracted by, 30. 

Nettles (stinging), used 
during circumcision festi 
val, 54, 57 ; used after 
marriage ceremony, 64 ; 
used to punish thieves, 
75 sq. 

Nile negroes, 1. 

Nose, 148 e. 63. 

Numbers, lucky and un- 
lucky, 89. 

Nurse, 61 sqq., 65, 101 sq. 

Nyangori (Terik) tribe, 2, 
5 n. 1, 111 n. 2 ; prohibi- 
tion to settle in, 9 sq. 

Oath, forms of, 85. 

Obsidian, 138 e. 23. 

Offal, used for purifying 
and cleansing, 7, 23, 65. 

Offering (libation), 15, 22, 
43,47,70; foreskins offer- 
ed to God after circum- 
cision, 55. 

Oil (see Fat). 

Omens, 23, 24, 36, 37, 38, 
40, 45 sq., 62, 68, 70, 79 
sqq., 81 sq.,150e. 70; in- 
terpretation of, 49. 

Ordeal, trial by, 76 sq. 

Ornaments, 27 sqq. ; dis- 
carded or covered as sign 
of mourning, 71 ; inherit- 
ed by daughters, 73; 
value of, 76 ; mentioned 
in folk-tales, 108. 

Orphan, 52, 66. 

Ostrich egg-shell beads, 28 

28, 150 e. 72 ; as sign of 
peace, 78 n., 84. 

Owl, 109 sq. 

Ox (see Cattle). 

Ox-pecker, 25, 129 pr. 88. 

Paint, 33, 104. 

Palm-wine, 26. 

Parishes, 4, 48 ; captain of, 

Partridge, as food, 25 ; as 
totem, 5, 10; as bird of 
omen, 80; mentioned in 
folk- tales, 105, 110 sq. 

Peace, 74, 78, 79, 84. 

Pebbles, selected by women 
after the harvest festival, 
47 ; used by medicine 
men for divining, 49, 71, 

Pegs, in houses, 15 ; broken 
after death, 72. 

Pestle (see Mortar). 

Pig, as totem, 5, 10; men- 
tioned in proverbs, 128 
pr. 29. 

Pig-skin, shields of, 32. 

Pigeon (green), 109. 

Placenta, disposal of, 65. 

Plaintain-eater, use of 
feathers of, 31. 

Plantation (see Corn-fields). 

Plants (see Trees). 

Plate (of hide), 27 ; prohi- 
bition to use, 55. 

Poison, methods of prepar- 
ing, 25 n. ; ceremonial un- 
cleanness connected with, 
25, 92; poisoned arrows, 
33; mentioned in folk- 
tales, 107 sq., 112 sq. ; 
mentioned in proverbs, 
127 pr. 19. 

Poles (of house), 15, 72, 
135 e. 13, 142 e. 39. 

Polygamy, 64. 

Porcupine (quill), charm 
against vermin, 87. 

Porridge, as food, 11, 22, 
74 ; as offering, 46; men- 

tioned in enigmas, 140 e. 
31, 149 e. 67. 

Pottery, 35 sq. ; as charm, 
15, 69 ; used to eat with, 
70 ; mentioned in enig- 
mas, 145 e. 50. 

Prayers, 15, 30, 35, 37, 41 
sqq., 65, 78 sq., 81, 82, 
123 ; attitude assumed 
whilst praying, 42 sqq. ; 
spitting before, 78. 

Pregnant women, regard- 
ing food of, 23 ; nttet-ap- 
karik ceremony, 64 ; pro- 
hibition to cohabit with, 
66 ; superstitions connect- 
ed with, 20, 90. 

Pride, 130 pr. 43. 

Prisoner of war, treatment 
of, 30, 75. 

Products (agricultural), 17 

Prophecies, 49 sq. 

Pumpkins, as food, 18 ; as 
drinking vessels, 36 ; 
mentioned in enigmas, 
140 e. 32. 

Punishment for crimes, 7, 
24, 73 sqq., 131 pr. 51. 

Quiver, 32 sq. ; value of, 76. 

Bain, prayer for, 48; ob- 
tained by medicine men 
and rain-makers, 49, 52 ; 
as totem, 5, 9 ; prohibition 
to use rain water, 11 ; 
mentioned in enigmas, 
148 e. 65. 

Rainbow, 100, 149 e. 66. 

Rain-makers, 52 ; share of 
captured cattle, 44. 

Rain-medicine, 52. 

Rat, as food, 24 ; method of 
trapping, 19 ; as totem, 5, 
9 ; as good omen, 79 ; 
mentioned in folk-tales, 
109 ; mentioned in pro- 
verbs, 132 pr. 54 ; men- 
tioned in enigmas, 135 e. 

Record, how kept, 89. 

Relationship, 92 sqq. 

Relieving nature, 43, 52, 
78, 91. 

Religious beliefs, 40 sqq. 

Remorse, 128 pr. 32 

Rhinoceros, 6, 8, 24. 

Ring, worn by old men, 



29 ; as charm, 12, 46, 63, 

Biver, huts built on banks 
of, 52, 74 ; bathing or 
washing in as method of 
lustration, 25, 44 sq., 56, 
60, 65, 70, 82, 92 ; regard- 
ed as sanctuary, 74 ; 
mentioned in enigmas, 
148 e. 64. 

Eoad, prohibition to build 
near, 8 ; prohibition to 
relieve nature on the right 
side of, 43 ; mentioned in 
proverbs, 130 pr. 44 ; men- 
tioned in enigmas, 148 e. 

Sacred animals (totem), 5, 
6 sqq. ; spitting at when 
seen, 79. 

Salt, 21, 24 ; used as offer- 
ing, 15, 19 ; used for 
anointing boys before cir- 
cumcision, 58. 

Salt-licks, 21, 46 ; men- 
tioned in folk-tales, 108 ; 
mentioned in enigmas, 
146 e. 56. 

Salutations, 43, 90 sq. 

Sandals, worn by warriors, 
28, 79. 

Scabbard, 32 sq. ; of the 
sun, 98. 

Scar, 31. 

Scarifying the body, 70. 

Seasons, 94. 

Seed (see Corn). 

Seminal emission, 92. 

Senegal hartebeest, 24. 

Serpent (see Snake). 

Servants, of chief medicine 
man, 51. 

Sexual intercourse, laws 
regulating, 6, 76, 91 ; be- 
fore marriage, 6, 16, 82, 
91 ; between guest and 
host's wife, 77, 125 pr. 10 ; 
prohibited, 15, 25, 26, 32, 
52, 66, 74 ; ceremonial 
uncleanness after, 92. 

Shadow, as embodying the 
soul, 41, 148 e. 62. 

Shame, 27, 129 pr. 35, 
132 pr. 55. 

Shaving (see Hair). 

Sheep, 20 sq. ; compart- 
ment in houses for, 13 ; 
method of butchering, 23; 
branding, 22 ; bleeding, 22; 

slaughtering of pregnant 
sheep, 45 sq. ; black sheep 
thrown in river during 
drought, 48 ; prohibition 
to eat flesh of, 25, 74; 
omens connected with, 
80 sq. ; myth re origin of, 
98 ; mentioned in enig- 
mas, 138 e. 26, 139 e. 27, 
147 e. 57 and 58. 

Shield, 31 sqq. ; markings 
of, 32 sq. ; beaten in lieu 
of drums, 40 ; of boys, 82. 

Shoulder, cicatrices raised 
on, 31. 

Sickness, 69 sq. ; charms 
against, 29, 38, 87, 90; 
methods taken to ascer- 
tain cause of, 51 ; how 
diagnosis is made, 89 ; 
superstition connected 
with fire and sickness, 
85 ; sickness of cattle, 
45 sq., 81. 

Sirikwa tribe, 2 sq. 

Sister, salutations with 
brother, 91 ; guarded 
by brother after father's 
decease, 73 ; mentioned 
in enigmas, 130 e. 41. 

Sitting down, prohibitions 
re, 36, 38. 

Skins (see Hide and Gar- 

Skull, used at trial by or- 
deal, 77. 

Sky, myth regarding, 97 sq. ; 
mentioned in enigmas, 
141 e. 36. 

Sleep, 81 sq. , 144 e. 48 ; pro- 
hibited, 13, 54 ; turning 
over during, 98, 111 sqq. 

Smiths, 36 sqq. ; prohibi- 
tion to associate with, 8 ; 
donkeys of, 22. 

Snakes, 90 ; as totem, 5, 
1 1 ; power of chief medi- 
cine man said to be de- 
rived from, 51 ; treat- 
ment of person bitten by, 
70 ; omen connected with 
79; charms against, 86,87, 
mentioned in proverbs, 
125 pr. 12 ; mentioned in 
enigmas, 138 e. 25. 

Snare (see Trap). 

Sneezing, 81 ; at naming 
of children, 66; forbidden, 
Snuff, 26. 

Snuff-boxes, 26, 36. 

Social divisions (see also 
Fire), 11. 

Solanum fruit, as charm, 
13 ; thrown on sacred 
fires, 45 sqq. ; used by 
children as toys, 82. 

Sorrow, shown at death, 
70 sqq. 

Sotik tribe, 2, 5. 

Soul, 41, 70; departure of 
soul from body during 
sleep, 81. 

Sparrow, 25, 111. 

Speaking, 126 pr. 13, 128 
pr. 27 ; prohibition to 
speak to chief medicine 
man, 50 ; prohibition to 
speak to pregnant girl, 
76 ; prohibition to speak 
loudly, 72, 91 sq., 99. 

Spear, different kinds of, 
31 ; women forbidden to 
use, 31 n. ; superstition 
connected with corn-fields, 
20; of murderer, 74; 
value of, 76 ; striking or 
stepping over spear as 
form of oath, 85 ; boys' 
spears, 82 sq. ; mentioned 
in folk-tales, 108 ; men- 
tioned in enigmas, 151 e. 

Spider, 81. 

Spirits of the dead, 41 sqq. ; 
hyenas holding communi- 
cation with, 7 ; persons 
holding communication 
with in dreams, 82; pray- 
ers addressed to, 41 sq., 
51, 65 ; appeased by corn 
thrown into fire, 46, 70 ; 
invoked during the cir- 
cumcision festivals, 54 ; 
believed to guard name- 
sake, 66 ; held responsi- 
ble for sickness, and pro- 
pitiated, 69; believed to 
be responsible for earth-* 
quakes, 100 ; personified 
by snakes, 90 ; believed to 
set fire to grass, 100 ; fires 
and peep-holes of, 100 ; 
mentioned in enigmas, 
133 e. 3, 150 e. 71. 
Spitting, 37, 38, 78 sq., 81, 
84 ; towards the east, 42, 
43, 46, 56, 60; spitting 
out milk and beer, 47 sq. ; 
prohibition to spit on the 



ground, 56; spitting by 
people possessed of the 
evil eye, 90. 

Spittle, connected with 
witchcraft, 51, 147 e. 61. 

Spokesman (Kiruogindet), 
48 sq., 86, 142 e. 39. 

Spoon, 59, 65, 92. 

Spur-fowl (see Partridge). 

Stars, 100 ; shooting stars, 

Steam jets, 100. 

Stepping over, spear or 
belt, 84 sq. ; prohibition 
to step overvarious things, 
23, 24, 36, 37, 38, 99. 

Stick, carried by women, 
28, 144 e. 47 ; carried by 
girls recently circum- 
cised, 60; carried by herds- 
men, 20, 73 ; notched as 
record,89 ; used for cleans- 
ing milk vessels, 21, 62, 
99 ; used for scratching 
the body, 92 ; prohibition 
to strike people and cattle 
with certain sticks, 86 ; 
mentioned in myth con- 
nected with origin of cat- 
tle, 98. 

Stone (see also Pebble and 
Cooking-stones), 147 e. 

Stool, 12, 39, 63, 98; brought 
for stranger, 77; used at 
circumcision festival, 53; 
cut after death of owner, 

Straw for drinking through, 
26, 98. 

Striking people, prohibi- 
tion regarding, 82. 

Stumbling, omen of ill- 
luck, 62, 70, 91. 

Suicide, 76. 

Sun (see also East and 
West), myth re, 97 sq. ; 
prayers and offerings to, 
15, 22, 30, 35, 37, 42 sqq., 
65 ; supposed not to be 
prayed to by chief medi- 
cine man, 51 ; Ki-ingU 
Asis ceremony, 65, 66 ; as 
totem, 5, 11; mentioned 
in proverbs, 126 pr. 15 and 
17; mentioned in enig- 
mas, 136 e. 16 ; eclipse of, 
79, 100 ; halo round, 100. 

Surgery, 70. 

Swahili, trading caravans 

of, 3 ; blood-brotherhood 
with, 84. 

Sweet potatoes, 18 sq. 

Sword, 31 sq. ; women for- 
bidden to gird on , 31 n. ; 
value of, 76. 

Tabu (see also Unclean- 
ness), of clans, 8 sqq. 

Tattoo, 30. 

Teeth, 30, 51 ; extraction 
of two middle incisors of 
the lower jaw, 30, 72, 82, 
94 ; burial of people who 
have no teeth, 72 ; men- 
tioned in enigmas, 150 e. 

Tetanus, 30. 

Theft, punishment for, 
75 sq., 77 ; from potter, 
36 ; from smith, 37 ; men- 
tioned in proverbs, 130 
pr. 40, 131 pr. 46 and 47. 

Thigh, scars burnt on, 31. 

Thong, 21, 57, 75, 139e. 29. 

Threshold, prohibition to 
sit on or touch, 17, 66 ; 
prohibition to cross, 68, 

Throbbing of the pulse, 81. 

Thunder, myths re, 98, 
99 sq., Ill sqq. 

Thunder-gods, 41, 99 sq., 
126 pr. 18, 132 pr. 57, 138 
e. 24, 149 e. 66. 

Thunder-storm, 9, 99. 

Tick, 51, 83, 143 e. 45. 

Time, divisions of, 94 sqq. 

Tobacco, 18, 26 ; thrown 
in fire during thunder- 
storm, 99. 

Tobacco pipes, 26. 

Tobacco pouches, 26. 

Toe, used for counting, 
88 n. ; omens connected 
with striking, 79 ; big toe, 
69, 107. 

Tongue, of animals, 23. 

Tortoise, used at peace 
ceremony, 84. 

Torture, during and after 
circumcision, 54, 57 ; after 
marriage, 64; of a thief, 
75 sq. 

Totem (see Sacred animals). 

Town (see House). 

Trade, 130 pr. 41. 

Trance, 82. 

Traps, for moles, rats, &c, 
19; for game, 24; prohi- 

bition to : make, 8 sqq. ; 
superstition regarding 
stepping over a trap, 24. 

Travellers, omens affect- 
ing, 79 sq. ; hospitality 
accorded to, 77. 

Trees, 86 sq. ; sacred trees, 
87 ; method of killing, 
19 ; aversion to felling, 
80, 87, 91 ; used for places 
of assembly, 49, 86 ; used 
for sacred fires, 45 sqq., 
87 ; used as medicine, 24, 
53, 58, 70, 74; foreskins 
buried at foot of, 55 ; used 
during the marriage cere- 
monies, 60 sqq. ; planted 
on graves, 72 ; regarded 
as sanctuaries, 74 ; super- 
stitious customs connected 
with, 86 sq. ; struck by 
lightning, 86 n. 5, 126 pr. 
18 ; mentioned in pro- 
verbs, 131 pr. 50 and 51 ; 
mentioned in enigmas, 
142 e. 41, 145 e. 52, 147 e. 

Turf, used as manure, 19, 
138 e. 26. 

Twins, 68, 91 ; charm worn 
by, 29 ; mentioned in 
folk-tales, 103. 

Uasin Gishu plateau, lsq.; 
former inhabitants of, 2, 

Uganda Railway, 1, 50 n. 2. 

Umbilical cord, ceremony 
at cutting of, 65. 

Uncle (maternal), 53, 58, 
83, 94. 

Uncleanness (ceremonial), 
33, 91 sq. ; methods of 
purification, 7, 25, 65, 68, 
70, 72, 74, 91 sq. ; unclean 
animals, 24 ; unclean 
birds, 25. 

Vegetables, as food, 22, 

133 e. 3. 
Vermin in corn-fields, 19 ; 

charms against, 19, 86, 87. 
Virgin, 58, 61 n. 5. 
Vultures, cape made of 

feathers and worn by 

warriors, 28 ; feather, 

worn as ornament, 29 ; 

mentioned in enigmas, 

135 e. 9. 



War, 42 sqq. ; positions 
held by the Talai and Tun- 
go clans in, 9, 1 1 ; how war- 
riors remind one another 
of, 31 ; officers responsi- 
ble for the enrolment of 
troops, 49; chief medicine 
man's connexion with, 43, 
49, 50 n. 1 ; omens con- 
nected with, 79 set. ; men- 
tioned in folk-tales, 106, 
114 sq., 120 sq. ; men- 
tioned in proverbs, 126 
pr. 14 ; mentioned in 
enigmas, 139 e. 29. 

War-horn, 33, 40. 

Warriors, 12 ; houses of, 
16, 128 pr. 26 ; duties of, 
20 ; prohibition to till the 
ground, 78 ; prohibition 
to leave a house in the 
dark, 17 ; prohibitions 
during war, 43 ; super- 
stition connected with 
pots, 36 ; superstition con- 
nected with gourds, 36 ; 
superstitions connected 
with the killing of an 
enemy, 27, 36, 74 ; super- 
stitions connected with 
spitting, 78 sq.; super- 
stitions connected with 
widows, 72; superstitions 
connected with the dead, 
72 ; warriors' charms, 49, 
87 ; dances, 44 sq., 47, 87 ; 
warriors who have been 
defeated, 44, 92 ; part 
taken by warriors in cir- 

cumcision festivals, 53 
sqq. ; mentioned in folk- 
tales, 106 sq., 120 sqq. 

Water, sprinkled on fire, 
11 ; sprinkled on cattle, 
45 ; prohibition to drink 
or wash the hands in, 52 ; 
purification by bathing or 
washing the hands in, 44, 
55 sq., 59 sq., 65 sq., 70, 
82, 92 ; purification by 
sprinkling water on the 
ground, 68; poured on 
the hands as sign of hom- 
age, 63, 77, 125 pr. 10, 
128 pr. 33 ; mentioned in 
folk-tales, 106 sq. ; men- 
tioned in proverbs, 127 
pr. 23, 129 pr. 39; men- 
tioned in enigmas, 136 e. 

Waterbuck, 24. 

Waterfall, 100. 

Water-jar, 36 ; pebble 
placed in, 47. 

Weaning, ceremonies con- 
nected with, 65 sq., 92. 

Weapons, 31 sqq. ; prohi- 
bition to carry, 50, 62 ; 
removal of at circum- 
cision, 54 ; removal of at 
marriage, 63 ; left out- 
side strangers' house, 77. 

West, plants taken to- 
wards, 19 ; hair thrown 
towards, 30, 51, 71 ; 
corpses taken towards, 70. 

Whetstone, 136 e. 15. 

Whistling, to cattle, 20 ; to 

bees, 7 ; superstition re- 
garding whistling in corn- 
fields, 20. 

Widows, treatment of, 71 
sqq. ; inherited by hus- 
band's brother, 73. 

Wife (see also Barren and 
Marriage), rules regarding 
senior and junior wives, 
8 sqq., 64 ; with child at 
the breast, 17, 66; mal- 
treated by husband, 69 ; 
mentioned in folk-tales, 
101 sq., 114 sq., 123; 
mentioned in enigmas, 
141 e. 37. 

Wild animal (see also 
Lion, Leopard, &c), treat- 
ment of person mauled 
by, 70 ; ceremonies per- 
formed at death of per- 
sons killed by, 72. 

Wind, superstition regard- 
ing, 20, 80 ; mentioned 
in enigmas, 150 e. 72. 

Witchcraft (see Magic). 

Woodpecker, prohibition 
to eat, 25 ; as bird of 
omen, 79 sq. 

Work, woman's duty, 129 
pr. S3 ; prohibition to, 
20, 60, 64, 65, 100 ; wife's 
work performed by hus- 
band, 63. 

Wrist, scars burnt on, 31. 

Yawning, 81. 
Zebra, 8, 24. 

Oxford : Printed at the Clarendon Press by Horace Hart, M.A. 

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